Skip to main content

Full text of "Illustrated history of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan and Chelan counties, state of Washington"

See other formats


1 1833  01 149  7994 









')        ^    IVLLI^LXJ 



Western  Historical  Publishing  Company 




TO    THOSE    WHO    HAVE    GONE,    AND    TO    THOSE    WHO    REMAIN     TO     RECITE 




"You  will  find  but  a  scattered  few  likely  to  take  anything  more 
than  a  biographical  view  of  human  affairs.  " 

— Herbert  Spencer:  Study  of  Sociology. 


ITH  this  volume  is  presented  the  first  History  ever  compiled  and  published,  devoted 
exclusively  to  Stevens,  Ferry,  Okanogan  and  Chelan  counties,  Washington.  Part  I, 
which  concerns  itself  directly  with  the  prominent  events  in  the  Territorial  and-state 
history  since  1550,  is  a  comprehensive  abridgement  from  the  most  authentic  data 
obtainable  by  eminent  historians  of  the  United  States,  England  and  Spain.  In  this  connection 
we  acknowledge  our  indebtedness  to  the  late  George  Bancroft;  Hon.  Hall  J.  Kelley;  the 
"Journal"  of  Lewis  and  Clarke;  letters  and  other  documents  written  by  the  ill-fated  Dr.  Marcus 
Whitman;  "Oregon:  the  Struggle  for  Possession,"  by  William  Barrows;  "Astoria,"  by  Wash- 
ington Irving;  Congressional  Reports  on  the  Oregon  Question;  Washington's  correspondence 
with  John  Jay;  the  Colfax,  Washington,  C^/«w^(7«fr;  correspondence  of  James  Douglas;  Barton's 
"Washington  Legislative  Handbook  and  Manual";  correspondence  printed  in  the  Olympic 
Pioneer:  the  eminent  western  historian,  Hubert  Howe  Bancroft;  State  papers  of  Governor  Isaac 
Ingalls  Stevens;  Archibald  Mc'Vicker  and  Hon.  A.  A.  Denny. 

Our  friendly  coadjutors,  who  have  so  kindly  and  cheerfully  assisted  during  the  collabora- 
tion and  compilation  of  the  volume,  have  been  many.  We  desire  to  here  frankly  state  that  in  no 
instance  has  any  one  of  these  pioneers,  business  men,  or  even  temporary  residents  of  the  vast 
country  traversed,  bearing  on  every  hand  undeniable  evidence  of  thrift  and  prosperity,  refused 
to  assist  or  failed  to  greet  the  arduous  works  with  encouragement.  We  cannot  too  cordially 
thank  each  and  all  of  them. 

To  us  the  editorial  fraternity  has  been  friendly.  To  A.  E.  Adams,  Colvillc  Reveille,  W.  D. 
Allen,  Statesman-Index,  John  B.  Slater,  W.  P.  Hughes,  Northport  News,  W.  H.  Brownlow 
&  Sons,  Cheioelah  Independent,  George  W.  Bisson,  Springdale  Record,  all  of  Stevens  county; 
.\.  I.  Drake,  Republic  News-Miner,  H.  C.  V'asYvcnftnt,  Rep2iblic  Record,  Ferry  county;  Frank 
M.  Dallam,  Palmer  Mountain  Prospector,  J.  O.  Sehorn,  Meyers  Creek  News,  Ozro  H.  Woody, 
Okanogan  Record,  Messers.  Gillespie  &  Savage,  Brewster  Herald,  Okanogan  county;  A.  S. 
Lindsay  and  Martin  Spencer,  Wenatchee  Advance,  and  De  Witt  C.  Britt,  Chelan  Leader,  due 
acknowledgment  is  made  for  valuable  assistance  in  work  upon  this  History.  The  files  of  their  most 
creditable  publications  are,  at  present,  the  most  available  and  authentic  data  for  a  work  of 
this  description. 

To  Auditors  Richard  Nagle,  of  Stevens,  and  Henry  Carr,  of  Okanogan,  counties.  State 
Representative  M.  J.  Maloney,  Francis  Wolff,  Jacob  Stitzel,  John  Rickey,  S.  F.  Sherwood,  of 
Colville;  Dr.  S.  H.  Manly,  George  B.  Stocking,  J.  C  Kerley  and  M.  H.  Joseph,  Ferry  county; 
County  Attorney  E.  K.  Pendergast,  County  Treasurer  J.  M.  Pitman,  Henry  Lawrence,  George 
H.  Blackwell  and  Harry  Harris,  of  ConconuUy;  Father  E.  de  Rouge,  of  the  Omak  Mission, 
Okanogan  county;  Captain  Charles  Johnson,  of  Lakeside,  and  Arthur  Gunn,  of  Wenatchee, 
Chelan  county,  our  thanks  are  sincerely  tendered  for   many  courtesies  extended  by  them. 

The  general  and  introductory  history  is  the  production  of  Richard  F.  Steele.  The  special 
histories  of  Stevens,  Ferry,  Okanogan,  and  Chelan  counties  were  written  by  Richard  F.  Steele 
assisted  by  Arthur  P.  Rose. 

Spokane,  Washington,   March  1,  1904. 


We,  the  undersigned,  after  listening  for  several  evenings  to  the  reading  of  a  large  portion  of  the  manuscript 
containing  the  history  of  Stevens  county,  to  be  published  by  The  Western  Historical  Publishing  Company,  of 
Spokane,  Washington,  bear  testimony  that  it  gives  evidence  of  extensive  reading  and  careful  and  conscientious 
research,  and  presents — to  our  best  knowledge — an  accurate,  comprehensive,  and  impartial  record  of  events,  and  as 
such  we  endorse  and  commend  it. 

Francis  Wolff, 
S.  F.  Sherwood, 
JOHN  B.  Slater, 
•  Committee  of  Citizens. 

COLVILLE,  Wash.,  Nov.  15,  1903. 

We,  the  undersigned,  having  examined  a  large  portion  of  the  manuscript  containing  the  history  of  Ferry 
county,  to  be  published  by  The  Western  Historical  Publishing  Company,  Spokane,  Washington,  bear  testimony  that 
it  gives  evidence  of  extensive  reading  and  conscientious  research,  and  presents  — to  our  best  knowledge — an  accurate, 
comprehensive  and  impartial  record  of  events,  and  as  such  we  endorse  and  commend  it. 

George  B.  Stocking, 
S.  H.  Manly, 
J.  C.  Kerley, 

Committee  of  Citizens. 

Republic,  Wash.,  Dec. 

We,  the  undersigned,  have  examined  such  portions  of  the  history  of  Stevens,  Ferry,  Okanogan,  and  Chelan 
counties  as  relate  to  the  county  of  Okanogan,  in  manuscript,  to  be  published  by  The  Western  Historical  Publishing 
Company.  To  the  best  of  our  knowledge  they  give  evidence  of  careful  research,  extensive  reading,  and  comparison  of 
dates  and  names,  and  are  written  in  a  comprehensive,  impartial  and  conscientious  manner.  As  such  we  endorse  and 
commend  the  work  to  the  public. 

Henry  Carr, 

George  H.  Blackwell, 

Henry  Lawre.^ce, 

Committee  of  Citizens 
CONCONULLY,  Wash.,  Jan.  20,  1904. 

We,  the  undersigned,  having  examined  those  portions  of  the  manuscript  of  the  history  of  Stevens,  Ferry, 
Okanogan  and  Chelan  counties,  relating  exclusively  to  the  county  of  Chelan,  cheerfully  testify  that  to  the  best  of 
our  knowledge,  the  work  has  been  written  in  an  impartial  and  conscientious  manner,  and  shows  in  its  compilation 
extensive  reading  and  research  with  an  honest  endeavor  to  secure  the  facts  and  thoroughly  authentic  data.  As  such 
we  cordially  commend  it  to  the  public. 

N.  N.  Brown, 
W.  O.  Parr, 
C.  A.  Harlin, 
W.  R.  Prowell, 
Arthur  Gunn, 

Committee  of  Citizens. 

Wenatchee,  Wash.,  Feb.  2.S,  1904 


PART    L 

Dawn  of  Discovery. 
Juan  Rodriguez  in  the  Waters  of  the  Smiling  Pacific— His  Mantle  Falls  Upon  the  Shoulders  of  Bartolome 
Ferrelo— Francis  Drake  Reaches  as  High  as  Latitude  Forty-three  Degrees— He  Abandons  the  Search  for 
Anian  and  Returns  to  England— Spain  Becomes  Aggressive  in  Northwest  Exploration— Early  Voyages  of 
Urdaneta — Juan  De  Fuca  Sails  From  Spain  in  Search  of  the  Strait  of  Anian — Advance  Guard  of  Inland 
Explorers  Led  by  Sir  Alexander  Mackenzie— Speculation  on  the  Origin  of  the  Word  "Oregon"— Story  of 
^L  Le  Page  du  Pratz 2-G 

Mississippi  to  the  Coast. 
President  Jefferson's  Scheme  to  Traverse  Continent  to  the  Pacific  Ocean— Selection  of  Merriwether  Lewis  and 
William  Clarke  for  the  Enterprise— Their  Achievements  After  Entering  the  Territory  of  Oregon— Major 
Joshua  Pitcher's  Description  of  this  Terra  Incognita  in  1800— The  Willamette  River  and  a  Section  of  the 
Mighty  Columbia— Lewis  and  Clarke  Start  L'p  the  Missouri— Fourteen  Months  From  their  Departure— Party 
Endures  Innumerable  Hardships— Topography  of  the  Qjuntry— Explorers  Interview  Various  Indian  Tribes 
— Across  the  Mountains — Compelled  to  Eat  Horses  and  Dogs— Arrival  at  "Hungry  Creek" — Pow  Wow  with 
Savages— Down  the  Snake  to  the  Columbia  River— Dangerous  Rapids  Interfere  With  Navigation— From 
Tidewater  to  the  Sea— Lewis  and  Clarke's  Party  Pass  the  Winter  in  Camp  at  the  Mouth  of  the  Columbia  and 
Set  Out  on  their  Return T-l:! 

The  Oregon  Controversy. 
Struggle  of  Five  Nations  for  Possession  of  "Oregon" — Question  Becomes  Important  and  Far  Reaching — One 
Hundred  Years  Punctuated  With  Many  Wars— Part  Played  by  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company— Results  ol 
Mackenzie's  Explorations— Monotony  of  the  Fur  Trader's  Life— Boundary  Commission  of  1841— Ashburton- 
Webster  Treaty— Commission  of  1846— Eyes  of  England  Opened  by  the  Expedition  of  Lewis  and  Clarke- 
First  English  Settlement  Made  by  Fraser  in  1806— John  Jacob  Astor  Establishes  a  Trading  Post  at  Astoria- 
Supremacy  of  Commercialism  Over  Sentimental  Statesmanship— Twenty-Seven  Years  of  Diplomatic  Delay 
Over  International  Boundary  Affairs — Continuance  of  Joint  Occupancy  of  Oregon  for  Ten  Years —  Ameri- 
cans Strike  Oregon  Where  English  Fail— Oregon  is  Left  Out  of  the  Ashburton-Webster  Treaty— Dr.  Marcus 
Whitman  Arrives  in  Washington,  D.  C,  With  the  Facts  in  the  Case— Establishment  of  the  Forty-ninth 
Parallel  as  the  International  Boundary 14-26 


Tragedy  of  Whitman's  Mission. 

Visit  to  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  of  Four  Flathead  Indians— They  Come   For  the  "White  Man's  Book"— President  Fiske 

Calls  on  Missionaries  to  Go  to  the  Indian  Tribes  of  the  Great  Northwest— Prompt  Response   by  Whitman, 

Rev.  Parker  and  the    Lees— Sketch  of  Dr.  Whitman  by  an  Acquaintance— Significant    Letter  Sent   by 


Whitman  to  Secretary  of  War  Porter— Savage  Details  of  the  Whitman  Massacre— Horrible  Superstition  of 
Indian  Tribes— Names  of  the  Victims— Miraculous  Escape  of  Mr.  Osborne  and  Family — Harsh  and  Cruel 
Treatment  of  Refugees  by  McBean — Christmas  in  1847  Passed  in  the  Midst  of  Hostile  Savages 26-33 

The  Cayuse  War. 
Explanation  of  Mr.  Mc  Bean's  Treatment  of  Survivors  of  the  Whitman  Massacre— Americans  Take  the  Initiative 
in  the  Cayuse  War — James  Douglas  Writes  to  Governor  Abernethy — Intense  Excitement  Among  People 
'in  the  Wallamet  Settlement — Spokane  and  Nez  Perce  Indians  Refuse  to  Join  the  Cayuse  Tribe — Colonel 
Gilliam  Sets  Forth  From  The  Dalles — Death  of  "Swallow  Ball"  and  Wounding  of  the  "Wizard" — Indians 
Fall  Back  to  the  Snake  River— Escape  and  Final  Capture  of  the  Assassins  of  Dr.  Whitman 34-38 

Other  Ixdiax  Outbreaks. 
Indian  Wars  Immediately  Affecting  Washington — Expedition  of  Major  Granville  O.  Haller — Discovery  of  Gold 
Causes  a  Stampede  to  Fort  Colville — Defiance  of  Chief  Pierre  Jerome — Kamiakin  Declares  War  on  the 
Whites — Campaign  Against  the  Yakimas — Indian  Tragedies  in  the  Puget  Sound  District — Assassination  of 
Lieutenant  Slaughter — Renewal  of  Hostilities  in  the  Yakima  Country — Some  Blunders  of  General  Wool — 
Campaign  of  Colonel  Cornelius— Memorable  Siege  of  the  Cascades— Steptoe's  Campaign-^Failure  of  the 
Council  With  the  Cayuses,  Deschutes  and  Tyghes — Governor  Stevens  Recommends  Enlargement  of  the 
Puyallup  and  Nisqually  Indian  Reservations— Arrest,  Trial  and  Execution  of  Leschi — Indemnity  Claims 
Following  Indian  Troubles  are  Lodged  With  Congress — Horace  Greeley  Favors  Repudiation  of  Them — 
Defeat  of  Steptoe — Triumph  of  Industry    ^^d  Intelligence  Over  Barbaric  Ignorance  and  Indian  Squalor. . .  .38-50 


Territory  and  State. 
Topographv  of  Washington— First  Inroads  of  Civilization— Washington  Might  Have  Been  Columbia— Creation 
of  Lewis  County— Agitation  for  Territorial  Division— Congress  is  Memorialized— Isaac  Ingalls  Stevens 
Appointed  First  Territorial  Governor — Sketch  of  His  Life  and  Heroic  Death — First  Washington  Territorial 
Legislature — A  State  in  all  But  Name — Struggle  for  Capital  Removal — Political  Operations  of  Victor  Smith 
—A  Customs  House  Imbroglio— Removal  from  Port  Townsend  to  Port  Angeles— Death  of  Victor  Smith- 
General  Wright  in  Command  of  the  Department  of  the  Pacific — Congressional  Delegate  Jacobs  Introduces 
Bill  for  the  Admission  of  Washington  into  the  Union— Adoption  of  a  Constitution  Declared  A'oid  and 
Nugatory — Administration  of  Governor  Watson  C.  Squire — Chinese  Riots —  Proclamation  by  President 
Cleveland — Fiscal  Condition  of  the  Territory  in  1886 — Administration  of  Governor  Eugene  Semple — Wash- 
ington Territory  Admitted  as  a  State— Munificent  Land  Grant— First  State  Officials 50-63 

PART     II. 



From  Beaver  Pelts  to  Ballot  Box. 

Encroachments  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company — Explorations  of  John  McLeod — Mission  of  Father  De  Smet— 

Father  Ravalli— Pioneers  of  Stevens  County— Pinckney  City— Colville  in  1859— Influence  of  Eraser  River 

Excitement  in  Stevens  County— First  Election   Precinct— Assassination  of  H.  W.  Watson— First  Term  of 

Superior  Court — Primitive    Litigation — Indians    Respect  White  Men's   Laws — Consultation  at    Missoula — 

Francis  Wolff  Brings  First  Wagon  to  Colville — Execution  of  an  Indian  for  the  Murder  of  George  Breemer — 

Organization  of  Election  Precincts 65- 



Material  Progress  From  1871  to  1903. 

Cutting  Up  Stevens  County — Gold  Dust  a  Circulation  Medium — "Colville"  the  Capital  of  Stevens  County — 

Commissioners  Lease  a  Court   House  Building — Construction  of  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  Railway — 

Contest  for  County  Seat— Disastrous  Flood  in  the  Colville  Valley— Damage  by  Wind  Storm— First  Telephone 

Service— Citizens  of  Colville  Subscribe  for  New  Court  House— Last  of  the  Old  Town  of  Pinckney  City 85-99 

The  Stevens  County  of  Today— Altitudes  of  Various  Towns— The  Beautiful  Colville  Valley— Along  the  Pend 
d'OreiUe— Excellent  Roads  and  Highways— Stevens  County  Game— "A  Great  Country  With  a  Great  Future" 
—The  Marble  Quarries— Considered  as  a  Fruit  Producing  Section— Transportation  Facilities— Stevens 
County's  Markets— Gardiner's  Cave— Geology— Coal— Opening  of  the  "North  Half"  of  the  Colville  Reserva- 
tion  99-n2 

Mines  and  Quarries. 
The  Old  Dominion— The  Marble  Area— History  of  the  Industry— First  Marble  Tombstone— Excellent  Clay  for 
Manufacturing  Pottery,  Terra  Cotta,  Sewer  Pipe  and  Brick — Eureka  Marble  Quarries— Columbia  River 
Marble  Company — "Tombstones  for  Unborn  Millions" — Jefferson  Marble  Company — The  Keystone — The 
Metalline  District— Original  Silver  Lead  Discovery— Young  America  Group— Mineral  Belt  on  Rickey  Moun- 
tain—Placer Mining n3-127 

Cities  and  Towns. 
Colville,  the  County  Seat— Platted  by  IMajor  Hooker  and  John  Still— Troops  Depart  from  the  Fort— Town 
Incorporated  but  Action  is  Declared  Void — Reincorporation — Initial  Session  of  New  Council — Losses  by 
Fire — Erection  of  a  Smelter — Building  Improvements  in  1897 — Water  Works — Educational  Matters — 
Colville  Fire  Department — Fraternal  Societies — Northwestern  Light  &  Power  Company — Northport — First 
Passenger   Train— Postoffice  Inspector  Receives  a  Gentle  Hint— Disastrous  Conflagration 1'27-150 

Cities  and  Towns — Continued. 
Marcus— Establishment  of  "Fort"  Colville— Visit  to  the  Old  Landmark— The   Historic  Block  House— Original 
Store  at  Marcus— Meyers  Falls— The  Goodwin  Mission— D.C.  Corbin  Extends  His  Railroad— Kettle  Falls- 
Incorporation— Falls  of  the  Columbia— The  Old   Jesuit  Chapel— First  Stevens  County  Fair— Chevvelah— 
Springdale — Bossburg — Newport— Other  Towns 150-165 

Records  of  Earlier  Days  Incomplete— H.  W.  Watson  Chosen  First  Territorial  Representative— Not  Permitted  to 
be  Seated— He  is  Followed  by  J.  R.  Bates— Admission  of  the  State— Populists  Carry  the  County  in  1894— 
Three  Tickets  m  the  Field  in  1896— "Fusionists"— Election  of  County  Officials  Contested 165-172 



Private  School   of  Angus   McDonald— First  Public  School— Superintendent  George  Taylor— Father  Militry— 

Modesty  of  Superintendent  John  U.  Hofstetter — Incomplete  Educational   Reports— Rochester  Academy  at 

Kettle  Falls— Northwestern  Washington  Academy— Eells  Academy— Present  Number  of  School  Districts  in 

Stevens  County 1 72-181 





Early  History  and  Organization. 
First  White  Men  in  Republic  Camp— Original  Mining  Location— Opening  of  the  North  Half  of  the  Colvilie  Reser- 
vation—Operations  of  Thomas  Ryan  and  Philip  Creaser— Formation  of  the  Republic  Gold  Mining  &  Mill- 
ing Company — Flood  of  1898 — Sensational  Experience  of  A.  W.  Strong  and  Others — Opening  of  the  South 
Half  of  the  Colvilie  Indian  Reservation  to  Mineral  Entry — Formation  of  a  New  County — Erection  of  a 
Court  House— Horse  and  Cattle  Thieves— The  Rainy  Winter  of  1899— Freight  Rates  880  a  Ton— North  Half 
of  the  Colvilie  Reservation  Open  to  Homestead  Entry— Railroad  Exploitation 403-412 

Republic  Camp  and  Other  Towns. 
Prospectors  Flock  In — Establishment  of  First  Business  House  in  Republic — Various  Additions  to  the  Town — 
Material  Progress — Connected  by  Telephone  With  the  Outside  World — Completion  of  Court  Room  and  Jail — 
Organization  of  a  Presbyterian  Congregation — Change  of  Name  From  Eureka  to  Republic — Formation  of  a 
Fire  Department — Disastrous  Fires — Incorporation — Keller  on  the  South  Half — Judge  Hanford  Makes  Im- 
portant Ruling— Orient— Curlew— Danville— Other  Towns 412-429 


Mines  and  Mining. 
Geological  Characteristics  of  Ferry  County — Suspension  of  an  Experimental  Mill — Reorganization  of  the  Repub- 
lic Gold  Mining  &  Milling  Company— The  Chico  Mine— Butte  &  Boston— Princess  Maud— The  Quilp— Lone 
Pine — Surprise — San  Poll — Ben  Hur  and  Trade  Dollar — The  Mountain  Lion — Tom  Thumb— Morning  Glory 
— El  Calif — General  Development  of  the  Eureka  Mining  District — Belcher  and  Hawkeye  Mines — "Tenas 
George"— The  Hendryx  Cyaniding  Process 429-439 


Establishment  of  a  School  in  Republic  Camp  in  1898 — No  Funds  in  the  Treasury — Mrs.  W.  R.  Collins  the  First 
Teacher — Educational  Affairs  Awaken  Warm  Discussion — Erection  of  First  School  House  in  Ferry  County — 
Superintendency  of  George  A.  Graham— School  Building  at  Keller— Total  Enrollment  of  Scholars  in  1900— 
Bonded  Indebtedness 440^42 


Contour,  Boundaries  and  Area  of  Ferry  County — Farming  and  Grazing  Lands — Geological  Structure — Excellent 
System  of  Wagon  Roads—  The   Famous  Bunch  Grass— Game  Awaiting  the  Ardent  Sportsman— Principal 
Streams— The  Kettle  River 443^44 


Right  to  Vote  Tested  in  the  Courts— Storm  of  Indignation  Against  Alleged  Disfranchisement— First  Election- 
Original  Commissioners  of  Ferry  County — Democratic  Landslide — Republicans  Make  Gains  in  1902 445-447 


PART    IV. 



First  Exploration   and  E.\rly   History. 

First  White  Man  on  the  Northern  Portion  of  the  Columbia  River— New  Fort  in  the  Wilderness— Derivation  of 
the  Word  "Okanogan. '—The  Early  Religious  Field— Father  de  Rouge  Settles  at  Omak— Founding  of  St. 
Mary's  Mission— Chief  Aeneas— Chief  Moses  and  Alexander  McCauley— Conflicting  Interests  Clash  Over 
Limits  of  the  Reservation  for  "Non  Treaty"  Indians— Biography  of -'Okanogan"  Smith— Mr.  Thorp  Ex- 
periments With  Peanut  Agriculture— Organic  Act  Creating  the  County  of  Okanogan— Ruby  the  First  County 
Seat — Salmon  City — Severe  Winter  Causes  the  Death  <if  Much  Stock— Okanogan  County  Board  of  Trade — 
County  Seat  Removal  Agitated 48.5-498 

Passing  Events,  1891—1903. 
Threatened  Uprising  of  Okanogan  Indians— Lynching  of  Indian  Stephen— State  Called  on  for  Troops  to  Protect 
the  Whites — General  Curry  Arrives  at  Conconully — Interview  With  "Okanogan"  Smith— Delay  in  Securing  a 
Survey  and  Extension  of  Standard  Lines— Settlers  Doomed  to  Disappointment — Increase  of  Taxable  Property 
in  the  County— Lot  and  Claim  Jumping  Discouraged— Organization  of  Taxpayers'  League — Assassination  of 
Peter  Coutts— The  Blizzard  of  1898— Floods  of  Unusual  Proportions— Okanogan  Raised  to  a  County  of  the 
Twenty-second  Class — War  Between  Sheep  and  Cattle  Men — Report  of  State  Fish  Commission  on  the  Methow 
Fish  Hatchery— Revival  of  the  Mining  Industry— Valuation  of  Okanogan  County  Property  in  1903 499-512 

Mines  and  Mining. 
Okanogan  County  the  Birthplace  of  Mining  in  the  State  of  Washington— Opening  of  Chief  Moses'  Reservation 
Induces  Development — First  Investors  Doomed  to  Failure — Geological  Structure  of  the  County — Wonderful 
Showing  Made  in  Palmer  Mountain — The  Pinnacle  Mine— Other  Mines  and  Groups  in  that  Vicinity — Meyers 
Creek  Mining  District — The  Methow — The  Multnomah  Mining  Company's  Properties — In  the  Vicinity  of 
Twisp — Great  Excitment  in  the  Salmon  River  District — Original  Prospectors— Mineral  Hill — The  Far  Famed 
Ruby  Mine— The  Squaw  Creek  Country 513-527 



Area  and  Topography  of  Okanogan  County— Mountainous  Contour  of  the  Entire  Country — Soil  Elements  and 
Climate— Variations  of  Scenery  Causes  Grand  and  Imposing  Effects — Legend  of  the  "Hee  Hee  Stone" — 
Stage  Ride  From  Oroville  to  Loomis — Lake  and  Mountain  Scenery — Heart  of  the  Palmer  Mountain  Mining 
District — Wanicutt  and  Spectacle  Lakes — Pogue  Flat — Agricultural  Methods — The  Methow  Valley — Pro- 
ductive Ranches  Along  the  Okanogan  River 527-.537 

Cities  and  Towns. 
Conconully,  the  Capital  of  Okanogan  County — Indian  Lineage  of  the  Name — Concenully  Lake  Considered  as  an 
Irrigation  Reservoir  by  the  L'mted  States  Government— Original  Name  of  the  Town  Salmon  City — First 
Business  Enterprises— Season  of  Great  Activity  in  Building — Remodeling  of  the  Hotel  Elliott — Organizing  a 
Militia  Company — Fire  Nearly  Wipes  Out  the  Town  in  1892— Forty-two  Buildings  Destroyed  by  Floods  in 
1894— Cloud  Burst  on  the  Mountains— Farms  and  Orchards  Destroyed— One  Life  is  Lost— Dedication  of  the 
First  Church  Building  in  Conconully— First  Settlement  of  Loomis— Many  Miners  and  Prospectors  Congre- 
gate There— A  Typical  Western  Mining  Town— Loomis  Improves  Rapidly  During  1891-2— Educational  Af- 
fairs— Marked  Improvement  in  Property  \'alues — Death  of  "Pinnacle  Jim" — Chesaw — Only  Town  in  United 
States  Named  After  a  Chinaman — Fire  Destroys  the  Hotel  Barker 637-551 


Cities  and  Towns — Continued. 
Riverside — Uriah  Ward,  the  Original  Pioneer — "Pard"  Cummings  Establishes  the  Initial  Store — Riverside  the 
Head  of  Navigation  on  the  Okanogan  River — Oroville — Surrounded  by  a  Fine  Agricultural  Country — Bolster 
— Rivalry  Between  This  Young  Town  and  Chesaw — The  Latter  Wins  Out — Molson — Phenomenal  Growth  in 
Early  Days — George  B.  Mechem  its  Promoter — Present  Conditions — Loop  Loop  Platted  in  1888  by  W.  P. 
Keady  and  S.  F.  Chadwick — Depreciation  in  Silver  Market  the  Immediate  Downfall  of  the  Town — Ruby — 
Now  a  Deserted  \"illage — Was  at  one  Time  the  County  Seat  of  Okanogan — Nighthawk — Its  Proximity  to  the 
International  Boundary  Line — Owes  its  Existence  to  the  Nighthawk  Mine — Brewster  at  the  Junction  of  the 
Okanogan  and  Columbia  Rivers — Original  Name  Swansea — Virginia  City — Brewster  Nearly  Destroyed  by 
Fire  in  1903 — Twisp  -Handsomely  Located  in  an  Ideal  Spot — Great  Mining  Excitement  in  the  Methow  Valley 
— Methow — Other  Towns 551-563 



Organization  of  Okanogan  County — County  and  Appointment  of  First  Commissioners — General  Election  of  the 

Autumn  of  1888 — Charles  E.  Laughton  First  Lieutenant  Governor  of  the  State  of  Washington — Result  of  the 

Election  of  1890 — Election  of  1892 — Largely  in  Favor  of  the  Republicans— Plurality  in  Okanogan  County  in 

1-892  for  President  Harrison  139— Trend  of  Political  Events  to  1902 564-571 

Earliest  School  Superintendent's  Report — Administration  of  J.  F.  Samson — Financial  Depression  of  1894  Dis- 
couraging to  School  Improvement — Joseph   E.  Leader   County  Superintendent  in  1895 — Financial  Showing 
for  the  Year  1902 571-573 

PART     V. 



Early  History  and  Passing  Events. 

Derivation  of  the  Word  "Chelan" — Chinese  the  Earliest  Settlers — Romance  of  One  Celestial — Driven  Away  by 
Indians — Missionary  Labors  of  Fathers  Respari,  Grassi  and  Rouge — First  White  Settlers  Along  the  Lake — 
Adventures  of  Sanders  and  Dumke — Woodin  and  Dumke  Erect  Rival  Saw  Miils — The  Entiat  Valley — 
Wenatchee  Once  an  Indian  Council  Ground — Franklin  Freer  Settles  on  the  Columbia  River — Efforts  in  1893 
to  Create  Wenatchee  County — High  Water  in  the  Columbia — "Long  Jim" — Tidal  Wave  in  Lake  Chelan — 
Organic  Act  Creating  Chelan  County — Wenatchee  Development  Company — Steamboats  Cast  Away. . 

Wonderful  Scenic  Attractions — Rapid  Progress  Made  in  the  Development  of  the  Wenatchee  Country — Mildness 
of  the  Climate— Sounding  Lake  Chelan  by  the  United  States  Geological  Survey— Voyage  on  the  Lake— Stu- 
pendous Heights,  Gigantic  Domes,  Cavernous  Precipices— Round  Mountain— Moore's  Point— "Painted 
Rocks"— Glacial  Phenomena— Wonderful  Results  of  Irrigation— The"High  Ditch  Line"— Lake  Wenatchee  in 
the  Heart  of  the  Cascades — Tumwater  Canyon — Entiat  Valley — Horseshoe  Basin — Rainbow  Falls — Mission 
\"alley 685- 



Mines  and  Mining. 

First  Quartz  Mine  Ever  Developed  in  Washington— The  Holden  Mine— Entiat  Valley  District— Baker  Mountain 
Mininsc  Company— Copper  Queen  Group— Doubtful  Lake— Railroad  Creek— Stehekin  District— Mining  in 
the  Vicinity  of  Wenatchee— Golden  King  Company— Peshastin  an4  Negro  Creeks— Blewett  Gold  Mining 
Company— The  Phoenix— Leavenworth  District— Rock  Creek  Canyon 702-711 

Cities  and  Towns. 
Wenatchee— Genesis  and  Definition  of  the  Word— First  Business  Enterprise  in  the  Vicinity— The  "North  End" 
—Rapid  Increase  of  Population— Opening  of  the  Columbia  Valley  Bank— Townsite  Company  Throws  Lots 
Upon  the  Market— Organization  of  First  Sunday  School— Move  for  Incorporation— Advent  of  the  Great 
Northern  Railroad— First  Municipal  Election— Fire— Public  Library  and  Reading  Room  Established— Burn- 
ing of  Steamer  "Irish  World" — Wenatchee  Commercial  Club — Building  Improvements — Names  of  River 
Steamers — Platting  of  Original  Townsite — Various  Additions — Chelan — Early  pioneers — Chelan  Water  Pow- 
er Company — Church  History — Lakeside — Chelan  Falls — Leavenworth — Mission — Other  Towns 711-736 

Organization  of  First  School  District— John  D.  -Atkinson  First  Superintendent— Report  of  Superintendent  Foster 

^Growth  of  Schools — High  Schools 736-738 

First  County  Commissioners— Republicans  Hold  County  Convention  at   Leavenworth  in  1900— Democrats  Meet 
at  Wenatchee— Fusion  an  Accomplished   Fact— Democrats   Carry  the  County  at  Presidential  Election— Re- 
publicans Successful  in  1902 738-740 

PART     \T. 



Press  of  Stevens,  Ferry,  Okanogan  and  Chelan  Counties. 
Pioneer  Journalism  in  Stevens  County — Stevens  County  Sun.of  Chewelah,  Initial  Paper  in  the  County — The  Miner, 
Published  at  Colville— Mr.  Slater  Sells  the  Miner— Stevens  County  Standard  and  Colville  Republican— 
W.  D.  Allen  Purchases  the  Springdale  Statesman  and  Consolidates  it  with  the  Colville  Index— The  North- 
port  News — Stevens  Standard — Springdale  Gazette — Other  Stevens  County  Publications — First  Paper  in 
Ferry  County  the  Reservation  Record — E.  R.  Cleveland  and  Albert  J.  Drake  Establish  the  Republic  Pioneer 
— It  is  Subsequently  Consolidated  With  the  Miner — Five  Weekly  Newspapers  in  Okanogan  County — The 
First  One  Issued  Was  the  Okanogan  Outlook — Its  Sensational  History — The  Ruby  Miner— The  Loomiston 
Journal  Issued  by  A.  H.  Sroufe — Palmer  Mountain  Prospector,  by  Frank  Dallam,  the  Oldest  Paper  Now  in 
Okanogan  County — Other  Journals — The  Wenatchee  Advance  the  First  Weekly  Paper  in  Chelan  County — 
Established  by  Frank  Reeves— Many  Political  and  Personal  Changes  on  the  Advance— Chelan  Falls  Leader 
Comes  Into  the  Field— Owned  and  Edited  by  Dewitt  C.  Britt— The  Paper  is  Moved  to  Chelan  in  1892— The 
Wenatchee  Graphic — The  Rock  Island  Sun —  Lake  Chelan  Eagle — Wenatchee  Republican  Established  bv 
A.  S.  Lindsay— Lakeside  Light 840-852 



Incident  in  Wright's  Campaign — Something  of  a  Bear  Story — Of  Historical  Interest — A  Hurried  Departure — 
A  Minister's  Trip  to  Colville— Colville  an  Island— Meyers  Falls— A  Man  of  Claims— The  Opium  Traffic- 
Building  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  Railroad— An  Orderly  Camp— Old  Fort  Colville— She  Witnessed 
the  Whitman  Massacre — Father  de  Rouge  Among  the  Indians — Racing  Between  Indians — "ConconuUy  Kate" 
— The  Embrace  of  Death — Legend  of  the  Columbia— Battle  at  Mouth  of  Okanogan — Legend  of  Pauline. 852-867 



Colville,  County  Seat  of  Stevens 

County    154 

Meyers  Falls  of  the  Colville  river  153 
Kettle  Falls  of  the  Columbia  river  154 
Fruit     exhibit     at     the     Stevens 
county    fair,    Colville,    Septem- 
ber,   1903    113 

Buildings    of    the    Hudson's    Bay 
Company's  post  near  Marcus  as 

they  appear  to-day   153 

Ruins   of   the   old  Jesuit  mission 

near    Kettle    Falls    113 

Grist  mill  at  Meyers   Falls,   Ste- 
vens county,  erected   in   1872.  .   153 
King  gold  and  copper  mines....   113 
Wagon  bridge  and  dam  across  the 

Chelan    river    669 

\'ie\v  on  Lake  Chelan  690 

Rainbow   falls  near  the   Stehekin 
■iver     ..., 695 


Lake  Chelan.  View  from  Moores' 

Point    690 

Painted   rocks   near   the   head   of 

Lake    Chelan    696 

VVenatchee    fruit    exhibit    at    the 

Spokane  fruit  fair  in  1902....  696 
They  came  from  Lake  Chelan.  .  696 
Wenatchee,  county  seat  of  Chelan 

county     711 

Winter   scene  on  Lake  Chelan. .  669 

Glacier   Peak    685 

Chelan  falls  of  Chelan  river  ....  685 

Residence  of  J.  ^IcFarland SOU 

Palmer  Lake   527 

Tramway    from    Pinnacle    mine, 

Okanogan  county    485 

Wannicut    Lake    5-' 

Toats  Coula   Falls  of  the  Sinla- 

hekin   river    527 

Group  of  Okanogan  Indians  ....  485 


St.  Mary's  mission,  Okanogan 
county,    as    it    was    in    pioneer 

days    527 

Medicine  woman  of  the  Okano- 
gan tribe  485 

Salmon  or  Conconully  lake   ....  485 

Chief   Joseph    499 

Curlew  lake.  Ferry  county 427 

Republic   ni   lS9r.  then    Eureka.   4:i!) 
Sans  Poil  Falls  of  the  Sans  Foil 
river.     Ferry     county,     during 

high  water   427 

Gold  bricks  429 

Republic,    county    seat    of    Ferry 

county  412 

First  store  in  Ferry  county,  lo- 
cated at  Danville,  formerly 
Nelson    429 



Abbott,  James  H 378 

Adams,    Charles    339 

Adams,  George  E 339 

Aljbaugh,  John  H 375 

Alldredge,  Wilham  L 251 

Allison,  Albert  F 268 

Allison,  James  N 269 

Anderson,    Hans    212 

Anderson,   Peter    383 

Anderson,  Robert  D 205 

Arcasa,  Peter   3-5 

Argue,  John  J 297 

Ashpaugh,  John  W 348 

Arnold,  Adam  W 314 

Arnold,  Charles  H 3^5 

Atkinson,  William  A 34i 

Aubin,  Gilbert  B 312 

Ayers,   Elmer  J 310 

Baker,    Charles    196 

Baker,  John    196 

Baker,  William  R 320 

Banks,  Frank  343 

Beam,  George  W 360 

Belhumeur,   August    372 

Belknap,   Millard   F 285 

Bethurum,  Isaac    188 

Bethurum,   Ralph    188 

Bidgood,  Amiron   E 306 

Blair,  George  W 35° 

Blair,   John    S 298 

Bobier,    George   H 203 

Boss,  Chester  S 215 

Boyd,  Adam  294 

Boyd,  William   399 

Boyes,   Henry   D .270 

Brackett,   George   0 189 

Brechbill,  Samuel  L 257 

Brinser,  Otto    187 

Bronson,  James  L 355 

Brown,  Albert   386 

Brown,   Francis   M 242 

Brown,   Lewis    H 239 

Brown,   Thomas    240 

Brown,  William  V 292 

Bruce.  Jane  E 211 

Bryant,  Ann   221 

Buchanan,  Mark  L 352 

Buck,    Allen    A 262 

Burden,  John   369 

Burdick,  Albert   ^77 


Cagle,  William  S 304 

Calhoon,  William  L 358 

Camp,  Arthur   F 218 

Campbell,   George    249 

Caplin,  William  J 397 

Carey,  Daniel  H 235 

Carroll,    George    F 400 

Cary,   George    350 

Castner,  Frederick  L 271 

Cecil,  Samuel  P 395 

Chamberlin,  Charles  H 228 

Chapin,   Burrell  W 213 

Charles,  Edgar    361 

Clark,  Simon  S 333 

Clinton,  James  B 244 

Coates,  Orin  291 

Colley,  William  P 272 

Colter,   William   R   343 

Conrady,   Charles   F 224 

Copp,  George   209 

Corbell,  Francis  M 216 

Cosner,  Henry  E .398 

Coulter,  George   248 

Coulthard.  George  D 187 

Covell,  John  H T93 

r-ox,    Henrv   T 396 

Crandall,    Uriah    329 

Crawford,  James  302 

Crory,   Isaac   L 353 

Gulp.  David  M 301 

Currie,  Joseph  P,   ., 219 

Davey,  Josiah  M 335 

Davies,  James    346 

Davies,   Thomas    345 

Davis,   Frank   B 323 

Davis,  William  H 204 

Dawdy,  John  C .380 

Day,   Elwood    214 

Day,    William    229 

Dearinger.  Squire  L 279 

Decker,   Dennis    ,365 

Decker,  John  W 331 

Denn,   Harrv  R 392 

Denny,  Elijah  M' 252 

Desautels,   John   0 274 

Dickson,  AVilliam  W 303 

Diedrich.   John    S ,187 

Dixon,  Thomas   .300 

Dorman.  Garland    284 

Dorman,  Harrison  Y 283 


Driscoll,   William    218 

Drugan,  William  P 401 

Dudrey,   Elias   S 281 

Duncan,   William   W 220 

Dunn,   Peter   256 

Dunlap,  Joseph  W 361 

Dunham,   Dewey   H 268 

Dupuis,  Henry  A 314 

Dupuis,   Norbert    266 

Elliott,    Frank    256 

Ellis,   Etheldred   T 356 

Ellis,  Ira  B 186 

Eva,  Sheba  R 337 

Feeler,   Simon    •  ■  ■  275 

Felland,  Knut  0 205 

Ferguson,  Frank   326 

Flaugher,  Henry   206 

Felt,  Jay  H 328 

Fountain,  Robert 33° 

Fox,  Ray  J 348 

Erase,   Ed  A 342 

Frase,   John    M 34' 

Fry,  Elbert  L 314 

Fry,  Nathan  B.   . 26.^ 

Fry,  Richard  B 3^2 

Garrison,  Henderson  P .395 

Garner,  Laban   254 

Geaudreau,    George    208 

Giebeler,  Henry  302 

Gillen,   Aggie    275 

Gilpin,  William  J 217 

Glasgo,    Presley    278 

Gordon,    Frank    291 

Graham,    Charles    357 

Graham,  Henry  A 246 

Grahant,  Jav  '95 

Gr,iham,  William  H 318 

Gray,  John   S 368 

Gregory,  Eugene  B i99 

Gregory,  James  B 207 

Grittner,    Henry    220 

Hadley,    Henry    M 262 

Hafer,  E.  E .?8i 

Haines,  Charles  .371 

Haines.    Guy    229 

Haley.  Peter  399 

Hall,   Harry  J 274 



Hall,  Jesse  R 211 

Hamblet,    Joanna    C 297 

Hamilton,  Mart  H 352 

Hanson,  Hans  K 353 

Harbaugh,  Daniel  303 

Hart,  William  J 372 

Hartill,   David    389 

Hartill,    Emanuel    S 388 

Hartill,  Enoch   307 

Hartill,  Jesse   388' 

Hartill,   Joseph   M 389 

Harvey,  George  W 245 

Harvey,    Lee    B 322 

Hatton,  William  S 263 

Hawkins,    John    A 377 

Hawkins,  Oliver  U 367 

Heidegger,  Abraham   251 

Heller,  Thomas   311 

Heppe,   Frederick    344 

Herron,  John  N 296 

Herzner,   George   380 

Hessel,  John   P 310 

Hibert,  Frank 214 

Hilts,  William  S 257 

Hoffer,  John  N 217 

Hofstetter,  John  U 317 

Holcomb,  Walter  E 359 

Holdernian,  Wallace  R 379 

Holland,  Thomas  H 363 

Horton,   Joseph   N 238 

House.  Daniel    267 

Houtchens,   Christopher  T 212 

Hovey,  Perry  H 332 

Huffman.  Joel    232 

Hughes,   Henry   250 

Hughes.  James  250 

Hughes.  William  P 236 

Hughson,   Andrew    , 291 

Hull,   George    308 

Hurd,  Albert  B 356 

Hurd,  Maria  356 

Hunter,    James    259 

Inkster,    John    384 

Jackson,   Zachariah   T 207 

Jacobs,  Mile  311 

Jared,   Robert   P 192 

Jarvis,  Francis  M 385 

Jarvis,  John  F 379 

Jenks,  Elias  W 223 

Jenkin,  Henry  R 384 

Jennings,  Lewis  W 259 

Johnston,    George   W 206 

Joneson,  Emil 307 

Jore.  John  0 203 

Keevil,  Lester  W 359 

Keller,  Henry 183 

Kent,  Miles   C 202 

Keough,  John  284 

Kindorf,   George   340 

King,  Peter  394 

King,  William  W 264 

Knapp,  George  H 306 

Knowlton,  Francis  M 349 

Knutson,  Christian  C 235 

Koontz,  Joseph  A 398 

Krug,  August 383 

Kyes,  Ephraim  A 392 

Kulzer,  John  G 334 


Lacey,  John  B 351 

Lambert,   Lawrence    391 

Lane,  Harry  B 286 

Lang,    Peter  J 261 

Lapray,    George     370 

Lapray,   Joseph    241 

Laundrv,   Henry    308 

Layton,'  Daniel  D 268 

Leblank,  John    218 

Ledgerwood,   Christopher  A 319 

Leonard,    Luther    A 196 

Liepp,   John    311 

Lindahl,    Charles     354 

Linder,  Peter  N 346 

Linton,  William  H 373 

Long,  Jesse  L 208 

Long,  John  H 208 

Luce,  Alvah  E 271 

MacDonald,    Donald    201 

Magee,  John  H 243 

Maher,  John   T 329 

Major,   Thomas   R 255 

Maloney,  Martin  J 321 

Mantz,    Charles   A 318 

Marks,   Eugene    198 

Martin,    Grant     269 

Martin,    Jacob    349 

Martin,  Jacob  E 348 

Maxwell,  John  W 242 

i\Iaxwell,   William  H 238 

Meek,  John   359 

Metcalfe,  John  L 366 

Meyers,  Calvin  H 367 

Meyers,  Louther  W 288 

McCloud,  Erasmus  S 309 

McCoy,   Robert   L 225 

McDonald,  Archibald  G 215 

McGregor,   John   H 243 

McKinney,   Alfred    294 

McRae,  Roderick  D 260 

Moomaw,   Samuel   T 300 

Montgomery,  Charles  H 276 

Moon,  George  H 345 

Moon,  Horace  G 357 

Moon,   Sam    186 

Monroe,  James    199 

Morgan,  Henry   293 

Morrison,  Thomas  E 341 

Morrow,  John  E 308 

Mowatt,   George  A 400 

Murphy,  Charles  F 232 

Nagle,   Richard 313 

Nelson,  John  B 31s 

Nett,  P.  Joseph   386 

Neumann,  George  273 

Newhouse,  James   370 

Oakes,  William  H 253 

Olson,   John    30.^ 

Overmyer,   Ralph   E 258 

Pahl,  C.  F.  William  388 

Parker,    Cigmarion    282 

Pease.   Flavins  E 197 

Pelkey,   Joseph   H 324 

Peone,   Louis    319 

Peltier,  Moses  C 265 

Perkins,  Andrew  F 301 

Phelps,   Forrest  1 373 

Platts,  John   C 338 

Pomeroy,  Henry   393 

Potter,  Abe  387 

Prouty,   Austin    29s 

Ralston,   Albert    375 

Rame\',   Richard  G 191 

Ramey,  Richard  T 195 

Rasmussen,  Peter   340 

Ranch,  John  W 210 

Rednours,  George  198 

Reid,    Robert    35 1 

Reilly,  James  C 258 

Reynolds,   Enoch   J 264 

Richards,    Charles    B 273 

Richmond,   James    M 335 

Rickard,   Barney   283 

Rickey,   John    317 

Rider,  Elbridge  C 199 

Rigg,  Charles  T 277 

Riggs,  Ira  L 231 

Rivers,  Adolph    295 

Roberts,  Joseph   200 

Roberts,  Randolph   280 

Rochford,  J.   A 354 

Rogers,  James  N 194 

Rogers,  John  T 189 

Ross,  Clarence  E 185 

Rusch,    Peter    299 

Rusho,  Anthony  J 190 

Russell,   William   K 188 

Salvage,   Frank   279 

Salvage,  James  T 287 

Salvage,   John    282 

Savage,  Frank  A 276 

Scott,  Edward  W 222 

Scott,  Jacob    222 

Scott,  Richard  P 184 

Scott,  Wilber  F 223 

Schulenburg,  Henry   202 

Schutze,   Ernest    H 194 

Seabrandt,  Henry   396 

Seal,  George  W 315 

Seigle,  Harry  M 285 

Sewell,  James  A 270 

Shannon.  Benjamin  F 24S 

Sharp,  Elmer  L 331 

Sharp,    Monroe    L 363 

Shepard,    John    H 219 

Shepler,  Alphonso  V 394 

Sherwood,   Samuel  F 289 

Slater,  John  B 327 

Slocum,  Ralph  A 337 

Smith,  Floyd  C ,236 

Smith,  George  W 225 

Smith,  John  L 362 

Smith,  Roland  T 280 

Smith,  Thomas  M 298 

Smith,    William    D 376 

Snodgrass,  Eugene  0 304 

Spaulding,   Alonzo    228 

Spence,  James    391 

Spence,  James  P 39i 

Spencer,   William    H 296 

Staves,  George  H 303 

Stearns,  William  W 221 

Stensgar,    Alexander    281 

Stensgar,  Isaac 201 

Stolp,  Claud   390 

Stolp,  Mead  C 22.1 

Stone,  Samuel    401 

Storm,  Jasper  N 368 



Story,   John   W 390 

Story,    Joshua    394 

Story,  Perry  D 390 

St.    Pere,   David    293 

Sturgis,   Benjamin   S 344 

Sullivan,   Edward   S 360 

Sullivan,    Rodger    309 

Sykes,  Adelbert  B 246 

Sykes,  Gustavus  W 247 

Tait,    Thomas    384 

Tarble,    M.    Elsie    385 

'I'avlor,  William  J 342 

Tessmann,  Carl   299 

Tetro,    Peter    397 

Theis.    George    332 

Thomas,   George    237 

Thomas,    Robert    254 

Thomason,  Mary  L 240 

Thompson,    Joseph     382 

Towle,    Rofseter   1 347 

Townsend.  William   P 322 

Travis,  John  J 233 

Troger,    Henry    267 

Troger,    Louis    261 

Tuttle,  James  B.,  Jr 336 

Tweedie,   Henry    330 

Uterhardt,  Frank  W.   A 325 

Vanhorn,  Williatn   O ■. . .  272 

Van  Slyke,  Elijah  A 3S9 

von  Zweygberg,  Johan  A 204 

Weston,   Eli   S 

Weston,  William  E.  . . 

Whitney  Fred  A 

Wilcox,    Deles    E 

Wiley,  James   G 

Wilson,   Emsley    D.... 

Wilson,    Fred    E 

Willenbrink.  Bernard 
Williams,  Charles  ... 
William-.,  Weslie  S.   .. 

Wade,  John    278 

Waitt,  Charles   3«i 

Wakefield,    George    W 230 

Walker,  Frank  255 

Walter,  Arthur  G 287 

Waterman,    Kendrick    S 362 

Watts,   David   M 210 

Wayland,    Stephen   E 334 

Weatherwa.x,  Frank  333 

Weatherwax,   Henry    183 

Welch,   Thomas   R 234 

Wells,    Edward    P 377 

Weston,    Charles    H 213 

Weston,  Charles  R 226 

Wiiichcsur,  Frank 
Windle,  Joseph  A. 
Wisner,  George  H. 
Wolff,  Francis  . . . 
Wright,  George  E.. 
Wynne,    Richard   J. 

Young,  Jerry 
Young,  J.  H. 
Young,    Zell.  . 

Zent,  Daniel  J.   . . . 
Zigler,  George  W. 




Bidgood,  Amiron  E 304 

Brown,    Thomas     240 

Cagle,  William   S 304 

Cagle,  Mrs.  William  S 304 

Chamberlin,  Charles  H 224 

Conrady,  Charles  F 224 

Crandall,  Uriah   328 

Day,  William   224 

Dupuis,   Norbert    264 

Felt,  Jay  H 328 

Fountain    Robert    32S 

Fry,  Nathan  B 264 

Hartill,  Enoch    304 

Hughson,   Andrew    288 

Joneson,   Emil    304 


Keller,    Henry    183 

Knapp,  George  H 304 

Lapray,   Joseph    240 

Lapray,    Mrs.    Joseph    240 

MacDonald,  Donald  200 

Maher,  John  T 328 

McCoy,  Robert  L 224 

Meyers,    Louthcr    W 288 

Olson,  John    304 

Olson,  Mrs.  John   304 

Peltier,  Moses  C 264 

Reynolds,    E.    John    264 

Roberts,  Joseph  200 

Roberts,   Mrs.  Joseph    200 


Ross,  Clarence  E 183 

Scott,  Richard  P i8.i!' 

Sherwood,   Samuel  F 288 

Smith,  George  W 224 

Snodgrass,  Eugene  0 304 

Spaulding,    Alonzo    224 

Stensgar.   Isaac    200 

Stolp,  Mead  C 224 

Sullivan,  Edward   S .^fo 

Thomason,    Mary   L 240 

Tweedie,  Henry,   32S 

Weatherwax,   Henry    183 

Weston,  Charles  R 224 

Weston,  Eli  S 224 

Zcnt,  Daniel  J 288 


Baizlev,  George  F 467 

Ballew,   Irvin   4^3 

Barrett,   Thomas   F 474 

Bewley,  John   M 480 

Bennett,  Charles  P 478 

Brown,  William   C 476 

Clark,    Michael    453 

Clark,   William    M 466 

Creasor,    Philip    45° 

Crounse,  Millard  F 463 

Dahl,    Henry    453 


DeGasper,    Joseph    D 457 

Dcsautel,  Gilbert   458 

Desautel.    Maxim    470 

Dimond,  Quinland    4^9 

Dodson,  John   A 475 

Fortman,  N.  J.  H 477 

Fuller,   Thomas   D 4St 

Gendron,   Alexander    461 

Gendron,  Anthony    461 

Gray,  Samuel   481 


Hall,  Daniel  R 464 

Hall,   Robert   J 464 

Herron,    George    459 

Hurley,  George  J 45' 

Johnson.  James  T 474 

Jones,  Michael  R 480 

Keck,  Ben  F 479 

Keogan,  Richard  45o 

LaFlciu,    Isaac    468 

Lambert,  Stephen   457 



Lewis,   Charles   H 467 

Mack,  Harry  D 466 

Manley,  Shere  H 475 

Mars,    Arthur    C 462 

Mason,    L.    H 462 

May,  John  F 464 

McCann,  John  W 461 

McDougall,  John  D 456 

Mires,  John   S 449 

Nelson,   Peter   B 465 

O'Brien,   Frank    460 


Otto,   William   C 472 

Peone,   Dennis   454 

Ragsdale,   Fred    478 

Raymond,  Alexander  460 

Ritter,  John  E 473 

Rumsey,  Howard  D 456 

Runnels,  George  W 483 

Rutherford,   Justice  A 470 

Samby,    Joseph    458 

Seibert,   John   W 482 

Shinn.   Maxwell  H 468 

Sly,    Lester     472 


Stack,   John    471 

Stewart,   Alphaeus  E 449 

Stover,   William   L 453 

Summers,  Frank   463 

Thompson,  Harry  W 482 

Tompkins,  Gideon  J 479 

Wagner,   William    454 

Waisman,  Henry  471 

Wakefield,  William  B 477 

Watson,  John  J 455 

Wilmot,   Lew   P 484 

Winker,    Joseph    469 


Creasor,    Philip    .  . 
Fuller,  Thomas  D. 

Hurley,   George   J 449 

John    S., 

Stewart,  Alphaeus  E. 



Alderman,    Warren    W 604 

Almquist,    Charles    W 601 

Andersen,    Anton    656 

Anglin,   Thomas   S 579 

Arbogast,  Ira   593 

Barron,  Stephen  E 575 

Bassett,    Chandler     663 

Beall,  John    607 

Beall,   Lloyd   654 

Beidler,    Elliott   W 661 

Blaine,    James    P 617 

Blatt,  Charles  A 603 

Block,  Frank  A 577 

Bottomley,  Jennie   660 

Bown,   Walter    582 

Brackett,  Andrew  J 629 

Brigham,   Ervin    F 667 

Burdett,  James  0 620 

Burton,  Levi  D 632 

Carpenter,  John  W 599 

Champneys,  Herbert  G 602 

Champneys,  Weldon  V 633 

Chilson,  Daniel  G 6l'> 

Chilson.   Elisha   P 624 

Clerf,   Frank   H 595 

Cloud,  Walter  W 595 

Colwell,   James   L '. . .  .   657 

Cooper,   George    581 

Cooper,  William  Z 628 

Couche,  James  B 627 

Cummings,  Frank  J 610 

Cutchie,  John  M 647 

Dallam,   Frank  M 666 

Davis,  W.  L 605 

Decent,  Henry  P 604 


Doheny,   Henry    653 

Donnelly,   Frank   J 664 

Drury,  Lafayette   666 

Edwards,  Adelbert  G 655 

Filer,    Peter   L 614 

Forde,'  James  E 625 

French,   Wellington    6s6 

Fulton,  Frank  M 589 

Gamble,  Daniel  S' 635 

Garigen,    Mathias    583 

Garrett,  John  C 615 

Garrett,  Robert  A 596 

Gillespie,  David  L 665 

Grant,    Charles     613 

Grant,   William   E 621 

Grififin,    Matthew   D 582 

Grogan,  Frank  607 

Hall,  Joseph   591 

Hamilton.  William   643 

Hancock,  John  601 

Hargrove.  Robert  R 597 

Harris,   Harry   A 648 

Holt,  James  M 616 

Hone.  John  1 610 

Huntley,   Hiram   A 580 

Hurlbert,  George  R 6r6 

Ives,  Lee   591 

Johnson,  Earl  F 642 

Johnston,   Andrew   W 593 

Johnston.   James    A 645 

Jones,  Charles  L 6^3 

Joyce,    Bill    584 


Judd,  James  M 661 

Kahlow,  William  R.  . 585 

Kaufman,    Lewis    A 637 

Kendall.   John    622 

Kiper.  James  A 588 

Lancaster.  Prince  A 610 

Lauber.    Meinrad    645 

Lawrence,   John    C 589 

Lenton,   Joseph    647 

Lewis,  Walter  E 598 

Lewis,   William    602 

Libby,    Ashbel    657 

Looniis,   Julius   A 636 

Loudon,  George  W 611 

Loundagin,    Lawson   A 623 

Macaulay,   Alax 600 

Maloney,  Michael   586 

Maloney,    Ted    588 

Malott,  Leonard  C 587 

Marshall.  Antoinc   631 

McDaniel.  William  H 648 

McDonald,   John    625 

McDonald,   John   H 592 

McEachen,    John    630 

McFarlane.   Charles   S 580 

McKinley,  Charles  R 649 

McKinney,  James   M 646 

McLean,   Chauncey   R 626 

Moore,   George   W S99 

Muller,   Karl   A 631 

Muller,   Karl   R 595 

Munson,    Willard    K .S87 

Murray,  Thomas  M 650 

Nelson,  Nels  B 638 



Nickell,  George  E ego 

Nickell,  Harvey   H 639 

Noyes,   George  H 651 

Ogden,  Conburse  J 658 

Overacker,  Edward  S 613 

Patterson.    Sam     614 

Payne,   E.   L 662 

Pendergast,  Edmund  K 618 

Peterson,  Charles  T 660 

Peterson,    William    T 640 

Phillips,   John    Y 578 

Piper,  August  J 621 

Pitman,  John   M 608 

Pogue,   Joseph    1 585 

Prewitt,    Robert    T 629 

Proebstel,  William  F 642 

Ragen,    John    576 

Reilly,    Peter    649 

Rinehart,   Jonathan    C 622 

Risley,  Joshtia  .M 658 

Rizeor,  Henry  J 627 

Rounds,  Edwin  P 577 

Ruark,  William  F 615 

Schafer,    John     619 

Sincock,   Samuel  J 596 

Skeffington,   Joseph    576 

Snialley,    M.    A 659 

Sneve,  Peter  S 588 

Speckman,    John     662 

Squires,    Andrew   J 594 

Stansbury,   F>ank  L 620 

Staton,    Henry    B 056 

Stofferan,   Louis    581 

Stone,  Horace  L 628 

Stone,   Manford   G 641 

Taylor,   Wilson   M 609 

Thein,    John    P 663 

Thompson,   Henry    644 

Thorp,  Alvin  R 606 


Tindall,  George  W 632 

Van    Brunt,    Harry    578 

Vanderpool,  George  W 643 

Ventzke,    Emil     590 

Ventzke,  Fred  F 617 

Waglay,    Richard     626 

Walter,  John  E 639 

Wehe,  A.  George   634 

Wehe,    Eugene    F 664 

Wehe,    Frederick    P 637 

Wellington,    Henry    507 

Wentworth,  John  M O05 

Wheeler,  Emery  P 609 

White,    Edward    F 619 

Wilder,  Hiram  A 651 

Willard,   Lyman   W 652 

Williams,  Henry  A 641 

Williams,  John  D 584 

Willmarth.  Frank  M 655 

Wilson,  William  C 634 

Witte,   George   W 643 

Wright,    Francis   M 592 


Barron,   Stephen   E 575 

Blaine,  James    P 616 

Burton,  Levi   D 632 

Donnelly,  Frank  J 664 

Hurlbert,  George  R 616 

.^L^caulay,   Alax 600 

Pendergast,    E.    K, 
Ventzke,    Fred    F. 



Bailey,  Isaac  J 838 

Bellinger,   Philip   765 

Biggar,   W.   J 794 

Bills,    Hiram    G 799 

Bjork,  John  B 746 

Blair,_  George  W 816 

Bonar,  Jesse  D 747 

Bowman,   Louis   H 823 

Boyd,   SpenCer   792 

Britt,   DeWitt   C 834 

Brown,   George   W 782 

Brown,   Noah   N 777 

Brown,    Reuben    A 750 

Browne,  Guy  C 788 

Bryant,  Albert  G 795 

Burbank,  Andrew  S 748 

Buttles,   Charles   E 755 

Caldwell,    Henry    M 776 

Campbell.  Clinton  C 827 

Carpenter,  Joseph  C 835 

Chapman,   Benjamin  M 815 

Christensen,    Carl    780 

Clayton,  Albert  P 76S 

Colt,  Lyman  R 759 

Cblver,    Charles     745 

Cool,  Adelbert  L S09 

Cooper,  Charles  G 797 

Cottrell,   George    E 753 


Courtway,  Albert  N 796 

Cromwell,   Charles   790 

Gulp,  Frank  E 786 

Darby,    Alonzo    E. .  .- 805 

Darnell,  Joseph    .' 79 1 

Dawson,    Arthur    H 837 

Derifield.  Isaac  M 806 

Detwiler,  Lewis   7n 

Devore,   Dan    791 

Dexter.    William   H 820 

Drew,   Will    S 825 

Edmunds.   Amos    828 

Edwards,  Ira  D 781 

Farnham,  Frederick  C 817 

Farwell,  George  H 8:7 

Ferguson.  James  W 772 

Field.  Merritt  E &r8 

Frank,   Emil    806 

Freer,   Ira    801 

Freytag,   Charles   H.  A 77S 

Geddes.  Irvin  R 771 

Gehr,  Winfield  S. 766 

Gellatly.    John    A 812 

Gibson,  Thomas  R 774 

Gibson,   William    ....' 812 


Gilchrist,   Colin    744 

Graham,  Howard  A 778 

Grant,   George  F 805 

Gray,   Charles  E 807 

Gray,  George  H 752 

Gray,  Horatio  B 784 

Griggs,  Bruce  K 757 

Gunn,    Arthur    773 

Hansen,  Clans  E 758 

Harlin,  Charles  A 8i6 

Haskell,  Charles  F.  B 832 

Hedding,  Charles  E 812 

Hinman,  W.  Edward 765 

Hoag,  Oscar  h 827 

Holcomb,  Pearl  P 815 

Holden,  James  H 825 

Holden,  John   8oi 

Holmes.  James  B 803 

Holzhauser.   William   F.  J 833 

Horan,  Michael   814 

Howard,   Stapleton  C 833 

Jacobs.  Judson  L 7+2 

Johnson,  Charles  775 

Johnson,  Ozias  D 779 

Johnson,  Rufus  D 776 

King,   Charles   C ....836 



Kingman,  Morrison  M 74s 

Knowles,  Albert    821 

Knowles,  Amos  837 

Lanham,   Zadok   A 798 

Larrabee,  Julius  A 792 

Leonard,  Dike   820 

Lindsay,  Amasa  S 822 

Losekamp,  Franklin  A 769 

MacLean,  Lauchlin- 741 

Martin,  C.  Victor  770 

McCready,  Sylvester  C 769 

McFarland.  Jeremiah  800 

McKenzie,  William  K 742 

Messerly,   Alpheus    804 

Messerly,   Elias    764 

Miller,  Jacob  H 807 

Miller,  John  F 808 

Miller,  John  G 790 

Miller,    Philip    828 

Mitchell,  Levi  W 761 

Moore,  J.   Robert   811 

Moore,   William   B 761 

Morical,  Samuel  E 758 

Morris,  Enoch   784 

Morris,   Enoch   F 784 

Morrison,  Charles  A 789 

Musgrove,  Thomas  W 75i 

Navarre,    Ignatius    A 766 

Newland,  William  S 829 

Northup,    Charles     752 

Northup,  Edward  D 762 

Olive,    Walter    M 829 


Paton,  William  B 831 

Patterson,  Hector  802 

Pattison,    Thomas     772 

Peterson,  Julius  M 824 

Petrie,   Daniel    804 

Pflaeging,    Fred     760 

Phillips,   Scott   VV 767 

Pitcher,  Alexander   818 

Porter,  John  E 764 

Prowell,  Winter  R 830 

Rarey,    William    T 813 

Rea,  James    754 

Reed,   C.   Will    796 

Reeve.';,   Frank    747 

Reeves.   Fred    762 

Richards,  Walter  D,    810 

Richardson,  George  T 802 

Riddle,  Richard  W 759 

Ringstadt,  John   P 823 

Robichaud,    Peter    774 

Robinson,  Christopher  787 

Rose,    Conrad    748 

Rowse,   George  L 824 

Sanders,  'william  L 793 

Scheble,   Ellsworth    D 751 

Schindler,   Charles  A 802 

Schrader,  Adolph   760 

Shamel,   Allen   C 779 

Shelton,  Joseph  L 753 

Shotwell,  Ellsworth  E 743 

Shotwell,  Harry  1 819 

Shotwell,   Jacob  A 786 


Simmons,  Herman  S 831 

Skiles,  Robert  1 750 

Slawson,  Frank  D 782 

Smith,    Benjamin   F 793 

Smith,  Irving  0 797 

Smith,    John     774 

Sprague,   Ernest   F 749 

Stevens,  Wendell  E 798 

Stewart,  Squire   834 

Stohl,  Charles  E 763 

Swanson,    Paul    819 

Taylor,  Frank  S 753 

Thompson,    Harvey    826 

Treadwell,  David    754 

Tripp,    Talman    821 

Turner,  William   813 

Venneberg,    Martin    79s 

Wallberg,    Edmund    781 

Wallender,    J 835 

Walsh,    John    810 

Wapato,   John    743 

Wapato,  John  B 758 

Warner,  William  J 818 

Webb,  Richard  P 785 

Wentworth,  Harry  W 756 

Weythman.  James  L 783 

Wheeler,    Peter    771 

Wilson,  David  C 836 

Wilson,  George   787 

Wilson.  Melvin  P 803 

Wolf,  Daniel  C 780 

Wright,  Leroy   799 



Blair,  George   816 

Blair,    William    816 

Clayton,  Albert  P 768 

'  Cottrell,   George   E 75^ 

Farwell,  George  H 816 

Field,  Merritt  E 808 

Freer,   Ira   800 

Freer,  Mrs.  Ira  800 

Gray,  George  H 752 


Gray,  Mrs.  George  H 752 

Harlin,  Charles  A 816 

Haskell,  Charles  F.  B 832 

Holden,   John    800 

Larrabee,  Julius  A 792 

Leonard,  Dike    S20 

MacLean,  Lauchlin  741 

McFarland,    J 800 

McFarland,    Mrs.   J 800 


Miller,  Philip   828 

Miller,    Samuel    784 

Morris,    Enoch    784 

Morris,  Mrs.  Enoch  784 

Morris,  Enoch  F 784 

Morris,   Mrs.   Enoch   F 784 

Northup,   Charles    _. 752 

Richardson,    George   T 800 

Rowse,   George  L 824 

Schindler,   Charles   A 800 








Few  students  of  history  ha\-e  failed  to  ob- 
serve the  immediate  impetus  given  to  maritime 
exploration  by  the  royally  proclaimed  exploit 
of  Columbus  in  1492.  Only  nine  years  after  the 
caravels  of  the  Italian  navigator  had  dropped 
anchor  in  American  waters,  off  San  Salvador, 
a  Portugese  sailor,  Caspar  Cortereal,  was  cau- 
tiously feeling  his  way  along  the  Atlantic  coast. 
This  was  in  the  summer  of  1501.  This  voyage 
of  Cortereal  reached  as  high,  on  the  Atlantic 
mainland  of  North  America,  as  42  degrees 
north.  Certain  historians  have  claimed  that  the 
explorations  of  Cortereal  really  antedated  the 
discovery  of  Columbus.  But  of  this  there  is  no 
authentic  evidence ;  there  is  an  accumulation  of 
testimony  to  the  contrary.  By  eminent  cosmo- 
graphists  the  }ear  1501  is  now  accepted  as  the 
period  of  Cortereal's  exploits  on  the  coast  of 
the  Atlantic,  in  the  vicinity  of  modern  New 
England.  This  expedition  of  two  caravels  had 
been  sent  out  l)y  Manuel,  King  of  Portugal. 
There  is  no  proof  that  this  voyage  had  any 
other  object,  at  least  any  other  result,  than 
profit.  Seizing  fifty  Indians  he  carried  them 
away,  on  his  return,  and  sold  them  as  slaves. 

As  Cortereal  was  among  the  earliest  on  the 
Atlantic  seaboard,  so  Juan  Rodriguez  Cabrillo, 
or  Cabrilla,  as  the  name  is  variously  spelled, 
is  admitted  to  have  been  the  earliest  navigator. 

along-  southern  California.  It  was  evidently 
the  intention  of  Cabrillo,  to  continue  his  voyage 
far  higher  on  the  Northwest  Coast,  for  he,  too, 
had  heard  of  the  mysterious  "Strait  of  Anian," 
and  was  enthused  with  most  laudable  geograph- 
ical ambition.  But  fate  ruled  otherwise.  Ca- 
brillo died  in  the  harbor  of  San  Diego,  Cali- 
fornia, in  January,  1543,  fifty-one  years  after 
the  momentous  achievement  of  Columbus  on 
the  southeastern  shores  of  the  present  United 
States.  The  mantle  of  Cabrillo  fell  upon  the 
shoidders  of  his  pilot,  Bartolome  Ferrelo.  To 
within  two  and  one-half  degrees  of  the  mouth 
of  the  Columbia  river  Ferrelo  continued  the 
exploration,  tracing  the  western  coast  of  the 
American  continent  along  this  portion  of  the 
Pacific,  and  to  Ferrelo  has  been  accredited  the 
honor  of  having  been  the  first  white  man  to 
gaze  upon  the  coast  of  Oregon. 

But  back  of  that  dimly  outlined  shore  which 
Ferrelo  skirted,  above  latitude  42  degrees,  far 
inland,  lay  the  immense,  wonderful  territory 
which  afterward  became  Oregon.  It  is  not 
susceptible  of  proof  that  Ferrelo  ever  gained 
north  of  the  present  Astoria,  although  this 
claim  was  at  one  period  urged  by  Spain.  But 
a  country  which  could  solemnly  lay  claim  to  the 
whole  Pacific  ocean  would  not  be  at  all  back- 
ward in  declaring  that  one  of  her  navigators 


was  tlie  first  to  sight  the  Northwest  Coast,  and 
that,  too,  far  above  the  point  really  gained  by 
Ferrelo.  It  is  not  considered  likely  that  he 
reached  above  the  mouth  of  Umpqua  river. 

In  1577  Francis  Drake,  ai  privateer  and 
freebooter,  a  pirate  and  plunderer  of  Spanish 
galleons,  yet  withal  a  man  of  strong  character 
and  enterprising  spirit,  attempted  to  find  a 
northwest  passage.  Drake  probably  reached 
as  high  as  latitude  43  degrees,  and  dropped  his 
anchors  into  the  shoals  of  that  region.  No  in- 
land explorations  were  achieved  by  him,  and 
he  reluctantly  abandoned  the  search  for  Anian, 
returned  to  Drake's  Bay,  on  the  coast  of  Cali- 
fornia, and  subsequently  to  England  around  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope.  En  passant  it  is  notice- 
able that  during  the  famous  Oregon  Contro- 
versy, which  obtained  ascendancy  in  interna- 
tional politics  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  later, 
the  discoveries  of  Drake  were  not  presented  by 
England  in  support  of  her  claims  for  all  terri- 
tory north  of  the  Columbia  river.  Whether 
Great  Britain  was  doubtful  of  the  validity  of 
discoveries  made  by  a  freebooter,  or  attached  no 
importance  to  his  achievement,  the  fact  remains 
that  they  were  not  urged  with  any  force  or  en- 

Cabrillo  and  Ferrelo  were  not  emulated  in 
maritime  discoveries  in  the  waters  of  the 
Northwest  Coast,  until  1550.  But  on  the 
shore-line  of  the  Atlantic,  Cartier,  for  six  years, 
between  1536  and  1542,  had  made  a  number  of 
inland  voyages,  ascending  the  St.  Lawrence 
Gulf  and  river  five  hundred  miles,  past  the  site 
of  Montreal  and  to  the  falls  of  St.  Louis.  In 
the  far  south  Hernando  De  Soto,  contemporary 
with  Cartier,  had  sailed  coastwise  along  the 
Florida  peninsula  and  penetrated  that  tropical 
country  until  forced  back  by  swamps,  morasses 
and  everglades.  Inland  exploration  in  the  mid- 
dle of  the  sixteenth  century  comprised,  prac- 
tically, in  its  northern  limitations,  a  line  cross- 
ing the  continent  a  few  miles  below  the  36th 
parallel,  from  the  Colorado  to  the  Savannahs, 
Coronado  advancing  into  the  modern  Kansas, 

having  passed  the  line  at  its  central  part.  The 
Pacific  had  been  explored  sufficiently  only  to 
barely  show  the  shore-line  to  the  44th  degree  of 
north  latitude. 

In  the  way  of  northern  exploration  on  the 
Pacific  coast  Spain  had,  in  1550,  accomplished 
little  or  nothing.  But  fifteen  years  afterward 
Spain  became  aggressive  along  the  lines  of  mar- 
itime activity.  Urdaneta,  in  1565,  planned  and 
executed  the  initial  voyage  eastward,  opening 
a  northern  route  to  the  Pacific  coast  of  North 
America.  '  He  was  followed,  from  the  Philip- 
pines, by  Manila  traders,  eager  for  gain,  and 
for  two  centuries  thereafter,  through  the  rise 
and  decline  of  Spanish  commercial  supremacy, 
these  active  and  energetic  sailors  reaped  large 
rewards  from  the  costly  furs  found  in  the 
waters  of  the  Northwest  Coast.  It  is  fair  to 
say  that  the  spirit  of  commercialism  contributed 
far  more  toward  development  of  the  region 
of  which  this  history  treats  than  did  the  more 
sentimental  efforts  of  geographical  science. 

Still,  the  latter  spirit  was  not  without  its 
apostles  and  propagandists.  Among  them  was 
one  who  called  himself  Juan  de  Fuca,  a  Greek 
of  Cephalonia.  His  real  name  was  Apostolos 
Valerianos.  Acting,  as  had  Columbus,  under 
royal  commission  from  the  King  of  Spain,  he 
sailed  bravely  away  to  find  the  legendary  Strait 
of  Anian — the  marine  pathway  between  the 
greatest  oceans  of  the  world.  The  name  of 
Anian,  a  mythical  northwestern  kingdom,  orig- 
inated in  1500,  and  is  said  to  have  been  taken  in 
I  honor  of  a  brother  of  Cortereal.  The  real  strait 
was  discovered  by  Russians  in  1750.  These 
Russians  were  fur-hunting  Cossacks,  who 
reached  the  Pacific  coast  of  North  America  in 
1639.  Their  point  of  rendezvous  was  at 
Okhotsk,  on  the  sea  of  that  name. 

Though  the  voyage  of  Juan  de  Fuca  proved 
fruitless  it  must  be  conceded  that  it  was  con- 
ceived in  the  interest  of  science ;  a  move  in  be- 
half of  international  economics,  and  honorable 
alike  to  both  Spain  and  the  intrepid  navigator. 
In  1584  Francisco  de  Gali  reached  the  Pacific 


coast,  from  the  west,  in  37  degrees  30  minutes ; 
some  say  57  degrees  30  minutes.  He  was  con- 
tent to  sail  southward  without  landing,  but 
recorded  for  the  archives  of  Spain  the  trend 
and  shore-line  of  the  coast.  By  the  same  route 
Cermenon,  in  1595,  met  with  disaster  by  losing 
his  vessel  in  Drake's  Bay,  a  short  distance 
above  the  present  city  of  San  Francisco. 
Prominent  among  numerous  other  voyagers, 
mainly  bent  on  profit,  were  Espejo,  Perea, 
Lopez  and  Captain  Vaca. 

As  has  been  stated,  the  earliest  explorations 
of  the  Northwest  Coast  were  maritime.  They 
were,  also,  in  the  main,  confined  between  lati- 
tudes 42  degrees  and  54  degrees,  mainly  south 
of  the  boundary  line  finally  accepted  by  Great 
Britain  as  between  Canada  and  the  United 
States.  Even  in  that  twilight  preceding  the 
broad  day  of  inland  discovery,  there  were  wars 
between  nations,  with  "Oregon"  the  issue,  and 
some  compromises.  Later  came  the  advance 
guard  of  inland  explorers  who  found,  at  the 
occidental  terminus  of  their  perilous  journeys, 
a  comparatively  unknown  seaboard  750  miles 
in  extent,  below  the  vast  reaches  of  Alaskan 
territory  and  the  Aleutian  Islands.  From  the 
far  north  came  Russian  explorers,  and  they  en- 
countered Southern  navigators  who  had  come 
upward  from  the  ambrosial  tropics.  They  com- 
pared notes,  they  detailed  to  each  other  many 
facts,  intermixed  with  voluminous  fiction,  but 
from  the  whole  was  picked  out  and  arranged 
much  of  geographical  certainty.  Four  nations 
of  Pacific  navigators  came  to  what  afterward 
was  known  as  Oregon,  related  their  adventures, 
boasted  of  the  discoveries  each  had  made,  dis- 
cussed the  probability  of  a  northwest  passage, 
the  "Strait  of  Anian," — and  the  Northwest 
Mystery  remained  a  myster\f  still. 

The  Spaniards,  between  1492  and  1550. 
were  in  the  lead  so  far  as  concerns  actual  geo- 
graphical results,  of  all  other  European  sailors. 
Spain,  through  the  agency  of  the  Italian,  Col- 
umbus, had  discovered  a  new  world  :  Spain  had 
meandered  the  coast-line  for  30,000  miles,  from 

60  degrees  on  the  Atlantis  coast  of  Labrador, 
round  by  JMagellan  Strait,  to  40  degrees  on  the 
coast  of  the  Pacific.  Vast  were  the  possibilities 
of  the  future  for  Spain,  and  the  world  did 
honor  to  her  unequalled  achievement.  From  a 
broad,  humanitarian  view  point,  it  is  a  sad 
reflection  that  so  many  of  the  golden  promises 
held  out  to  her  should  have,  in  subsequent  cen- 
turies, faded  away  as  fades  the  elusive  rainbow 
against  the  storm-cloud  background.  But 
Spain's  misfortune  became  North  America's 
opportunity.  England,  too,  and  Russia, 
watched  and  waited,  seized  and  assimilated  so 
ra*pidly  as  possible,  piece  by  piece  the  territory 
on  which  the  feet  of  Spanish  explorers  had  been 
first  planted.  That  it  was  the  survival  of  the 
fittest  may,  possibly,  remain  unquestioned,  but 
it  is  a  fact  that  Spain's  gradual  yet  certain  loss 
of  the  most  valuable  territory  in  the  world  has 
furnished  many  of  the  most  stirring  episodes 
in  the  world's  history.  Spain  has  lost,  sold, 
ceded  and  relinquished  vast  domains  to  nearly 
all  the  modern  powers.  And  not  the  least  valu- 
able of  Spain's  former  possessions  are  now 
under  the  Stars  and  Stripes. 

Thus  far  has  been  hastily  sketched  the 
salient  facts  concerning  the  earliest  maritime 
discoveries  of  the  Northwest  Coast.  None  of 
the  Spanish,  English,  Russian  or  Italian  navi- 
gators had  penetrated  inland  farther  than  a  few 
miles  up  the  estuary  of  the  Columbia  river.  It 
was  destined  to  remain  for  a  class  of  explorers 
other  than  maritime,  yet  equally  courageous 
and  enterprising,  to  blaze  the  trail  for  future 
pioneers  from  the  east. 

To  Alexander  Mackenzie,  a  native  of  In- 
verness, knighted  by  George  III,  is  accredited 
the  honor  of  being  the  first  European  to  force 
a  passage  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  north  of 
California.  On  June  3,  1789.  Mackenzie  left 
Fort  Chipewyan,  situated  at  the  western  point 
of  Athabasca  lake,  in  two  canoes.  He  was  ac- 
companied by  a  German,  four  Canadians,  two 
of  them  with  wives,  an  Indian,  named  English 
Chief,  and  M.  Le  Roux,  the  latter  in  the  capac- 


ity  of  clerk  and  supercargo  of  the  expedition. 
The  route  of  this  adventurous  party  was  by  the 
way  of  Slave  river  and  Slave  lake,  thence  down 
a  stream  subsequently  named  the  Mackenzie 
river,  on  to  the  Arctic  Ocean,  striking  the  coast 
at  latitude  52  degrees,  24  minutes,  48  seconds. 
This  territory  is  all  within  the  present  boundar- 
ies of  British  Columbia,  north  of  the  line  finally 
accepted  as  the  northern  boundary  of  "Oregon" 
by  the  English  diplomats. 

Singular  as  it  may  appear  there  is  no 
authentic  history  of  the  origin  of  this  term 
"Oregon."  There  is,  however,  cumulative 
testimony  to  the  effect  that  the  name  was  in- 
vented by  Jonathan  Carver,  who  pushed  his  in- 
land explorations  beyond  the  headwaters  of  the 
Mississippi  river;  that  the  name  was  exploited 
and  made  famous  by  William  Cullen  Bryant, 
'author  of  "Thanatopsis,"  and  late  editor  of  the 
Nezv  York  Evening  Post;  that  it  was  fastened 
upon  the  Columbia  river  territory,  originally 
by  Hall  J.  Kelley,  through  his  memorials  to 
congress  in  181 7,  and  secondly  by  various  other 
English  and  American  authors.  Aside  from 
this  explanation  are  numerous  theories  adduc- 
ing Spanish  derivatives  of  rather  ambiguous 
context,  but  lacking  lucidity  or  force.  It  is 
likely  that  no  more  etymological  radiance 
will  ever  be  thrown  upon  what,  after  all,  is  a 
rather  unimportant,  though  often  mooted 

The  expedition  of  Mackenzie,  crowned  with 
results  most  valuable  to  science  and  territorial 
development,  comprised  one  hundred  and  two 
days.  At  the  point  he  first  made,  on  the  Pacific 
coast  the  explorer  executed,  with  vermillion 
and  grease,  a  rude  sign  bearing  the  following- 
inscription  :  "Alexander  Mackenzie,  from  Can- 
ada by  land,  July  22,  1793."  Subsequent  ex- 
peditions were  made  by  Mackenzie  to  the  coast, 
one  of  them  via  the  Peace  river. 

But  now  comes  one  M.  Le  Page  du  Pratz, 
a  talented  and  scholarlv  French  savant,  with 

the  statement  made  se^•eral  years  ago,  that 
neither  Mackenzie  nor  Lewis  and  Clarke  were 
the  first  to  cross  the  Rockies  and  gain  the 
Northwest  Coast.  Our  French  student  claims 
to  have  discovered  a  Natchez  Indian,  being  of 
the  tribe  of  the  Yahoos,  called  LTnterprete,  on 
account  of  the  various  languages  he  had  ac- 
quired, but  named  by  his  own  people  Moncacht 
Ape,  "He  Who  Kills  Trouble  and  Fatigue." 
M.  Le  Page  declares  that  this  man,  actuated 
mainly  by  curiosity,  a  stimulant  underlying  all 
advancement,  unassisted  and  unattended,  trav- 
eled from  the  Mississippi  river  to  the  Pacific 
coast  so  early  as  1743.  This  was  sixty  years 
before  President  Jefferson  dispatched  Captains 
Lewis  and  Clarke  on  their  governmental  expe- 
dition, the  results  of  which  have  proved  so  im- 
portant and  momentuous  in  the  history  of  the 
development  of  Oregon  and  Washington. 
Moncacht  Ape,  it  is  claimed,  met  many  tribes 
of  Indians,  made  friends  with  all  of  them,  ac- 
quired portions  of  complex  dialects,  gained  as- 
sistance and  information  and,  eventually  gazed 
upon  the  same  waters  upon  which  Balboa  had 
fixed  his  eyes  with  enthusiasm,  many  hundreds 
of  miles  to  the  south. 

It  can  not  be  denied  that  hardly  has  a  great 
discovery  been  heralded  to  the  world  ere  some 
rival  genius  springs  up  to  claim  it.  Possibly 
it  is  this  spirit  which  may  have  actuated  M.  Le 
Page  in  producing  the  somewhat  mysterious 
Moncacht  Ape,  to  pose  as  the  pioneer  of  North- 
western exploration.  But  we,  of  to-day,  are  in 
no  position  to  combat  his  claims,  reserving  to 
ourselves  the  undeniable  fact  that  Mackenzie, 
Lewis  and  Clarke  were-  the  first  white  men  to 
gain,  overland,  the  Northwest  Coast. 

From  1500  to  1803  this  greatly  abridged 
foreword  has  traced  northwestern  discoveries. 
We  now  enter  upon  a  brief  description  of  the 
glorious  achievements  of  Lewis  and  Clarke  in 
that  portion  of  their  journey  so  fruitful  with 
results  to  Washington  and  Oregon. 

CHAPTER    11. 


Eleven  years  before  the  departure  of  Lewis 
and  Clarke,  on  their  expedition  to  the  North- 
west, President  Jefferson  in  1792,  proposed  a 
plan  to  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  in- 
volving a  subscription  for  the  purpose  of  em- 
ploying a  competent  person  who  should  pro- 
ceed by  land  to  the  Northwest  Coast.  It  is  at 
this  period  that  Captain  Meriwether  Lewis 
emerges  from  the  obscurity  of  his  military  post 
at  Charlotteville.  Virginia.  It  had  been  ar- 
ranged that  M.  Michaux,  a  French  botanist, 
should  become  the  companion  of  Captain 
Lewis.  These  two  had  proceeded  on  their 
journey  so  far  as  Kentucky,  at  that  time  one 
of  the  western  states,  when  an  end  was  put  to 
this  initial  enterprise  by  the  French  minister, 
who  suddenly  discovered  that  he  had  use  for 
.the  botaracal  abilities  of  M.  Michaux  else- 
where.    The  later  was  recalled. 

But  this  plan,  which  had  grown  in  devel- 
opment of  detail  since  its  inception,  was  not 
abandoned  by  Jefferson.  In  1803,  on  the  eve 
of  expiration  of  the  act  for  the  establishment 
of  trading  posts  among  Indians,  the  president 
again  brought  forward  the  scheme  which  he 
had  first  proposed  to  the  American  Philosophi- 
cal Society.  The  object  sought  was  to  trace 
the  Missouri  river  to  its  source,  cross  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  and  gain  tlie  Pacific  Ocean. 
This  was  most  satisfactorily  accomplished,  and 
because  this  expedition  first  sighted  the  Pacific 
in  latitude  46  degrees,  19  minutes  11.7  seconds, 
it  becomes  an  important  factor,  within  the  ter- 
ritorial limits  of  this  history.  Tlie  confidential 
message,  transmitted  by  President  Jefferson  to 
congress,  in  January.  1803,  had  been  favorably 
received,  and  results  were  far  beyond  his  most 

sanguine  expectations.  Not  only  had  the  orig- 
inal plan  been  fully  approx'ed,  but  it  was  consid- 
erably amplified  in  its  details,  and  Captain 
Lewis  had  been  given  as  a  companion,  William 
Clarke,  brother  of  General  George  Rogers 
Clarke.  To  Captain  Lewis,  to  whom  was 
given  full  command  of  the  expedition,  instruc- 
tions were  imparted  concerning  the  route,  va- 
rious objects  to  which  inquiries  should  be 
directed,  relating  to  geography,  character  of 
the  country  traversed,  the  different  inhabitants, 
biology,  and  such  other  scientific  information 
as  it  was  possible  to  obtain. 

Coincident  with  this  momentous  under- 
taking another,  and  equally  important  negotia- 
tion was  being  carried  to  a  successful  conclu- 
sion. This  was  the  Louisiana  Purchase  from 
Napoleon  Bonaparte,  by  which  the  United 
States  acquired  title  to  a  domain  whose  extent 
and  topographical  location  made  that  other 
territory  to  which  Lewis  and  Clarke  were  en 
route,  "Oregon,"  an  almost  absolute  necessity. 
Louisiana,  at  that  period  extending  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Mississippi  river  to  the,'  then, 
indefinite  boundaries  on  the  north  of  Montana 
and  the  Dakotas,  had  been  recently  ceded  by 
Spain  to  France.  The  latter  power,  by  a  treaty 
involving  the  payment  to  Napoleon  of 
$15,000,000,  ceded  it  to  the  LTnited  States. 

Following  the  return  of  the  Lewis  and 
Clarke  expedition,  a  donation  of  land  was  made 
by  congress  to  the  members  of  the  party.  This 
was  in  1807.  Captain  Lewis  was  appointed 
governor  of  our  newly  acquired  territory  of 
"Louisiana,"  and  Clarke  was  made  agent  of 
Indian  affairs.  But  while  on  his  way  to  Phila- 
delphia, to  supervise    the    publication    of    his 


journal,  in  1807.    Captain  Lewis  was  stricken 
with  death. 

That  portion  of  Lewis  and  Clarke's  expe- 
dition with  which  this  history  concerns  itself 
relates  chiefly  to  the  achievements  of  these  in- 
trepid captains  after  they  had  entered  the  terri- 
tory known  as  "Oregon,"  and  from  which  the 
states  of  Oregon,  Washington  and  Idaho  were 
carved :  And  what  was  this  territory,  at  that 
period  a  terra  incognita?  Major  Joshua 
Pitcher,  early  in  1800  contributes  the  following 
brief  descripition : 

The  form  or  configuration  of  the  coinitry  is  the 
most  perfect  and  admirable  which  the  imagination  can 
conceive.  All  its  outlines  are  distinctly  marked ;  all  its 
interior  is  connected  together.  Frozen  regions  on  the 
north,  the  ocean  and  its  mountainous  coast  to  the  west, 
the  Rocky  Mountains  to  the  east,  sandy  and  desert 
plains  to  the  south— such  are  its  boundaries.  Within 
the  whole  country  is  watered  by  the  streams  of  a  single 
river,  issuing  from  the  north,  east  and  south,  uniting 
in  the  region  of  tidewater,  and  communicating  with  the 
sea  by  a  single  outlet.  Such  a  country  is  formed  for 
defense,  and  whatever  power  gets  possession  of  it  will 
probably  be  able  to  keep  it. 

This  was  published  in  Volume  I,  No.  39, 
senate  documents.  Twenty-first  Congress,  sec- 
ond session.  A  more  extended  description  is 
sketched  later  by  Mr.  Parker,  who  says : 

Beyond  the  Rocky  Mountains  nature  appears  to 
have  studied  variety  on  the  largest  scale.  Towering 
mountains  and  wide-extended  prairies,  rich  valleys  and 
barren  plains,  and  large  rivers,  with  their  rapids,  cata- 
racts and  falls,  present  a  great  variety  of  prospects. 
The  whole  country  is  so  mountainous  that  there  is  no 
elevation  from  which  a  person  can  not  see  some  of  the 
immense  range  which  intersect  its  various  parts. 
From  an  elevation  a  short  distance  from  Fort  Van- 
couver, five  isolated,  conical  mountains,  from  ten  to 
fifteen  thousand  feet  high,  whose  tops  are  covered  with 
perpetual  snow,  may  be  seen  rising  in  the  surrounding 
valley.  There  are  three  general  ranges  west  of  the 
Rocky  chain  of  mountains,  running  in  northern  and 
southern  directions;  the  first  above  the  falls  of  the 
Columbia  river ;  the  second  at  and  below  the  Cascades ; 
the  third  toward  and  along  the  shores  of  the  Pacific. 
From  each  of  these  branches  extend  in  different  direc- 
tions. Besides  these  there  are  those  in  different  parts 
which  are  large  and  high,  such  as  the  Blue  Mountains, 
south   of  Walla  Walla;   the   Salmon  River   Mountains, 

between  Sahnon  and  Kooskooskie  rivers,  and  also  in 
the  region  of  Okanogan  and  Colville.  The  loftiest  peaks 
of  the  Rocky  Mountains  have  been  found  in  about  52 
degrees  north  latitude,  where  Mr.  Thompson,  astrono- 
mer of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  has  ascertained  the 
heights  of  several.  One,  called  Mount  Brown,  he  esti- 
mates at  sixteen  thousand  feet  above  the  level  of  the 
sea ;  another,  Mt.  Hooker,  at  fifteen  thousand  seven  hun- 
dred feet.  It  has  been  stated,  farther  (though  probably 
with  some  exaggeration)  that  he  discovered  other  points 
farther  north  of  an  elevation  ten  thousand  feet  higher 
than  these.  Between  these  mountains  are  widespread 
valleys  and  plains.  The  largest  and  most  fertile  valley  is 
included  between  Deer  Island  in  the  west,  to  within 
twelve  miles  of  the  Cascades,  which  is  about  fifty-five 
miles  wide,  and  extending  north  and  south  to  a  greater 
extent  than  I  had  the  means  of  definitely  ascertaining: 
probably  from  Puget  Sound  on  the  north,  to  the 
Umpqua   river  on  the  south. 

The  Willamette  river,  and  a  section  of  the  Colum- 
bia, are  included  in  this  valley.  The  valley  south  of 
the  Walla  Walla,  called  the  Grand  Rond,  is  said  to  ex- 
cel in  fertility.  To  these  may  be  added  Pierre's  Hole,  and 
the  adjacent  country;  also  Recueil  Amere,  east  of  the 
Salmon  River  Mountains.  Others  of  less  magnitude 
are  dispersed  over  different  parts.  To  these  may  be 
subjoined  extensive  plains,  most  of  which  are  prairies 
well  covered  with  grass.  The  whole  region  of  country 
west  of  the  Salmon  River  I\Iountains,  the  Spokane 
woods  and  Okanogan,  quite  to  the  range  of  mountains 
that  cross  the  Columbia  at  the  Falls,  is  a  vast  prairie 
covered  with  grass,  and  the  soil  is  generally  good. 
Another  large  plain  which  is  said  to  be  very  barren, 
lies  off  to  the  southward  of  Lewis,  or  Malheur  river, 
including  the  Shoshone  country;  and  travelers  who  have 
passed  through  this  have  pronounced  the  interior  of 
America  a  great,  barren  desert,  but  this  is  drawing  a 
conclusion  far  too  broad  from  premis  s  so  limited. 

Aside  from  Captains  Lewis  and  Clarke,  the 
party  of  exploration  consisted  of  nine  young 
men  from  Kentucky,  fourteen  United  States 
soldiers,  who  had  volunteered  their  services, 
two  French  watermen  (an  interpreter  and 
hunter),  and  a  black  servant,  employed  by 
Captain  Clarke.  Before  the  close  of  1803.  prep- 
arations for  the  voyage  were  all  completed,  and 
the  party  wintered  at  the  mouth  of  Wood  river, 
on  the  east  bank  of  the  Mississippi. 

The  start  was  on  May  4,  1804,  and  the  first 
reach  made  on  the  sixteenth,  was  twenty-one 
miles  up  the  Missouri.  Of  the  many  surpris- 
ing ad\entures  encountered  in  ascending  this 
ri\er  to  Fort  Benton,  it  is  not  the  province  of 


this  history  to  recount.  It  was  toward  the 
Northwest  Coast  that  their  faces  were  set,  and 
the  advent  of  these  -pioneers  into  the  future 
"Oregon"  becomes  of  material  interest  to 
present  residents  of  this  section. 

August  1 8,  1805,  fourteen  months  from  the 
departure  of  this  expedition,  it  had  reached  the 
extreme  navigable  point  of  the  Missouri  river, 
stated  in  Captain  Lewis'  journal,  to  be  in  lati- 
tude 43  degrees,  30  minutes,  43  seconds  north. 
The  party  was  now,  for  a  certain  distance,  to 
proceed  by  land  with  pack  horses.  Tribe  after 
tribe  of  strange  Indians  were  encountered,  a 
majority  of  whom  met  the  explorers  on  friendly 
terms.  The  party  endured  hardships  innum- 
erable; game  was  scarce  in  certain  localities, 
and  at  times  the  weather  was  inclement.  They 
forded  unknown  streams,  and  christened  many, 
Lewis  river,  Clarke's  Fork,  and  others. 

Particular  inquiries  were  made  regarding 
the  topography  of  the  country  and  the  possibil- 
ity of  soon  reaching  a  navigable  stream.  In 
answer  to  such  questions  an  ancient  chief,  who, 
it  was  claimed,  knew  more  concerning  the 
geography  of  this  section  of  the  northwest  than 
any  one  else,  drew  rude  delineations  of  the  vari- 
ous rivers  on  the  ground.  It  soon  developed 
that  he  knew  little  about  them.  But  some 
vague  information  was  gained  sufficient  to 
show  that  the  different  streams  converged  in 
one  vast  river,  the  Columbia,  running  a  great 
way  toward  the  "setting  sun,  and  at  length  los- 
ing itself  in  a  great  lake  of  water,  which  was  ill- 
tasted  and  where  the  white  men  lived."  Still 
another  route  was  suggested,  an  analysis  of 
which  convinced  Captain  Clarke  that  the  rivers 
mentioned  debouched  into  the  Gulf  of  Cali- 
fornia. He  then  inquired  concerning  the  route 
used  by  the  Pierced-nose  Indians  who,  living 
west  of  the  mountains,  crossed  over  to  the  Mis- 
souri. According  to  Captain  Lewis'  journal 
the  chief  replied,  in  effect,  that  the  route  was  a 
very  bad  one;  that  during  the  passage,  he  had 
been  told,  they  suffered  excessively  from  hun- 
ger, being  obliged  to  subsist  for  many  days  on 

berries  alone,  there  being  no  game  in  that  part 
of  the  mountains,  which  was  broken  and  rocky, 
and  so  thickly  covered  with  timber  that  they 
could  scarcely  pass. 

Difficulties,  also,  surrounded  all  routes,  and 
this  one  appeared  as  practicable  as  any  other. 
It  was  reasoned  that  if  Indians  could  pass  the 
mountains  with  their  women  and  children,  no 
difficulties  which  they  could  overcome  would 
be  formidable  to  the  explorers.  Lewis  sets 
down  in  his  journal:  "If  the  tribes  below  the 
mountains  were  as  numerous  as  they  were  rep- 
resented to  be,  they  would  have  some  means  of 
subsistance  equally  within  our  power.  They 
had  told  us,  indeed,  that  the  natives  to  the 
westward  subsisted  principally  on  fish  and 
roots,  and  that  their  only  game  was  a  few  elk, 
deer  and  antelope,  there  being  no  buffalo  west 
of  the  mountains." 

It  was  decided  by  Captain  Clarke  to  ascer- 
tain what  difficulty,  if  any,  would  be  encoun- 
tered in  descending  the  river  on  which  the 
party  was  then  encamped.  Continuing  down 
tlie  stream,  which  runs  nearly  northwest, 
through  low  grounds,  rich  and  wide,  they 
came  to  where  it  forked,  the  western  branch 
being  much  larger  than  the  eastern.  To  this 
stream,  or  rather  the  main  branch,  was  given 
the  name  of  Lewis  river.  The  party  followed 
it  until  confronted  by  insurmountable  ob- 
stacles ;  it  foamed  and  lashed  itself  through  a 
narrow  pass  flanked  by  the  loftiest  mountains 
Captain  Clarke  had  ever  seen.  The  Indians 
declared  that  it  was  impossible  to  descend  the 
river  or  scale  the  mountains,  snow-capped  and 
repellant.  They  had  never  been  lower  than  the 
head  of  the  gap  made  by  the  river  breaking 
through  the  range.  Captain  Clarke  decided  to 
abandon  the  route.  It  was  determined  to  pro- 
ceed on  their  course  by  land.  On  being  ques- 
tioned their  guide  drew  a  map  on  the  sand,  rep- 
resenting a  road  leading  toward  two  forks  of 
another  river,  where  lived  a  tribe  of  Indians 
called  Tushepaws.  These  people,  he  said,  fre- 
quently came  to  Lewis  river  to  fish  for  salmon. 


Through  the  broken,  hilly  country  through 
which  flow  the  tributaries  of  the  Columbia  the 
party  pressed  forward.  On  the  29th  Captain 
Clarke  and  his  men  joined  the  main  party, 
which  had  made  a  wide  detour  in  order  to  gain 
information  regarding  a  more  feasible  route. 
Although  August  was  not  yet  passed  the 
weather  was  quite  cold,  and  during  the  night 
ink  froze  in  the  pen  and  frost  covered  the 
meadows.  Yet  the  days  were  warm,  and  this 
atmospheric  condition  grew  more  pronounced 
as  they  drew  nearer  the  "Oregon"  climate. 

The  expedition  began  the  passage  across 
the  mountains  August  30,  1805.  Accompanied 
by  the  old  guide,  his  four  sons  and  another 
Indian,  the  party  began  the  descent  of  the 
Lemhi  river.  Three  days  later  all  the  Indians, 
save  the  old  gviide,  deserted  them.  There  being 
no  track  leading  across  the  mountains  it  became 
necessary  to  cut  their  way  through  the  dense 
underbrush.  Although  the  Indian  guide  ap- 
pears to  have  lost  his  way,  on  September  4, 
after  most  arduous  labor  in  forcing  a  passage 
through  the  almost  impenetrable  brush,  the 
party  came  upon  a  large  camp  of  Indians.  The 
following  day  a  "pow-wow"  was  held,  con- 
ducted in  many  languages,  the  various  dia- 
lects suggesting  a  modern  Babel,  but  it  proved 
sufficient  to  inform  the  Indians  of  the  main  ob- 
ject of  the  expedition.  These  Indians  were  the 
Ootlashoots,  a  band  of  the  Tushepaws,  on  their 
way  to  join  other  bands  in  hunting  buffalo  on 
Jefferson  river,  across  the  Great  Divide.  Part- 
ing from  them  the  toilsome  journey  was  re- 
sumed. The  party  was  seeking  a  pass  across 
the  Bitter  Root  mountains.  Game  disappeared. 
On  September  14  they  were  forced  to  kill  a  colt, 
their  stock  of  animal  food  being  exhausted. 
And  with  frequent  recurrence  to  the  use  of 
horseflesh  they  pressed  on  through  the  wilder- 
ness. An  extract  from  Captain  Clarke's  jour- 
nal of  September  18,  conveys  an  idea  of  the 
destitute  condition  of  his  party : 

We  melted  some  snow  and  supped  on  a  little  porta- 
ble soup,  a  few  cannisters  of  which,  with  about  twenty 

pounds'  weight  of  bear's  oil,  are  our  only  remaining 
means  of  subsistence.  Our  guns  are  scarcely  of  any 
service  for  there  is  no  living  creature  in  these  mountains 
except  a  few  small  pheasants,  a  small  species  of  gray 
squirrel,  and  a  blue  bird  of  the  vulture  kind,  about  the 
size  of  a  turtle  dove,  or  jay.  Even  these  are  difficult 
to  shoot. 

Arriving  at  a  bold,  running  stream  on  Sep- 
tember 19,  it  was  appropriately  named  "Hun- 
gry Creek,"  as  at  that  point  they  had  nothing  to 
eat.  On  September  20  the  party  passed  down 
the  last  of  the  Bitter  Root  range  and  gained  a 
comparatiA-ely  level  country.  Here  they  found 
another  band  of  strange  Indians,  people  who 
had  ne\-er  looked  upon  the  face  of  a  white  man. 
They  proved  hospitable  and  the  party  remained 
with  them  several  days.  The  Indians  called 
themselves  Chopunnish,  or  Pierced-noses,  the 
Xez  Perces  of  to-da}-.  The  expedition  was  now 
in  the  vicinity  of  Pierce  City,  at  one  period  the 
capital  of  Shoshone  county,  Idaho.  On  a  white 
elk  skin,  the  chief,  Twisted  Hair,  drew  a  chart 
of  the  country  to  the  west,  to  explain  the  geog- 
raphy and  topography  of  the  district  beyond. 
Captain  Clarke  translates  it  as  follows : 

"According  to  this  the  Kooskooskee  forks 
(confluence  of  its  north  fork)  a  few  miles  from 
this  place ;  two  days  toward  the  south  is  another 
and  larger  fork  (confluence  of  Snake  river),  on 
which  the  Shoshone  or  Snake  Indians  fish ;  five 
days'  journey  further  is  a  large  river  from  the 
northwest  (that  is,  the  Columbia  itself)  into 
which  Clarke's  river  empties;  from  the  mouth 
of  that  river  (that  is,  confluence  of  the  Snake 
with  the  Columbia)  to  the  falls  is  five  days' 
journey  further;  on  all  the  forks  as  well  as  on 
the  main  river  great  numbers  of  Indians  re- 

On  September  23  the  Indians  were  assem- 
bled, and  the  errand  of  the  party  across  the 
continent  explained.  The  talk  satisfied  the  sav- 
ages; they  sold  their  visitors  pro^•isions  for 
man  and  beast  and  parted  with  amity.  But 
immediate  progress  was  somewhat  delayed  by 
illness  of  different  members  of  the  party.  They 
were  nearly  famished  when  they  encountered 


the  Nez  Perces,  and  had  eaten  too  heartily  fol- 
lowing their  privations.  September  27  they 
camped  on  Kooskooskee  river  and  began  the 
building  of  canoes.  Gradually  the  health  of 
the  men  was  recruited,  and  the  early  days  of 
OctolDer  were  passed  in  making  preparations  to 
descend  the  river.  According  to  Lewis'  jour- 
nal the  latitude  of  this  camp  was  46  degrees 
34  minutes  56  seconds  north.  It  should  be  re- 
membered that  the  Kooskooskee  is  now  the 
Clearwater,  flowing  into  the  Snake  river  which, 
in  turn,  empties  into  the  Columbia.  October 
8  the  party  began  their  long  and  adventurous 
voyage  in  five  canoes,  one  of  which  served  as 
an  advance  pilot  boat,  the  course  of  the  stream 
being  unknown.  They  were  soon  assailed  by 
disaster,  one  of  the  canoes  striking  a  rock  and 
sinking.  The  river  was  found  to  be  full  of 
rocks,  reefs  and  rapids.  At  the  confluence  of 
the  Kooskooskee  and  Snake  rivers  a  night's 
camp  was  made,  near  the  present  Idaho  town  of 
Lewiston,  named  in  honor  of  the  commander 
of  this  expedition.  And  from  this  point  the 
party  crossed  over  into  the  territory  now 
bounded  by  the  limits  of  the  state  of  Washing- 
ton. Experience  in  this  camp  finds  the  fol- 
lowing expression  in  Lewis'  journal. 

Our  arrival  soon  attracted  the  attention  of  the  In- 
dians, who  flocked  from  all  directions  to  see  us.  In  the 
evening  the  Indian  from  the  falls,  whom  we  had  seen  at 
Rugged  Rapid,  joined  us  with  his  son  in  a  small  canoe, 
and  insisted  on  accompanpying  us  to  the  falls.  Being 
again  reduced  to  fish  and  roots,  we  made  an  experiment 
to  vary  our  food  by  purchasing  a  few  dogs,  and  after 
having  been  accumtomed  to  horse-flesh  felt  no  disrelish 
for  this  new  dish.  The  Chopunnish  have  great  numbers 
of  dogs,  which  they  employ  for  domestic  purposes,  but 
never  eat ;  and  our  using  the  flesh  of  that  animal  soon 
brought  us  into  ridicule  as  dog  eaters. 

On  October  11,  having  made  a  short  stage 
in  their  journey,  the  party  stopped  and  traded 
with  the  Indians,  securing  a  quantity  of  salmon 
and  se^'en  dogs.  They  were  now  on  the  Snake 
river  and  proceeding  rapidly  toward  the  Col- 
umbia, known  to  all  the  various  Indian  tribes 

in  "Oregon"  as  the  "Great  River."  Dangerous 
rapids  crowded  the  stream;  disasters  were  en- 
countered far  too  frequently  to  prove  assuring 
to  the  voyageurs.  October  14  another  canoe 
was  blown  upon  a  rock  sideways  and  narrowly 
escaped  being  lost.  Four  miles  above  the  point 
of  confluence  of  the  Snake  and  Columbia  rivers 
the  expedition  halted  and  conferred  with  the 
Indians.  During  the  evening  of  October  16 
they  were  visited  by  two  hundred  warriors  who 
tendered  them  a  barbaric  ovation,  comprising' 
a  procession  with  drums,  torches  and  vocal 
music  far  more  diabolical  than  classical.  Here 
seven  more  dogs  were  purchased,  together  with 
some  fish  and  "twenty  pounds  of  fat  dried 
horseflesh."  At  the  point  where  the  party  were 
then  stationed  the  counties  of  Franklin, 
Yakima  and  Walla  Walla  now  come  together; 
the  junction  of  the  Snake  and  Columbia  rivers. 
The  Indians  called  themselves  Sokulks. 

Habit  and  experience  necessarily  render  ex- 
plorers more  far-sighted  and  astute  than  the 
ordinary  citizen  of  civilized  habitat.  But  the 
prescience  of  the  former  is  by  no  means  in- 
fallible. Lewis  and  Clarke  were  now  about  to 
set  forth  upon  the  waters  of  the  mighty  Colum- 
bia, a  famous  stream  variously  known  as  "The 
River  of  the  North"  and  "The  Oregon;"  a 
great  commercial  artery  whose  convolutions 
were  subsequently  to  be  insisted  upon  by  Great 
Britain  as  the  northern  boundary  of  "Oregon" 
territory.  But  the  magnitude  of  this  stream 
and  its  future  importance  in  international  poli- 
tics were,  of  course,  unknown  to  Lewis  and 
Clarke.  These  explorers  had  no  knowledge  of 
the  "terminal  facilities"  of  this  stream  other 
than  that  contributed  by  the  legendary  lore  of 
Indians,  dim,  mythical,  and  altogether  theoreti- 
cal. And  with  this  absence  of  even  a  partial 
realization  of  the  great  significance  of  his  mis- 
sion Captain  Lewis  writes  in  his  journal  of  Oc- 
tober 17,  1805  : 

"In  the  course  of  the  day  Captain  Clarke, 
in  a  small  canoe,  with  two  men.  ascended  the 
Columbia.    At  a  distance  of  five  miles  he 


an  island  in  the  middle  of  the  river,  at  the  head 
of  which  was  a  small  but  dangerous  rapid." 

With  this  simple  introduction  to  the  most 
important  episode  of  his  journey  across  the  con- 
tinent Captain  Lewis  faced  the  Occident  that 
held  so  much  in  store  for  thousands  of  the 
future.  On  the  19th  the  voyageurs  began  to 
drift  down  the  Columbia.  Rapids  impeded 
their  course,  many  of  them  dangerous.  Short 
portages  were  made  around  the  more  difficult 
ones,  and  forty  miles  down  the  stream  they 
landed  among  a  tribe  known  as  the  Pishguit- 
pahs  who  were  engaged  in  drying  fish.  Here 
they  smoked  the  pipe  of  peace,  exchanged  pres- 
ents and  entertained  the  Indians  with  the  strains 
of  two  violins  played  by  Cruzatte  and  Gibson, 
members  of  the  exploring  party.  October  21 
they  arrived  at  the  confluence  of  a  considerable 
stream,  coming  into  the  Columbia  from  the  left, 
and  named  by  the  party  Lepage,  now  known  as 
John  Day's  river.  Six  years  later,  John  Day,  a 
Kentucky  Nimrod,  crossed  the  continent  on 
the  trail  blazed  by  Lewis  and  Clarke,  bound  for 
Astoria,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia.  From 
the  rapids  below  the  mouth  of  this  stream  the 
party  gained  their  first  view  of  Mount  Hood, 
prominent  in  the  Cascade  range,  looming  up 
from  the  southwest  eleven  thousand  two  hun- 
dred and  twenty-five  feet.  On  the  day  fol- 
lowing they  passed  a  stream  called  by  the  In- 
dians Towahnahiooks ;  to  modern  geographers 
known  as  the  Des  Chutes.  This  is  one  of  the 
largest  southern  tributaries  of  the  Columbia. 

Five  miles  below  the  mouth  of  this  stream 
the  party  camped.  Lewis  and  Clarke  had 
learned  from  the  Indins  of  the  "great  falls," 
and  toward  this  point  they  had  looked  with 
some  apprehension.  October  23  they  made  the 
descent  of  these  rapids,  the  height  of  which,  in 
a  distance  of  twelve  hundred  yards  is  thirty- 
seven  feet  eight  inches.  Around  the  first  fall, 
twenty-five  feet  high,  a  portage  was  made,  and 
below  the  canoes  were  led  down  by  lines.  At 
the  next  fall  of  the  Columbia  the  expedition 
camped,  among  the  Echeloots,  a  tribe  of  the 

Upper  Chinooks,  at  present  nearly  extinct. 
They  received  the  white  men  with  much  kind- 
ness, invited  them  to  their  huts  and  returned 
their  visits,  but  the  Echeloots  were  then  at  war 
with  another  tribe  and  at  all  times  anxious  con- 
cerning an  expected  attack  by  their  enemies. 
Following  a  long  talk  with  Lewis  and  Clarke, 
who  were  ever  ready  to  extend  their  good  offices 
toward  making  peace  between  hostile  tribes, 
the  Echeloots  agreed  to  drop  their  quarrel  with 
their  ancient  enemies.  Here,  too,  the  chiefs 
who  had  accompanied  the  expedition  from  the 
headwaters  of  the  streams,  bade  the  explorers 
farewell,  and  prepared  to  return  eastward.  Pur- 
chasing horses  of  the  Echeloots  they  went  home 
by  land. 

The  closing  days  of  October  were  passed 
in  descending  the  Columbia,  in  which  portion 
of  their  voyage  they  met  a  number  of  different 
tribes  of  Indians,  among  them  the  Chilluckitte- 
quaws,  from  whom  they  purchased  five  small 
dogs,  some  dried  berries  and  a  white  bread  or 
cake,  made  from  roots.  They  passed  a  small, 
rapid  stream  which  they  called  Cataract  river, 
now  known  as  the  Klickitat.  Going  thirty-two 
miles  farther  they  camped  on  the  right  bank  of 
a  river  in  what  is  now  Skamania  county,  Wash- 
ington, which  is  either  the  White  Salmon  or 
Little  White  Salmon.  On  the  last  day  of  Oc- 
tober Captain  Clarke  pushed  on  ahead  to  ex- 
amine the  next  of  the  more  difficult  rapids, 
known  as  "the  great  shoot."  This  obstacle  was 
conquered,  however,  although  not  without  a 
number  of  hair-breadth  escapes,  and  on  No- 
vember 2  the  party  were  below  the  last  of  all 
the  descents  of  the  Columbia.  At  this  point 
tidewater  commences  and  the  river  widens. 

From  tidewater  to  the  sea  the  passage  was 
enlivened  with  incidents  sufficient  to  quicken 
the  pulse  of  the  enthusiastic  explorers.  Near 
the  mouth  of  Sandy  river  they  met  a  party  of 
fifteen  Indians  who  had  recently  come  up  from 
the  mouth  of  the  Columbia.  By  them  they  were 
told  of  three  vessels  lying  at  anchor  below.  It 
was  certain   that   these   craft   must   be   either 


American  or  European,  and  the  explorers  could 
ill  conceal  their  unbounded  pleasure  and  antici- 
pation. A  group  of  islands  near  the  mouth  of 
the  Multnomah,  or  modernly,  Williamette,  had 
concealed  this  stream,  upon  which  is  now  situ- 
ated the  city  of  Portland,  from  view.  The  voy- 
ageurs  had  missed  this  important  river  en- 
tirely. Proceeding  westward  the  explorers 
obtained  their  first  sight  of  Mount  Ranier,  or 
Mount  Tacoma,  nine  thousand  seven  hundred 
and  fifty  feet  high.  Nearing  the  coast  the  party 
met  Indians  of  a  nature  widely  divergent  from 
any  whom  they  had  before  seen.  Captain  Lewis 

These  people  seem  to  be  of  a  different  nation  from 
those  we  have  just  passed;  thej'  are  low  in  stature,  ill- 
shaped,  and  all  have  their  heads  flattened.  They  call 
themselves  Wahkiacum,  and  their  language  differs  from 
that  of  the  tribes  above,  with  whom  they  trade  for 
wapatoo  roots.  The  houses  are  built  in  a  different  style, 
being  raised  entirely  above  ground,  with  the  eaves  about 
five  feet  high  and  the  door  at  the  corner.  *  *  *  The 
dress  of  the  men  is  like  that  of  the  people  above,  but  the 
women  are  clad  in  a  peculiar  manner,  the  robe  not 
reaching  lower  than  the  hip,  and  the  body  being  covered 
in  cold  weather  by  a  sort  of  corset  of  fur,  curiously 
plaited  and  reaching  from  the  arms  to  the  hip ;  added  to 
this  is  a  sort  of  petticoat,  or  rather  tissue  of  white  cedar 
bark,  bruised  or  broken  with  small  strands,  and  woven 
into  a  girdle  by  several  cords  of  the  same  material. 

These  Indians,  as  a  tribal  nation,  have  en- 
tirely disappeared,  but  their  name  is  perpetu- 
ated by  a  small  county  on  the  coast  of  Wash- 
ington, north  of  the  Bay  of  Columbia. 

Practically  the  Lewis  and  Clarke  expedition 
reached  the  end  of  its  perilous  trip  across  the 
continent  on  November  15,  1805.  Of  this 
achievement  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica 
says :  "They  had  traveled  upwards  of  four 
thousand  miles  from  their  starting  point,  had 
encountered  various  Indian  tribes  never  before 
seen  by  whites,  had  made  scientific  collections 
and  observations,  and  were  the  first  explorers 

to  reach  the  Pacific  coast  by  crossing  the  con- 
tinent north  of  Mexico."' 

The  closing  statement  of  this  article  par- 
tially ignores  the  expeditions  of  Sir  Alexander 
Mackenzie  who,  while  he  did  not  cross  the 
continent  from  a  point  as  far  east  as  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  made  a  journey,  in  1789,  from  Fort 
Chipewyan,  along  the  great  Slave  Lake,  and 
down  the  river  which  now  bears  his  name,  to 
the  "Frozen  Ocean,"  and  a  second  journey  in 
1792-3  from  the  same  initial  point,  up  the 
Peace  and  across  the  Columbia  rivers,  and 
thence  westward  to  the  coast  of  the  Pacific,  at 
Cape  Menzies,  opposite  Queen  Charlotte 
Island.  Only  to  this  extent  is  the  statement 
of  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  misleading, 
but  it  is  quite  evident  that  there  is  no  pro- 
nounced inclination  to  do  an  injustice  to  the 
memory  of  Mackenzie. 

The  Lewis  and  Clarge  party  passed  the 
following  winter  in  camp  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Columbia.  Before  the  holidays  Captain  Clarke 
carved  on  the  trunk  of  a  massive  pine  this 
simple  inscription : 


DECEMBER     3,     1805,     BY    L.\XD     FROM     THE    U. 
STATES  IN   1804  AND  5. 

During  the  return  of  the  expedition  the 
Clarke  division  came  down  the  Yellowstone, 
in  Montana.  On  a  mass  of  saffron  sandstone, 
an  acre  in  base,  and  four  hundred  feet  high, 
called  Pompey's  Pillar,  twenty  miles  above  the 
mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  river,  about  half  way 
up,  the  following  is  carved  : 


JULY  25,   1806. 

CHAPTER    m. 


The  strugggle  of  five  nations  for  possession 
of  "Oregon,"  a  domain  embracing  indefinite 
territory,  but  including  the  present  states  of 
Oregon,  Washington  and  Idaho,  and  a  portion 
of  British  Columbia,  ran  through  a  century  and 
a  half,  and  culminated  in  the  "Oregon  Contro- 
versy" between  England  and  the  United  States. 
Through  forty  years  of  diplomatic  sparring, 
advances,  retreats,  demands,  concessions  and 
unperfected  compromises  the  contest  was 
waged  between  the  two  remaining  champions 
of  the  cause,  the  United  States  and  Great  Brit- 
ain. British  parlimentary  leaders  came  and 
went;  federal  administrations  followed  each 
other  successsively,  and  each  in  turn  directed 
the  talents  of  its  able  secretaries  of  state  to  the 
vital  point  in  American  politics,  Oregon. 

The  question  became  all  important  and  far 
reaching.  It  involved,  at  different  periods,  all 
the  cunning  diplomacy  of  the  Hudson's  Bay 
Company,  backed  by  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
pounds  sterling;  it  brought  to  the  front  con- 
spicuously the  life  tragedy  of  a  humble  mis- 
sionary among  the  far  western  Indians,  Dr. 
Marcus  Whitman;  it  aroused  the  spirited  pa- 
triotism of  American  citizenship  from  Maine  to 
Astoria,  and  it  evoked  the  sanguinary  defi  from 
American  lips,  "Fifty-four  forty  or  fight." 

It  closed  with  a  compromise,  quickly,  yet 
effectually  consummated;  ratification  was  im- 
mediate, and  the  "Oregon  Controversy"  be- 
came as  a  tale  that  is  told,  and  from  a  live  and 
burning  issue  of  the  day  it  passed  quietly  into 
the  sequestered  nook  of  American  history. 

To  obtain  a  fairly  comprehensive  view  of 
this  question  it  becomes  necessary  to  hark 
back  to  1697,  the  year  of  the  Treaty  of  Rys- 

wick,   when    Spain   claimed,   as   her   share   of 
Xorth  America,  as  stated  by  William  Barrows  : 

On  the  Atlantic  coast  from  Cape  Romaine  on  the 
Carolina  shore,  a  few  miles  north  of  Charleston,  due 
west  to  the  Mississippi  river,  and  all  south  of  that  line 
to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  That  line  continued  beyond 
the  Mississippi  makes  the  northern  boundary  of  Louis- 
iana. In  the  valley  of  the  lower  Mississippi  Spain 
acknowledged  no  rival,  though  France  was  then  be- 
ginning to  intrude.  On  the  basis  of  discovery  by  the 
heroic  De  Soto  and  others,  she  claimed  up  to  the  head 
of  the  Arkansas  and  the  present  famous  Leadville,  and 
westward  to  the  Pacific.  On  that  ocean,  or  the  South 
Sea,  as  it  was  then  called,  she  set  up  the  pretensions  of 
sovereignty  from  Panama  to  Nootka  Sound  or  Van- 
couver. These  pretensions  covered  the  coasts,  harbors, 
islands  and  even  over  the  whole  Pacific  Ocean  as  then 
limited.  These  stupendous  claims  Spain  based  on  dis- 
covery, under  the  papal  bull  of  Alexander  VI,  in  1493. 
This  bull  or  decree  gave  to  the  discoverer  all  newly 
discovered  lands  and  waters.  In  1513  Balboa,  the  Span- 
iard, discovered  the  Pacific  Ocean,  as  he  came  over  the 
Isthmus  of  Panama,  and  so  Spain  came  into  the  owner- 
ship of  .that  body  of  water.  Good  old  times  those  were, 
when  kings  thrust  their  hands  into  the  new  world,  as 
children  do  theirs  into  a  grab-bag  at  a  fair,  and  drew- 
out  a  river  four  thousand  miles  long,  or  an  ocean,  or  a 
tract  of  wild  land  ten  or  fifteen  times  the  size  of 

Nor  was  France  left  out  at  the  Ryswick 
partition  of  the  world.  She  claimed  in  the 
south  and  in  the  north,  and  it  was  her  proud 
boast  that  from  the  mouth  of  the  Penobscot 
along  the  entire  seaboard  to  the  unknown  and 
frozen  Arctic,  no  European  power  divided  that 
coast  with  her,  nor  the  wild  interior  back  of  it.  • 

At  the  date  of  this  survey,  1 697,  Russia  was 
quiescent.  She  claimed  no  possessions.  But 
at  the  same  time  Peter  the  Great,  and  his  minis- 
ters, were  doing  some  heavy  thinking.  Result* 
of  these  cogitations  were  afterwards  seen  in 


the  new  world,  in  a  territory  known  for  many 
years  to  school  children  as  Russian  America, 
now  the  Klondj'ke.  Dawson,  Skaguay,  Bonan- 
za Creek,  the  Yukon  and — the  place  where  the 
gold  comes  from.  Russia  entered  the  lists ;  she 
became  the  fifth  competitor,  with  Spain,  Eng- 
land, France  and  the  United  States,  for  Ore- 

Passing  over  the  events  of  a  hundred  years, 
years  of  cruel  wars ;  of  possession  and  dispos- 
session among  the  powers;  the  loss  by  France 
of  Louisiana  and  the  tragedy  of  the  Plains  of 
Abraham,  we  come  to  tlie  first  claims  of  Russia. 
She  demanded  all  the  Northwest  Coast  and  is- 
lands north  of  latitude  51  degrees  and  down 
the  Asiatic  coast  as  low  as  45  degrees,  50  min- 
utes, forbidding  "all  foreigners  to  approach 
within  one  hundred  miles  of  these  coasts  ex- 
cept in  cases  of  extremity."  Our  secretary  of 
state,  John  Quincy  Adams,  objected  to  this 
presumptuous  claim.  Emphatically  he  held  that 
Russia  had  no  valid  rights  on  that  coast  south 
of  the  55th  degree.  Vigorous  letters  were  ex- 
changed and  then  "the  correspondence  closed." 
Great  -Britain  took  sides  with  the  United 
States.  Our  protest  was  emphasized  by  pro- 
mulgation of  the  now  famous  "Monroe  Doc- 
trine," the  substance  of  which  lies  in  these 
words :  "That  the  American  continents,  by  the 
free  and  independent  condition  which  they 
have  assumed  and  maintained,  are  henceforth 
not  to  be  considered  as  subjects  for  coloniza- 
tion by  any  European  power." 

Subsequently  it  was  agreed  between  Russia 
and  the  United  States,  in  1824,  that  the  latter 
country  should  make  no  new  claim  north  of  54 
degrees,  40  minutes,  and  the  Russians  none 
south  of  it.  With  Great  Britain  Russia  made  a 
similar  compact  the  year  following,  and  for  a 
period  of  ten  years  this  agreement  was  to  be 
binding,  it  being,  however,  understood  that  the 
privilege  of  trade  and  navigation  should  be  free 
to  all  parties.  At  the  expiration  of  this  period 
the  United  States  and  Great  Britain  received 
notice   from   Russia  of  the  discontinuance  of 

their  navigation  and  trade  north  of  54  degrees, 
40  minutes. 

Right  here  falls  into  line  the  Hudson's  Bay 
Company.  Between  Great  Britain  and  Russia 
a  compromise  was  effected  through  a  lease 
from  Russia  to  this  company  of  the  coast  and 
margin  from  54  degrees,  40  minutes,  to  Cape 
Spencer,  near  58  degrees.  Matters  were,  also, 
satisfactorily  adjusted  with  the  United  States. 

The  final  counting  out  of  Russia  from  the 
list  of  competitors  for  Oregon  dates  from  1836. 
During  a  controversy  between  England  and 
Russia  the  good  offices  of  the  United  States 
were  solicited,  and  at  our  suggestion  Russia 
withdrew  from  California  and  relinquished  all 
claims  south  of  54  degrees,  40  minutes.  And 
now  the  contest  for  Oregon  was  narrowed 
down  between  Great  Britain  and  the  United 
States.  But  with  the  dropping  of  Russia  it 
becomes  necessary  to  go  back  a  few  years  in 
order  to  preserve  intact  the  web  of  this  history. 

On  May  16,  1670,  the  Hudson's  Bay  Com- 
pany was  chartered  by  Charles  11.  Headed  by 
Prince  Rupert  the  original  incorporators  num- 
bered eighteen.  The  announced  object  of  the 
company  was  "the  discovery  of  a  passage  into 
the  South  Sea" — the  Pacific  Ocean.  During 
the  first  century  of  its  existence  the  company 
really  did  something  along  the  lines  of  geo- 
graphical discovery.  Afterward  its  identity 
\\as  purely  commercial.  Twelve  hundred 
miles  from  Lake  Superior,  in  1 778,  the  eminent 
Frobisher  and  others  had  established  a  trading 
post,  or  "factory,"  at  Athabasca.  Fort  Chipew- 
yan  was  built  ten  years  later  and  Athabasca 
abandoned.  From  this  point  Mackenzie  made 
his  two  overland  trips  to  the  Pacific,  treated  in 
the  two  preceding  chapters.  Commenting 
upon  these  expeditions,  from  a  political  \-iew 
point,  William  Barrows,  in  the  "American 
Commonwealths"  series,  says: 

"The  point  reached  by  ^Mackenzie  on  the 
Pacific  is  within  the  present  limits  of  British 
Columbia  on  that  coast  (53  degrees,  21  min- 
utes), and  it  was  the  first  real,  though  unde- 



signed  step  toward  the  occupation  of  Oregon  by 
Great  Britain.  That  government  was  feeling 
its  way,  daringly  and  blindly,  for  all  territory 
it  might  obtain,  and  in  1793  came  thus  near  the 
outlying  region  which  afterward  became  the 
coveted  prize  of  our  narrative."  (Oregon: 
the  Struggle  for  Possession.) 

Between  the  United  States  and  possession 
of  Oregon  stood,  like  a  stone  wall,  the  Hud- 
son's Bay  Company.  It  was  the  incarnation 
of  England's  protest  against  our  occupancy. 
Such  being  the  case  it  is  a  fortuitous  opportu- 
nity to  glance,  briefly,  at  the  complexion  of 
this  great  commercial  potentate  of  the  North- 
west Coast.  Aside  from  geographical  discov- 
eries there  was  another  object  set  forth  in  the 
Hudson's  Bay  Company's  charter.  This  was 
"the  finding  of  some  trade  for  furs,  minerals 
and  other  considerable  commodities."  More- 
over an  exclusive  right  was  granted  by  the 
charter  to  the  "trade  and  commerce  of  all  those 
seas,  straits  and  bays,  rivers,  lakes,  creeks  and 
sounds,  in  whatsoever  latitude  they  shall  be, 
that  lie  within  the  entrance  of  the  straits  com- 
monly called  Hudson's  Straits."  The  charter 
extended,  also,  to  include  all  lands  bordering 
them  not  under  any  other  civilized  government. 

Such  ambiguous  description  covered  a  vast 
territory — and  Oregon.  And  of  this  domain, 
indefinitely  bounded,  the  Hudson's  Bay  Com- 
pany became  monarch,  autocrat  and  tyrant, 
rather  an  unpleasant  trinity  to  be  adjacent  to 
the  gradually  increasing  and  solidifying  do- 
minion of  the  United  States.  Then,  with  the 
old  company,  was  united  the  Northwestern 
Company,  at  one  time  a  rival,  now  a  compo- 
nent part  of  the  great  original  "trust"  of  the 
Christian  era.  The  crown  granted  to  the  new 
syndicate  the  exclusive  right  to  trade  with  all 
Indians  in  British  North  America  for  a  term 
of  twenty  years.  Their  hunters  and  trappers 
spread  themselves  throughout  the  entire  north- 
west of  North  America.  Their  fur  monopoly 
extended  so  far  south  as  the  Salt  Lake  basin 
of  the  modern  L^tah.     Rivals  were  bought  out. 

undersold  or  crushed.  The  company  held  at 
its  mercy  all  individual  traders  from  New 
Foundland  to  Vancouver ;  from  the  head  of  the 
Yellowstone  to  the  mouth  of  the  Mackenzie. 
With  no  rivals  to  share  the  field,  the  extent  of 
territory  under  the  consolidated  company  seems 
almost  fabulous — one-third  larger  than  all  Eu- 
rope; larger  than  the  United  States  of  to-day, 
Alaska  included,  by,  as  Mr.  Barrows  states, 
"half  a  million  of  square  miles."  And  it  was 
preparing,  backed  by  the  throne  of  England, 
to  swallow  and  assimilate  "Oregon."  Con- 
cerning this  most  powerful  company  Mr.  Bar- 
rows has  contributed  the  following  graphic  de- 
scription : 

"One  contemplates  their  power  with  awe 
and  fear,  when  he  regards  the  even  motion  and 
solemn  silence  and  unvarying  sameness  with 
which  it  has  done  its  work  through  that  dreary 
animal  country.  It  has  been  said  that  a  hun- 
dred years  has  not  changed  its  bills  of  goods 
ordered  from  London.  The  company  wants 
the  same  muskrat  and  beaver  and  seal ;  the  In- 
dian hunter,  unimproved,  and  the  half-breed 
European,  deterioating,  want  the  same  cotton 
goods,  and  flint-lock  guns  and  tobacco  and 
gew-gaws.  To-day  as  a  hundred  years  ago  the 
dog-sledge  runs  out  from  Winnipeg  for  its 
solitary  drive  of  five  hundred  or  two  thousand 
or  even  three  thousand  miles.  It  glides  silent 
as  a  spectre  over  those  snow-fields  and  through 
the  solemn,  still  forests,  painfully  wanting  in 
animal  life.  Eifty,  seventy,  and  hundred  days  it 
speeds  along,  and  as  many  nights  it  camps 
without  fire,  and  looks  up  to  the  same  cold 
stars.  At  the  intervening  points  the  sledge 
makes  a  pause,  as  a  ship,  having  rounded  Cape 
Horn,  heaves  to  before  some  lone  Pacific  is- 
land. It  is  the  same  at  the  trader's  hut  or  'fac- 
tory.' as  when  the  sledge  man's  grandfather 
drove  up  the  same  dogs,  the  same  half-breeds 
or  voyageurs  to  welcome  him,  the  same  foul, 
lounging  Indians,  and  the  same  mink-skin  in 
exchange  for  the  same  trinket.  The  fur  ani- 
mal and  its  purchaser  and  hunter,  as  the  land- 



scape,  seem  to  be  alike  under  the  same  immut- 
able law  of  nature  :— 

'■  'A  land  where  all  things  always  seem  the 
same,'  as  among  the  lotus-eaters.  Human  pro- 
gress and  Indian  civilization  have  scarcely- 
made  more  improvement  than  that  central, 
silent  partner  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company — 
the  beaver." 

Originally  the  capital  stock  of  this  com- 
pany, at  the  time  the  charter  was  granted  by 
Charles  II,  was  $50,820.  Through  profits 
alone  it  was  tripled  twice  within  fifty  years, 
going  as  high  as  $457,380,  without  any  addi- 
tional money  being  paid  in  by  stockholders. 
The  Northwest  Company  was  absorbed  in 
1 82 1  on  a  basis  of  valuation  equal  to  that  of 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company.  Then  the  con- 
solidated capital  stock  was  $1,916,000,  of 
which  $1,780,866  was  from  profits.  And 
during  all  this  elapsed  period  an  annual  divi- 
dend of  ten  per  cent  had  been  paid  to  stock- 
holders. One  cargo  of  furs,  leaving  Fort 
George  for  London  in  1836,  was  valued  at 
$380,000.  In  1837  the  consolidated  company 
organized  the  Puget  Sound  Agricultural  Com- 
pany. This  was  intended  to  serve  as  an  offset 
to  encroachments  of  colonists  from  the  United 
States  which  settled  in  Oregon.  In  1846  the 
English  government  conceded  United  States 
claims  to  Oregon,  and  at  that  period  the  Hud- 
son's Bay  Company  claimed  property  within 
the  territory  said  to  be  worth  $4,990,036.67. 

With  such  gigantic  and  powerful  competi- 
tion for  the  territory  of  Oregon  it  is  surprising 
that  even  as  determined  a  government  as  the 
United  States  should  have  succeeded  in  oust- 
ing it  from  its  trespass  on  our  property.  Nor 
could  this  have  been  accomplished  had  it  not 
been  for  the  pluck,  skill,  determination  and  in- 
domitable energy  of  our  hardy  pioneers.  While 
the  sale  of  rabbit  skins  alone  in  London,  in  one 
year,  ordinarily  amounted  to  thirteen  hundred 
thousand,  the  company  found  its  profit  also  in 
the  beaver,  land  and  sea-otter,  mink,  fisher, 
muskrat,  fox,  raccoon,  sable,  black,  brown  and 

grizzly  bear  and  buffalo.  And  in  search  for 
these  fur-bearing  animals  the  hunters  of  the 
company  braved  every  danger  and  spread 
themselves  over  the  wild  half  of  North  Amer- 
ica. So  far  from  carrying  out  the  provisions  of 
its  charter  relating  to  geographical  discovery, 
early  in  the  nineteenth  century  the  company 
threw  every  "obstacle  possible  in  the  way  of  such 
discoveries.  Evidently  it  feared  rivals.  Sir 
John  Barrow,  in  his  history  of  Arctic  Voyages, 
says :  "The  Northwest  Passage  seems  to  have 
been  entirely  forgotten,  not  only  by  the  ad- 
venturers who  had  obtained  their  exclusive 
charter  under  this  pretext,  but  also  by  the  na- 
tion at  large;  at  least  nothing  more  appears  to 
have  be^n  heard  on  the  subject  for  more  than 
half  a  century." 

And  what  of  the  darker  deeds  of  this  mys- 
terious, silent,  yet  powerful  commercial  aggre- 
gation? In  1719  it  refused  a  proposal  from 
Mr.  Knight  that  two  vessels  be  sent  by  him  to 
look  up  a  rumored  copper  mine  at  the  mouth 
of  an  arctic  river.  In  1741  the  company 
showed  signs  of  hostility  toward  a  Mr.  Dobbs, 
engaged  in  the  same  enterprise.  The  failure 
of  Captain  Middleton,  commissioned  by  the 
Lords  of  Admiralty  to  explore  northern  and 
western  waters  of  Hudson's  Bay,  is  attributed 
to  a  bribe  of  five  thousand  pounds  received 
from  the  company.  The  beacon  light  at  Fort 
York  was  cut  down  in  1 746  to  insure  the  com- 
plete wreck  of  an  exploring  party  then  aground 
in  that  vicinity.  Much  of  the  information  con- 
cerning auriferous  deposits  brought  back  by 
Mackenzie  from  his  two  journeys  was  sup- 
presed.  The  Hudson's  Bay  Company  had  set 
its  face  against  mineral  development.  Even 
that  industry  was  a  rival.  Following  the  assas- 
ination  of  Dr.  Marcus  Whitman  by  Indians,  in 
1847,  one  of  the  suvivors  of  the  massacre  was 
refused  the  protection  of  Fort  Walla  Walla 
then  under  command  of  an  agent  of  the  Hud- 
son's Bay  Company.  On  the  whole  this  aggre- 
gation of  English  capital  seems  to  have  been 
as   antagonistic   to   English   enterprise   as   to 


American  commerce,  but  all  the  time  working 
Jike  a  mole  under  ground. 

Previous  to  the  War  of  1812  England  had 
strenuously  urged  the  Ohio  as  the  western  limit 
of  the  colonies.  She  seduced  various  Indian 
tribes  to  oppose  western  immigration.  In  181 1 
General  Harrison,  afterward  president,  at- 
tempted to  hold  a  friendly  conference  with  the 
great  Tecumseh.  The  meeting  was  disrupted  by 
the  latter,  and  it  required  the  battle  of  Tippe- 
canoe to  teach  the  warriors  a  bloody  object  les- 
son. Then  followed  the  War  of  1812.  In  this 
Great  Britain  made  an  effort  to  recover  the 
northwest,  but  failed  signally.  But  the  Hud- 
son's Bay  Company  was  England  in  North 
America.  And  when  the  nation  failed  the  com- 
mercial syndicate  succeeded — for  a  time.  While 
the  United  States  had  legal,  she  had  not,  owing 
to  the  interference  of  this  company,  actual  pos- 
session arid  occupancy. 

Following  the  close  of  the  Revolution  and 
the  treaty  of  1783,  an  attempt  was  made  to  run 
a  northern  boundary  for  the  United  States.  It 
looked  well  on  paper.  It  traversed  wild,  unex- 
plored territory  unkno^^'n  to  either  party  to  the 

"Thus,"  says  Barrows,  "the  northwest 
point  of  the  Lake  of  the  Woods  was  assumed 
for  one  bound  from  which  the  line  was  to  run, 
to  the  northwestern  point  of  the  lake  and  thence 
'due  west,'  to  the  Mississippi.  The  clause  in  the 
treaty  reads  thus:  'to  the  said  Lake  of  the 
Woods,  and  thence  through  the  said  lake  to 
the  most  northwestern  point  thereof,  and  from 
thence  on  a  due  west  course  to  the  river  Missis- 
sippi.' But  the  head  of  the  river  proved  to  be 
a  hundred  miles  or  more  to  the  south.  So  that 
little  prominence  in  our  otherwise  straight 
boundary  is  the  bump  of  ignorance  developed 
by  two  nations.  The  St.  Croix  was  fixed  by 
treaty  as  the  boundary  on  the  northeast,  but  a 
special  'Joint  Commission'  was  required  in 
1794  to  determine  'what  river  is  the  St. 
Croix,'  and  four  years  afterward  this  commis- 
sion called  for  an  addition  to  their  instructions 

since  their  original  ones  were  not  broad  enough 
to  enable  them  to  determine  the  true  St.  Croix." 

In  1 84 1  another  commission  ran  a  boun- 
dary from  the  head  of  the  St.  Croix,  by  the 
head  of  the  Connecticut,  to  the  St.  Lawrence; 
thence  through  the  middle  of  its  channel  and 
the  rniddle  of  the  lakes  to  the  outlet  of  Lake 
Superior,  occupying  the  whole  of  seven  years. 
And  yet  the  line  had  not  been  carried  through 
Lake  Superior  to  the  Lake  of  the  Woods.  Fi- 
nally, in. 1 81 8,  this  was  done  and  an  agreement 
reached,  though  this  line  was  not  on  the  49th 
parallel,  from  the  Lake  of  the  Woods,  to  the 
Rocky  Mounmtains,  the  line  that  was  offered 
by  Great  Britain,  accepted  by  one  administra- 
tion, refused  by  another,  and  iinally  adopted  in- 
stead of  "Fifty-four  forty  or  fight."  Still  the 
English  commission  was  loath  to  part  with  the 
Mississippi  valley.  They  asked  for  a  right  of 
way  to  the  headwaters  of  that  stream.  At  the 
same  time  the  southern  limits  of  their  northern 
possessions  did  not  come  within  one  hundred 
miles  of  the  source  of  the  Mississippi  from 
whence  its  waters  flow  more  than  three  thou- 
sand miles  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  The  com- 
mission, however,  abandoned  this  claim  and 
turned,  to  stand  resolutely  on  latitude  49  de- 
grees. During  negotiations  with  England,  in 
1818,  a  compromise  was  effected  which  pro- 
vided for  a  joint  occupation  of  Oregon  for  ten 
years.  In  1827  it  was  renewed,  to  run  indefin- 
itely, with  a  provision  that  it  could  be  termin- 
ated by  either  party  on  giving  one  year's  notice. 
The  Ashbur ton-Webster  treaty  of  1842  fixed 
the  line  between  the  St.  Croix  and  St.  Law- 
rence. In  1846  another  commission  failed  to 
accomplish  results  in  extending  a  line  to  the 
westXvard  through  their  inability  to  agree  on 
the  "middle  of  the  channel"  between  the  main- 
land and  Vancouver  Island. 

Not  until  1872  was  this  latter  question  de- 
cided. It  was  submitted  to  the  Emperor  of 
Germany  as  final  arbiter.  He  decided  favor- 
ably to  the  claim  of  the  United  States.  Thus 
this  boundary  question  was  prolonged  eighty- 



nine  years,  under  eight  treaties  and  fifteen  spec- 
ifications, until  final  adjustment  in  its  entirety. 
The  Oregon  toundary  remained  in  dispute  up 
to  1847.  It  may  here  be  appropriately  re- 
marked that  the  Joint  Boundary  Commission 
of  1818,  agreeing  on  the  49th  parallel,  might 
have  carried  the  line  to  a  satisfactory  point  had 
they  not  been  stopped  by  fur  traders.  Two 
companies  were  then  attempting  to  gain  pos- 
session of  the  territory. 

The  expedition  of  Lewis  and  Clarke.  1804- 
6,  opened  the  eyes  of  England.     Jealous  lest 
Americans  should  gain  an  advantage.  Laroque 
was   sent  by  the   Northwestern    Companv   to 
sprinkle  the  Columbia  river  country  with  trad- 
ing  posts.      But   Laroque   gained   no    farther 
westing  than  the  IMandan  Lidian  village  on  the 
^Missouri.     Li  1806  Eraser,  having  crossed  the 
mountains,  made  the  first  English  settlement  by 
erecting  a  post  on  Eraser  Lake.     Others  soon 
followed  and  New  Caledonia  came  into  exist- 
ence.    It  had  remained  for  daring  frontiers- 
men to  open  the  dramatic  contest  for  posses-  | 
sion  of  Oregon.     Diplomats  and  ministers  had  I 
dallied  and  quibbed.     Now  the  contest  had  be-  1 
come  serious  and  earnest.     A  German  immi-  ' 
grant,  John  Jacob  Astor,  was  destined  to  play  a 
prominent  part  in  future  strategetic  movements 
for  this  possession.     At  forty  years  of  age  he 
was  established  in  the  fur  business  on  the  great 
lakes.    Later  he  had  another  post  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Columbia  river,  Astoria,  a  freight  port  1 
for  furs  incoming,  and  beads  and  trinkets  out- 
going.    In   1810  he  dispatched  an  expedition 
of  sixty  men  from  St.  Louis  to  the  Columbia. 
Efteen  months  after,  depleted  by  death,  the  sur- 
vivors reached  Astoria.     Another  company  of 
about  the  same  number  arrived  by  way  of  Cape 
Horn  some  time  earlier.    Other  ships  followed, 
and  in  1813  Mr.  Astor  sufifered  the  loss  of  the 
Lark,  shipwrecked  on  the  Sandwich,  now. the 
Hawaiian  Islands.    Nor  was  this  the  worst.   Of 
Mr.  Astor's  partners,  a  majority  had  sold  out 
to  the  Northwest  Eur  Company  of  Montreal, 
an  English  organization.     Property  which  Air. 

Astor  had  valued  at  $200,000  had  l)een  thrown 
away  for  $40,000.     He  saw  signs  of  treachery. 
But  so  far,  despite  these  handicaps,  he  had  out- 
witted his  competitors.     They  had  planned  to 
forestall  him  at  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia. 
The    failure    of    Laroque    had    defeated    this 
scheme.     Another  division  of  the  Northwest 
Company,  in  181 1,  had  attempted  to  reach  there 
ahead  of  the  sagacious  American  trader.     This 
party  was  snowbound  and  compelled  to  winter 
in  the  mountains.     When  they  eventually  ar- 
rived Astoria  was  a  reality.    The  importance  of 
j  these  events  is  worthy  of  notice.    Had  Laroque 
I  or  the  other  parties  anticipated  Astor.  strong 
[  and  cumulative  evidence  would  have  been  af- 
j  forded  England  of  prior  possession,  and  this 
evidence  would  have  been  a  powerful  leverage 
during  the  long  controversy  which   followed 
concerning  the  northern  boundary  of  Oregon. 
I         Then,  too,  the  defection  of  Astor's  partners 
I  who  had  sold  out  to  the  Northwest  Company 
i'  led  to  an  incident  in  the  Oregon  Controversy 
I  which  is  significant.    Mr.  Barrows  says  : 

"The  leading  partner  in  it,  and  the  one  who 
I  afterward  led  of?  in  its  sale,  received  them 
'  (■  representatives  of  the  Northwest  Company) 
in  a  friendly  and  hospitable  way,  and  not  as 
ri\als :  when  they  returned  from  their  vain 
expedition  he  supplied  them,  not  only  Avith  pro- 
visions, but  with  goods  for  trading  purposes 
up  the  river,  where  they  established  trading 
huts  among  the  Indians  and  became  rivals  of 
the  Americans,  Strange  to  say  when  the  ques- 
tion of  priority  of  occupation  and  national  sov- 
ereignty was  under  discussion  at  London,  fif- 
teen years  afterward,  the  English  put  in  these 
huts  of  this  returning  company,  as  proof  that 
the  English  were  as  early  if  not  earlier  in  the 
Columbia  than  the  Americans." 

Here  is  a  case  in  point  which  eloquently  il- 
lustrates the  supremacy  of  commercialism  over 
sentimental  statesmanship.  Astor's  partners 
had  turned  over  the  post,  practically,  to  the 
Northwestern  Company.  The  United  States 
had  been  solicited  by  Great  Britain,  previous  to 


the  War  of  1812,  to  favor  the  Northwest  Com- 
pany as  against  Mr.  Astor,  and  this  request 
had  been  refused.  When  the  war  opened  Eng- 
land flamboyantly  dispatched  a  naval  force  to 
the  Columbia  under  orders  "to  take  and  destroy 
everything  American  on  the  Northwest  Coast." 
On  the  arrival  of  this  fleet  in  181 3,  the  com- 
mander had  the  barren  satisfaction  of  running 
up  the  English  colors  and  naming  the  post  St. 
George.  Already  it  had  passed  into  English 
hands  ^'ia  the  Northwest  Company. 

Bad  faith  of  his  partners  and  the  chances 
of  war  had,  temporarily  defeated  the  plans  of 
Mr.  Astor.  American  interests  on  that  coast 
were  under  a  cloud.  But  the  United  States  was 
destined  to  win  out.  The  War  of  18 12  was 
fairly  on.  It  had  been  declared  on  June  12, 
1812:  the  treaty  of  peace  was  signed  Decem- 
ber 14,  18 14.  It  contained  this  clause  ma- 
terially affecting  our  interests  in  Oregon :  "All 
territory,  places  and  possessions  whatsoever, 
taken  by  either  party  from  the  other  during  the 
^^.^j.  *  *  *  ghall  be  restored  without  de- 
lay." Did  this  provision  cover  Astoria?  Ap- 
parently the  English  thought  not,  for  when,  in 
181 7,  an  American  vessel  was  put  in  readiness 
to  occupy  that  post  Mr.  Bagot,  the  English 
minister  at  Washington,  opposed  it.  Two 
points  are  noted  in  his  protest:  The  post  had 
been  sold  to  the  Northwest  Company  prior  tq 
the  war:  therefore  never  captured.  Secondly, 
"the  territory  itself  was  early  taken  possession 
of  in  his  majesty's  name,  and  had  since  been 
considered  as  forming  a  part  of  his  majesty's 
domains."  But  repossession  was  granted 
despite  the  protest.  In  181 8  the  Stars  and 
Stripes  again  waved  over  Astoria  and  the  name 
"St.  George"  was  relegated  to  the  limbo  of  the 

But  the  Oregon  Question  was  not  dead : 
only  hibernating.  It  sprang  into  life  at  the 
behest  of  the  eloquent  Rufus  Choate.  From  his 
seat  in  the  senate  he  said  : 

"Keep  your  eye  always  open,  like  the  eye 
of  your  own  eagle,  upon  the  Oregon.     Watch 

day  and  night.  If  any  new  developments  or 
policy  break  forth,  meet  them.  If  the  times 
change,  do  you  change.  New  things  in  a  new 
world.  Eternal  vigilance  is  the  condition  of 
empire  as  well  as  of  liberty." 

For  twenty-seven  years  the  threads  of  dip- 
lomatic delay  and  circumlocution  were  spun  out 
concerning  the  status  of  Oregon.  Theoret- 
ically Astoria  had  been  restored  to  us;  prac- 
tically the  Northwest  fur  traders  thronged  the 
land.  The  English  company  had  built  a  stock- 
ade fort.  It  looked  as  if  they  intended  to  hold 
possession  of  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  vie 
et  armis.  Indian  tribes  ranged  themselves  on 
the  side  of  the  English.  Their  minds  had  been 
poisoned;  insiduous  words  had  been  breathed 
into  their  ears  to  the  effect  that  the  Americans 
would  steal  their  lands ;  the  English  wanted 
only  to  trade  with  them  for  furs.  And  for  more 
than  ten  years  following  the  treachous  sale  of 
Astoria,  there  were  scarcely  any  Americans  in 
the  country.  Greenhow,  in  his  "History  of 
Oregon  and  California,"  declares  that  at  the 
period  when  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  was 
before  parliament,  in  1837,  asking  for  renewal 
of  its  charter,  they  "claimed  and  received  the 

I  aid  and  consideration  of  government  for  their 
energy  and  success  in  expelling  the  Americans 
from  the  Columbia  regions,  and  forming  set- 
tlements there,  by  means  of  which  they  were 

j  rapidly    converting    Oregon    into    a    British 

!  colony." 

!  Astoria  was  restored  to  the  United  States 
by  the  Treaty  of  Ghent  in  1814.     Yet  in  that 

I  document  there  is  no  allusion  made  to  the 
Northwest  Coast,  or  in  fact,  any  territory  west 
of  the  Lake  of  the  Woods.  Our  instructions  to 
the  American  plenipotentiaries  were  to  concede 
nothing  to  Great  Britain  south  of  the  forty- 
ninth  parallel.  Thus  the  question  was  left  in 
abeyance  with  no  defined  boundary  between 
English  and  American  territorj^  west  of  the 
Lake  of  the  Woods.  The  southern  boundary 
of  Oregon  was,  also,  in  doubt.  It  was  not 
definitely    fixed    until    the    Florida    Purchase. 


Then  it  was  decided  tliat  parallel  forty-two,  on 
the  Pacific,  running  east  from  that  ocean  to  the 
Arkansas,  down  the  river  to  longitude  one  hun- 
dred; on  that  meridan  south  till  it  strikes  the 
Red  river;  down  the  Red  river  to  longitude 
ninety- four;  due  south  on  it  to  the  Sabine 
river;  and  down  the  Sabine  to  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico,  should  define  the  southern  and  western 
boundaries  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase  of  1803. 
which  up  to  that  period  had  remained  indefin- 
ite. This  act  fixed,  also,  the  southern  boundary 
of  Oregon. 

Until  1820  congress  remained  dormant  so 
far  as  Oregon  interests  were  concerned.  Then 
it  was  suggested  that  a  marine  expedition  be 
dispatched  to  guard  our  interests  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Columbia  and  aid  immigration  from  the 
United  States.  Nothing  resulted.  In  182 1  the 
same  question  was  revived,  but  again  permitted 
to  relapse  into  desuetude.  Mr.  Barrows  does 
not  use  language  too  strong  when  he  says : 
"There  appeared  to  be  a  lack  of  appreciation 
of  the  case,  and  there  was  a  skepticism  and  leth- 
argy concerning  that  half  of  the  union,  which 
have  by  no  means  disappeared." 

In  18 14  the  question  having  been  reopened 
in  London  Mr.  Rush  claimed  for  the  United 
States  from  the  forty-second  to  the  fifty-first 
parallel.  This  section  would  embrace  all  the 
waters  of  the  Columbia.  Per  contra  the  Eng- 
lish demanded  possession  of  the  northern  half 
of  the  Columbia  basin.  This  would  have  given 
us.  as  the  northern  boundary,  of  Oregon,  the 
Columbia  river  from  a  point  where  it  intersects 
the  forty-ninth  parallel  to  its  mouth.  It  is  well 
to  examine,  at  this  point,  what  such  a  boundary 
would  have  meant  to  Washington.  Had  it  been 
accepted  there  would,  probably,  never  have  been 
any  state  of  Washington,  at  least,  not  as  sub- 
sequently defined.  It  would  have  meant  the 
loss  of  the  following  territory,  comprised  in 
the  counties  of  Klickitat,  Skamia,  Cowlitz, 
Clark,  Wahkiakum,  Pacific,  Chehalis,  Mason, 
Lewis,  Pierce,  Jefferson,  Clallam,  Kitsap,  King, 
Snohomish.  Skagit,  Whatcom.  Yakima,  Kitti- 

tas, Chelan,  Okanogan  and  Ferry,  a  territory 
comprising  forty-three  thousand,  se^'en  hun- 
dred and  sixteen  square  miles,  two-thirds  of 
the  area  of  the  present  state  of  Washington. 

Thus  remained  the  status  of  the  dispute  un- 
til 1828.  Joint  occupancy  had  now  continued 
ten  years.  It  must  be  conceded  that  the  coun- 
try, owing  to  this  provision,  was  now  numeri- 
cally British,  And  English  ministers  were 
eager  to  avail  themselves  of  the  advantages  of 
this  fact.  They  said :  "In  the  interior  of  the 
territory  in  question  the  subjects  of  Great 
Britain  have  had,  for  many  years,  numerous 
settlements  and  trading  posts — several  of  these 
posts  on  the  tributary  streams  of  the  Columbia, 
several  upon  the  Columbia  itself,  some  to  the 
northward  and  others  to  the  southward  of  that 
river,  *  *  *  j^  (.]^g  whole  of  the  territory 
in  question  the  citizens  of  the  LTnited  States 
have  not  a  single  settlement  or  trading  post. 
They  do  not  use  that  river,  either  for  the  pur- 
pose of  transmitting  or  receiving  any  produce 
of  their  own  to  or  from  other  parts  of  the 

Yet  why  was  this  the  condition  in  Oregon 
at  that  period  ?  Simply  because  the  aggressive- 
ness of  the  Northwestern  Company  had  op- 
posed American  colonization  and  fought  each 
and  every  advance  made  by  our  pioneers,  com- 
mercially and  otherwise.  Nor  can  it  be  denied 
that  for  many  years  Oregon  was  unappreciated 
by  the  east.  To-day  it  appears,  to  unreflecting 
minds,  an  extravagant  boast  to  say  that  only 
one-fifth  of  the  domain  of  the  United  States 
lies  east  of  the  Mississippi  river.  And  yet  the 
statement  is  true.  Only  in  1854  did  the  initial 
railway  gain  the  banks  of  the  Father  of  Waters 
— at  Rock  Island.  From  there  progress  to  the 
northwest  was,  for  many  years,  slow,  perilous 
and  discouraging.  Truly,  it  was  a  difficult 
matter  for  Oregon  to  assert  herself.  In  1828 
an  "Oregon  wave"  had  swept  over  congress, 
amid  considerable  feverish  interest  and  pro- 
longed eloquence.  Protracted  debate  was  had 
on  a  bill  to  survev  the  territorv  west  of  the 


mountains  between  4J  degrees  and  54  degrees 
40  minutes,  garrison  the  land  and  extend  over 
it  the  laws  of  the  United  States.  The  measure 
was  defeated,  again  the  question  slumbered. 

But  the  daring  American  pioneers  of  the 
west  were  by  no  means  idle.  Unconsciously 
they  were  accomplishing  far  more  toward  a 
final  settlement  of  the  "Oregon  Question"  than 
all  the  tape-bound  documents  sleeping  in  the 
pigeon-holes  of  English  parliamentary  and 
American  congressional  archives.  Of  these 
pioneers  Captain  Bonneville  should  not  pass 
unnoticed.  He  was  of  the  army,  and  with  one 
hundred  of  his  men  he  made  a  two  years'  hunt- 
ing, trapping  and  fur-trading  expedition,  from 
the  Missouri  to  the  Colorado,  and  thence  to  the 
Columbia.  In  1832  Nathaniel  J.  Wyeth  or- 
ganized a  company  of  twenty-two  persons,  in 
^Massachusetts,  for  western  exploration.  En- 
thusiastic descriptions  of  Oregon,  written  by 
Hall  J.  Kelly,  had  contributed  greatly  to  awak- 
en this  interest  among  the  scholarly  young  men 
who  formed  Wyeth's  party.  On  July  4,  1832, 
they  had  arrived  at  Lewis'  Fork  of  the  Colum- 
bia. Among  them  were  sickness,  disappoint- 
ment and  insubordination.  Here  the  company 
divided.  Several  left  to  return  east;  among 
them  Jacob  and  John,  brothers  of  Captain 
Wyeth.  Nathaniel  Wyeth  and  his  remaining 
companions  reached  Snake  river,  and  one  hun- 
dred miles  north  of  Salt  Lake,  established  a 
trading  post.  He  was  ruined  by  the  ever  ag- 
gressive Hudson's  Bay  Company,  which  placed 
a  rival  post.  Fort  Boise,  below  Fort  Hall. 
British  ministers  had  impudently  declared  that 
Oregon  was  settled  by  Englishmen ;  that 
Americans  had  no  trading  posts  within  its  lim- 
its. And  why  not?  Read  the  following  from 
Mr.  Wyeth's  memoir  to  congress : 

"Experience  has  satisfied  me  that  the  entire 
weight  of  this  company  (Hudson  Bay)  will  be 
made  to  bear  on  any  trader  who  shall  attempt 
to  prosecute  his  business  within  its  reach. 
*  *  *  No  sooner  does  an  American  start 
in  this  region  than  one  of  these  trading  parties 

is  put  in  motion.  A  few  years  will  make  the 
country  west  of  the  mountains  as  completely 
English  as  they  can  desire." 

To  the  same  congressional  committee  Will- 
iam A.  Slocum,  in  a  report,  goes  on  record  as 
follows :  "No  individual  enterprise  can  com- 
pete with  this  immense  foreign  monopoly  es- 
tablished in  our  waters.  *  *  *  xhe  In- 
dians are  taught  to  believe  that  no  vessels  but 
the  Company's  ships  are  allowed  to  trade  in  the 
river,  and  most  of  them  are  afraid  to  sell  their 
skins  but  at  Vancouver  or  Fort  George." 

Small  wonder  that  at  this  time  there  were 
less  than  two  hundred  Americans  west  of  the 
Rockies.  And  Canadian  law,  by  act  of  par- 
liament, was  extended  throughout  the  region 
of  the  Columbia.  Theoretically  it  was  joint 
occupation ;  practically  British  monopoly.  So 
late  as  1844  the  British  and  Foreign  Review 
said,  brutally:  "The  interests  of  the  company 
are  of  course  adverse  to  colonization.*  *  * 
The  fur  trade  has  been  hitherto  the  only  chan- 
nel for  the  advantageous  investments  of  capital 
in  those  regions." 

Truly  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  had 
adopted  a  policy  of  "multiplication,  division 
and  silence."  Because  meat  and  beef  conduced 
to  pastoral  settlements,  so  late  as  1836,  the 
company  opposed  the  introduction  of  catttle. 
One  of  the  missionaries  stationed  at  Moose 
Factory  has  written  this :  "A  plan  which  I  had 
devised  for  educating  and  training  to  some  ac- 
quaintance with  agriculture  native  children, 
was  disallowed.  *  *  *  \  proposal  made 
for  forming  a  small  Indian  village  near  Moose 
Factory  was  not  acceded  to;  and  instead,  per- 
mission only  given  to  attempt  the  location  of 
one  or  two  old  men,  no  longer  fit  for  engaging 
in  the  chase,  it  being  carefully  and  distinctly 
stated,  by  Sir  George  Simpson,  that  the  com- 

I  pany  would  not  give  them  even  a  spade  toward 
commencing  this  mode  of  life." 

]         In  1836  when  Dr.  Marcus  Whitman  and  his 
party  were  entering  Oregon.  J.  K.  Townsend. 

I  a  naturalist  sent  from  Philadelphia  to  collect 



specimens  of  fauna  and  flora,  said  to  him  at 
Walla  Walla:  "The  company  will  be  glad  to 
have  you  in  the  country,  and  your  influence  to 
improve  their  servants  and  their  native  wives 
and  children.  As  to  the  Indians  you  have 
come  to  teach  they  do  not  want  them  to  be  any 
more  enlightened.  The  company  now  have 
absolute  control  over  them,  and  that  is  all 
they  require." 

And  right  here  is  the  crux  of  the  differences 
between  the  United  States  and  England  con- 
cerning the  territory  of  Oregon.  It  was  the 
aim  of  the  former  to  develop,  improve  and  civil- 
ize the  country ;  it  was  the  expressed  determina- 
tion of  the  latter  to  keep  it  in  darkness  and  sav- 
agery. For  in  North  America  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company  was  England  and  English  states- 
men were  under  the  complete  domination  of 
this  company's  abject  commercialism.  It  has 
pleased  modern  English  writers  to  describe 
Americans  as  "a  nation  of  shop-keepers."  But 
throughout  the  whole  Oregon  controversy  the 
United  States  stoood  for  progress  and  civili- 
zation; England  for  the  long  night  of  ignor- 
ance and  barbarism — for  profit.  Summed  up 
by  Mr.  Barrows  the  relations  to  Oregon  of  the 
two  countries  were  as  follows  : 

"The  Americans  struck  Oregon  just  where 
the  English  failed,  in  the  line  of  settlements 
and  civilization.  One  carried  in  the  single  man 
and  the  other  the  family;  one,  his  traps  and 
snares,  the  other  his  seed  wheat  and  oats  and 
potatoes;  one  counted  his  muskrat  nests,  and 
the  other  his  hills  of  corn ;  one  shot  an  Indian 
for  killing  a  wild  animal  out  of  season ;  and 
the  other  paid  bounty  on  the  wolf  and  bear; 
one  took  his  newspaper  from  the  dog-mail 
twenty-four  or  thirty-six  months  from  date, 
and  the  other  carried  in  the  printing  press ;  one 
hunt^^  and  traded  for  what  he  could  carry  out 
of  the  country,  the  other  planted  and  builded 
for  what  he  could  leave  in  it  for  his  children. 
In  short  the  English  trader  ran  his  birch  and 
batteaux  up  tlie  streams  and  around  the  lakes  to 
bring  out  furs  and  peltries,  while  the  American 

immigrant  hauled  in  with  his  rude  wagon,  the 
nineteenth  century  and  came  back  loaded  with 
Oregon  for  the  American  union." 

In  1840  the  flow  of  American  immigration 
into  Oregon,  especially  the  missionaries,  Lee, 
Whitman  and  Parker,  alarmed  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company.  It  strenuously  opposed  the 
advent  of  wagons  and  carriages.  Immigrants 
were  lied  to  at  Fort  Hall;  were  told  that  it 
would  be  impossible  to  proceed  farther  on 
wheels.  It  is  recorded  that  on  this  account 
many  of  them  reached  Dr.  Whitman's  mission 
in  a  deplorably  destitute  condition.  But  all  the 
artifices  of  the  company  could  not  check  the 
hegira  from  the  east.  It  is  reserved  for  an- 
other chapter  to  relate  the  experiences  of  these 
pioneers.  We  have  to  do  here,  mainly,  with  the 
final  settlement  of  the  great  "Oregon  Ques- 
tion" between  England  and  the  United  States 
— the  political  struggle  for  sovereignty. 

In  1843  Sir  George  Simpson,  governor  of 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  who  had  made  a 
tour  of  the  continent,  challenged  us  in  these 
words :  "The  United  States  will  never  possess 
more  than  a  nominal  jurisdiction,  nor  long 
possess  even  that,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains.  And  supposing  the  country  to  be 
divided  tomorrow  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of 
the  most  unscrupulous  patriot  in  the  union,  I 
challenge  congress  to  bring  my  prediction  and 
its  power  to  the  test  by  imposing  the  Atlantic 
tariff  on  the  ports  of  the  Pacific." 

Thus  the  great  international  question  of 
tariff  was  brought  into  the  Oregon  Contro- 
versy. But  we  must  not  jump  to  the  conclusion 
that  Sir  George  was  without  some  foundation 
for  his  vaporous  remarks.  At  that  time  the 
Hudson's  Bay  Company  had  twenty-three  posts 
and  five  trading  stations  in  the  northwest ;  it 
had  absorbed  ten  rival  companies,  not  leaving 
one  American  or  Russian,  and  had  been  the 
means  of  putting  to  rout  seven  immigrant  ex- 
peditions seeking  homes  in  Oregon. 

The  Oregon  boundary  question  was  still  in 
dispute.     But  those  Americans  familiar  with 



the  subject  were  destined  to  temporary  disap- 
pointment. In  1827  it  had  been  referred, 
through  a  convention,  to  the  King  of  the 
Netherlands  as  arbiter.  Both  parties  to  the  dis- 
pute had  rejected  his  decision  in  1831.  Five 
efforts  had  been  made  to  adjust  the  boundary 
by  President  Jackson,  and  five  failures  had  re- 
sulted. The  administration  of  President  Van 
Buren  closed  with  the  matter  still  unsettled.  In 
1842  Lord  Ashburton  came  from  London  to 
negotiate  a  boundary  treaty  with  Daniel  Web- 
ster, secretary  of  state.  A  certain  boundary 
treaty  was  negotiated,  August  9,  1842,  the  two 
ministers  signed  it;  it  was  ratified  by  the  sen- 
ate on  the  25th:  by  the  Queen  soon  after,  pro- 
claimed on  November  10,  1842 — and  the  Ore- 
gon boundary  was  not  in  it.  Nothing  ofificial 
whatever  alluding  to  Oregon  was  found  there- 
in. The  only  boundary  touched  was  one  "be- 
ginning at  the  monument  at  the  source  of  the 
river  St.  Croix,"  terminating  at  the  Rocky 
Mountains  on  the  forty-seventh  parallel.  Little 
wonder  that  sectional  feeling  developed  in  the 
far  west. 

Dr.  Marcus  Whitman,  whose  connection 
with  the  "Oregon  Question"  is  treated  in  an- 
other chapter,  had  arrived  in  Washington  too 
late  for  any  effectual  pleas  for  consideration  of 
the  matter  in  the  treaty  just  signed.  Still,  as 
Mr.  Barrows  says,  "The  pressure  of  Oregon 
into  the  Ashburton  treaty  would  probably  have 
done  one  of  three  things,  prevented  the  treaty 
altogether,  excluded  the  United  States  from 
Oregon,  or  produced  a  war.  Delay  and  ap- 
parent defeat  were  the  laasis  of  our  real  success, 
and  the  great  work  of  Marcus  Whitman,  by 
his  timely  presence  at  Washington,  was  in 
making  the  success  sure." 

With  Oregon  left  out  the  Ashburton  treaty 
had  been  ratified.  The  outlook  was,  indeed, 
gloomy.  As  a  reflex  of  the  insiduous  teachings 
of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  the  following 
extract  from  a  speech  delivered  by  Mr. 
McfDuffie  in  the  United  States  senate  is  inter- 
esting.   He  said : 

What  is  the  character  of  this  country  ?  Why,  as 
I  understand  it,  that  seven  hundred  miles  this  side  of 
the  Rocky  Mountains  is  uninhabitable,  where  rain 
scarcely  ever  falls — a  barren  and  sandy  soil —  mountains 
totally  impassable  except  in  certain  parts,  where  there 
were  gaps  or  depressions,  to  be  reached  only  by  going 
some  hundreds  of  miles  out  of  the  direct  course.  Well, 
now,  what  are  we  going  to  do  in  a  case  like  this? 
How  are  you  going  to  apply  steam?  Have  you  made 
anything  like  an  estimate  of  the  cost  of  a  railroad  run- 
ning from  here  to  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia?  Why, 
the  wealth  of  the  Indies  would  be  insufficient.  You 
would  have  to  tunnel  through  mountains  five  or  six 
hundred  miles  in  extent.  *  *  *  Of  what  use  will 
this  be  for  agricultural  purposes?  I  would  not,  for  that 
purpose,  give  a  pinch  of  snuff  for  the  whole  territory. 
I  wish  it  was  an  impassable  barrier  to  secure  us  against 
the  intrusion  of  others.  *  *  *  if  there  was  an  em- 
bankment of  even  five  feet  to  be  removed,  I  would  not 
consent  to  expend  five  dollars  to  remove  that  embank- 
ment to  enable  our  population  to  go  there.  I  thank 
God  for  his  mercy  in  placing  the  Rocky  Mountains 

At  the  time  this  speech  was  being  delivered 
Dr.  Marcus  Whitman  was  on  his  way  from 
Oregon  with  "the  facts  in  the  case,"  informa- 
tion destined  to  shed  a  flood  of  intelligence  on 
a  rather  benighted  congress.  And,  in  reality, 
our  country  was  rapidly  nearing  the  end  of  this 
interminable  controversy.  An  area  of  terri- 
tory sixty-three  times  the  size  of  Massachusetts 
and  four  times  as  large  as  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland  was  about  to  come  under  the  protecting 
aegis  of  the  United  States  government.  The 
Hudson's  Bay  Company  had  declared,  through 
its  emissaries,  that  a  wagon  trip  to  Oregon  was 
an  impossibility.  The  same  sentiment  had  been 
voiced  in  the  United  States  senate.  It  remained 
for  Dr.  Whitman  to  prove  the  falsity  of  such  an 
audacious  statement.  He  led  a  party  of  two 
hundred  wagons  through  to  his  mission  on  the 
mouth  of  the  Columbia,  arriving  in  October, 
1843.  And  this,  too.  against  vigorous  opposi- 
tion from  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  at  Fort 
Hall.  Then  the  people  began  to  manifest  a 
lively  interest  in  the  question.  This  interest  had 
been  stimulated  in  December,  1842,  by  a  mes- 
sage from  President  Tyler,  in  which  he  said: 
"The  tide  of  population  which  has  reclaimed 
what  was  so  latelv  an  unbroken  wilderness  in 



more  contiguous  regions,  is  preparing  to  flow 
over  those  vast  districts  which  stretch  from  the 
Rocky  Mountains  to  the  Pacific  Ocean.  In  ad- 
vance of  the  acquirements  of  individual  rights 
sound  pohcy  dictates  that  every  effort  should 
be  resorted  to  by  the  two  governments  to  settle 
their  respective  claims."  January  8,  1843,  con- 
gress received  news  that  Dr.  Whitman  had 
made  good  his  claim,  and  reached  his  destina- 
tion, with  wagons,  in  Oregon.  Party  spirit, 
for  there  were  two  parties  to  the  Oregon  Con- 
troversy, aside  from  the  British,  ran  high.  Dr. 
Winthrop  said:  "For  myself,  certainly,  I  be- 
lieve that  we  have  as  good  a  title  to  the  whole 
twelve  degrees  of  latitude,"  i.  e.,  up  to  54  de- 
grees 40  minutes.  Senator  Thomas  Benton 
voiced  the  prevailing  sentiment  of  the  time  in 
these  words:  "Let  the  emigrants  go  on  and 
carry  their  rifles.  We  want  thirty  thousand 
rifles  in  the  valley  of  the  Oregon;  they  will 
make  all  quiet  there,  in  the  event  of  a  war  with 
Great  Britain  for  the  dominion  of  that  coun- 
try. The  war,  if  it  come,  will  not  be  topical ; 
it  will  not  be  confined  to  Oregon,  but  will  em- 
brace the  possessions  of  the  two  powers 
throughout  the  globe.  Thirty  thousand  rifles  on 
the  Oregon  will  anihilate  the  Hudson's  Bay 
Company  and  drive  them  off  our  continent  and 
quiet  the  Indians." 

Rufus  Choate  spoke  for  peace.  He  was 
followed  by  pacificatory  utterances  from  others. 
Still,  there  was  sufficient  vitality  in  the  "Fifty- 
four  forty  or  fight"  to  elect  President  Polk  on 
such  a  campaign  issue.  The  population  of  Ore- 
gon at  the  close  of  1844  was  estimated  by  Mr. 
Greenhow  at  more  than  three  thousand.  The 
Indian  agent  for  the  government,  Mr.  White, 
placed  it  at  about  four  thousand;  Mr.  Hines 
said :  "In  1845  't  increased  to  nearly  three 
thousand  souls,  with  some  two  thousand  to 
three  thousand  head  of  cattle."  The  west  was 
warm  with  zeal  and  anticipation.  In  the  house 
of  representatives  Mr.  Owen,  of  Indiana,  said : 
"Oregon  is  our  land  of  promise.  Oregon  is  our 
land  of  destination.     'The  finger  of  nature' — 

such  were  once  the  words  of  the  gentleman 
from  Massachusetts  (J.  Q.  Adams)  in  regard 
to  this  country, — 'points  that  way;'  two 
thousand  Americans  are  already  dwelling  in 
her  valleys,  five  thousand  more  *  *  *  ^jjj 
have  crossed  the  mountains  before  another  year 
rolls  round."  It  was  the  opinion  of  the  senator 
from  Illinois,  Mr.  Semple,  that  ten  thousand 
would  cross  the  Rocky  Mountains  the  follow- 
ing year. 

At  last  a  re-okuion  was  introducea  in  con- 
gresss  "affirming  Oregon  to  be  part  and  parcel 
of  the  territory  of  the  United  States  from  42 
degrees  to  54  degrees,  40  minutes,  and  that 
notice  should  be  given  at  once  to  terminate  the 
joint  occupation  of  it."  It  was  held  on  the  floor 
of  the  house  that  "no  doubts  now  remain  in 
the  minds  of  American  statesmen  that  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  United  States  held  a  clear  and 
unquestionable  title  to  the  whole  of  the  Oregon 

In  the  region  at  this  time  the  Hudson's  Bay 
Company  had  about  thirty  "trading  posts." 
Really  they  were  forts  and  powerful  auxiliaries 
to  an  internecine  war.  Seven  thousand  citizens 
of  the  United  States  were  in  the  same  country. 
The  question  of  another  war  with  England  had 
become  a  live  and  important  issue.  To  have 
stood  solidly  for  54  degrees,  40  minutes,  would 
have  meant  war,  and  as  one  gentleman  ex- 
pressed it,  "a  war  that  might  have  given  the 
whole  of  Oregon  to  England  and  Canada  to  the 
United  States."  During  forty  days  the  ques- 
tion of  giving  notice  to  England  of  discontinu- 
ance of  joint  occupancy  was  discussed  in  the 
house.  It  was  carried  by  a  vote  of  one  hun- 
dred and  sixty-three  to  fifty-four.  The 
struggle  in  the  senate  was  longer.  An 
idea  of  the  engrosoing  nature  of  the 
Oregon  topic  may  be  gleaned  from  the 
fact  that  three  score  bills  and  resolutions  were 
kept  in  abeyance  on  the  calendar  for  future  ac- 
tion. Daniel  Webster  prophesied  that  war 
would  not  result;  that  the  incident  would  be 
closed  by  compromise  and  that  the  compromise 



would  be  on  the  boundary  line  of  the  forty- 
ninth  parallel.  The  attitude  of  the  two  coun- 
tries was  this :  We  had  offered  forty-nine  de- 
grees from  the  mountains  to  the  Pacific  ocean, 
not  once,  but  several  times;  England  had  of- 
fered forty-nine  degrees  from  the  mountains  to 
the  Columbia,  and  by  that  stream  to  the  sea.  A 
comparatively  narrow  triangle  of  land  only  lay 
between  the  demands  of  England  and  conces- 
sions of  the  United  States.  Most  excellent 
grounds  for  a  compromise.  April  23,  1846, 
the  notice  passed  the  house  by  a  vote  of  forty- 
two  to  ten,  with  important  amendments  strong- 
ly suggestive  to  both  governments  to  adjust 
all  differences  amicably.  No  one  longer  feared 

From  the  point  on  the  forty-ninth  parallel  of  north 
latitude  where  the  boundry  laid  down  in  existing 
treaties  and  conventions  between  the  United  States  and 
Great  Britian  terminates,  the  line  of  boundary  between 
the  territories  of  the  United  States  and  those  of  her 
Britannic  Majesty  shall  be  continued  westward  along 
said  forty-ninth  parallel  of  north  latitude  to  the  middle 

of  the  channel  which  separates  the  continent  from  Van- 
couver's Island,  and  thence  southerly  through  the  mid- 
dle of  the  said  channel,  and  of  Fucca's  Strait,  to  the 
Pacific  ocean :  Provided,  however,  that  the  navigation 
of  the  whole  of  the  said  channel  and  straits  south  of 
the  forty-ninth  parallel  of  north  latitude,  remain  free 
and  open  to  both  parties. 

Thus  reads  the  first  article  of  the  final 
boundary  treaty  between  England  and  the  Uni- 
ted States,  so  far  as  concerns  Oregon.  But  to 
mould  it  into  this  form  and  sign  the  same,  fifty- 
four  years,  two  months  and  six  days  had  been 
required  by  the  two  countries.  On  July  17, 
1846,  the  document,  previously  ratified,  was 
exchanged  in  London  between  the  two  govern- 
ments. But  Captain  Robert  Gray,  of  Boston, 
had  discovered  the  Columbia  river  May  11, 
1792,  and  fully  established  a  United  States 
title  to  the  country  which  it  drains.  It  re- 
mained yet  for  a  boundary  commission,  in 
1857,  to  run  the  line.  The  first  meeting  of  the 
commission  was  held  July  27,  of  the  same 



"Who  will  respond  to  go  beyond  the  Rocky 
Mountains  and  carry  the  Book  of  Heaven?" 

This  was  the  startling  question  asked  by 
President  Fisk,  of  Wilbraham  College.  It  was 
an  editorial  inquiry  published  in  the  Christian 
Advocate  in  March,  1833.  Yet  this  ringing 
call  for  spiritual  assistance  was  not  initiative 
on  the  part  of  President  Fisk.  A  Macedonian 
cry  had  been  voiced  by  four  Flathead  Indians, 
of  the  tribe  of  Nez  Perces,  or  Pierced-noses. 
They  had  come  down  to  St.  Louis  from  the 
headwaters  of  the  Columbia,  the  Snake,  Lewis 
or   Clarke's   rivers,   far  to   westward   of   the 

Rocky  Mountains.  They  were  strangers  in  a 
strange  land;  almost  as  singular  in  dress, 
speech  and  accoutrements  to  the  citizens  of  St. 
Louis  as  would  be  visitors  to  us  from  the 
planet  Mars.  Yet  in  their  distant  teepees 
among  the  western  foothills  of  the  Rockies, 
these  four  chiefs  had  heard  of  the  "White 
Man's  Book"  from  eager,  pushing,  tireless  and 
resourceful  pioneers  who  had  followed  the  trail 
made  by  Lewis  and  Clarke.  Alone  and  un- 
assisted by  government  appropriation,  they 
had  followed  the  same  course  down  the  Mis- 
souri and  the  Father  of  Waters  three  thousand 



miles  to  St.  Louis.  This  was  in  1832.  The 
peculiar  mission  of  these  Lidians  was  the  open- 
ing act  of  the  Whitman  tragedy.  ]\Ir.  Barrows 
says :  "The  massacre  ran  riot  through  eight 
days,  and  Dr.  Marcus  Whitman  and  wife,  of 
the  American  Board,  and  thirteen  or  more  as- 
sociates, were  savagely  killed  on  the  29th  of 
November,  1847,  ^"d  days  following.  It  was 
the  bloody  baptism  of  Oregon,  by  the  like  of 
which  the  most  of  the  American  states  have 
come  to  form  the  union." 

At  the  period  of  the  arrival  of  these  four 
Nez  Perce  chiefs  Indians  were  not  an  uncom- 
mon sight  in  St.  Louis.  At  certain  seasons  the 
suburbs  of  the  city  were  fringed  with  teepees 
and  wickiups.  So,  at  first,  but  little  attention 
was  paid  to  them,  otherwise  than  to  note  their 
strange  dress  and  unknown  dialect.  It  is  not 
difficult  to  gather  how  they  had  learned  of  the 
White  Man's  Book.  Their  own  rude  eloquence 
addressed  to  General  William  Clarke  at  part- 
ing conveys  this  information.  After  a  long 
time  passed  in  the  city,  after  two  of  them  had 
gone  to  the  happy  hunting  ground,  the  survi- 
vors made  their  desires  known,  and  it  appears 
their  request  was,  perforce,  denied.  Transla- 
tion of  the  Bible  into  an  Indian  dialect  is  not 
the  work  of  a  few  days  or  months.  The  two 
remaining  Indians  decided  to  return  home; 
their  mission  a  failure.  The  pathos  of  their 
complaint  is  in  the  spirit,  if  not  the  words,  of 
one  of  the  chiefs  in  his  farewell  speech  to  Gen- 
eral Clarke : 

'T  come  to  you  over  a  trail  of  many  moons 
from  the  setting  sun.  You  were  the  friend  of 
my  fathers  who  have  all  gone  the  long  way. 
I  come  with  one  eye  partly  opened,  for  more 
light  for  my  people  who  sit  in  darkness.  I  go 
back  with  both  eyes  closed.  How  can  I  go 
back  blind  to  my  blind  people?  I  made  my 
way  to  you  with  strong  arms,  through  many 
enemies  and  strange  lands,  that  I  might  carry 
back  much  to  them.  I  go  back  with  both  arms 
broken  and  empty.  The  two  fathers  who  came 
with  us — the  braves  of  manv  winters  and  wars 

— we  leave  here  by  your  great  waters  and  wig- 
wam. They  were  tired  in  many  moons  and 
their  moccasins  wore  out.  My  people  sent  me 
to  get  the  ^\'hite  Man's  Book  of  Heaven.  You 
took  me  to  where  you  allow  your  women  to 
dance,  as  we  do  not  ours,  and  the  Book  was  not 
there.  You  took  me  to  where  they  worshipped 
the  great  spirit  with  candles,  and  the  Book  was 
not  there.  You  shewed  me  the  images  of  good 
spirits  and  pictures  of  the  good  land  beyond, 
but  the  Book  was  not  amnog  them  to  tell  us 
the  way.  I  am  going  back  the  long,  sad  trail 
to  my  people  of  the  dark  land.  You  make  my 
feet  heavy  with  burdens  ai  gifts,  and  my  moc- 
casins will  grow  old  in  carrying  them,  but  the 
Book  is  not  among  them.  When  I  tell  my 
poor,  blind  people,  after  one  more  snow,  in  the 
big  council,  that  I  did  not  bring  the  Book,  no 
word  will  be  spoken  by  our  old  men  or  by  our 
young  braves.  One  by  one  they  will  rise  up 
and  go  out  in  silence.  My  people  will  die  in 
darkness,  and  they  will  go  on  the  long  path  to 
the  other  hunting  grounds.  No  white  man 
will  go  with  them  and  no  White  Man's  Book 
to  make  the  way  plain.  I  have  no  more 

Of  this  utter  failure  to  secure  a  copy  of  the 
Bible,  Mr.  Barrows  says,  pertinently : 

"In  what  was  then  a  Roman  Catholic  city 
it  was  not  easy  to  do  this,  and  officers  only  were 
met.  It  has  not  been  the  policy  or  practice  of 
that  church  to  give  the  Bible  to  the  people, 
whether  Christian  or  pagan.  They  have  not 
thought  it  wise  or  right.  Probably  no  Chris- 
tian enterprises  in  all  the  centuries  have  shown 
more  self-sacrificing  heroism,  foreseen  suffer- 
ing and  intense  religious  devotion  than  the  la- 
borers of  that  church,  from  1520,  to  give  its 
type  of  Christianity  to  the  natives  of  North 
America.  But  it  was  oral,  ceremonial  and  pic- 
torial. In  the  best  of  their  judgment,  and  in 
the  depths  of  their  convictions,  they  did  not 
think  it  best  to  ruduce  native  tongues  to  writ- 
ten languages  and  the  Scriptures  to  the  vernac- 
ular of  any  tribe." 



But  the  eloquence  of  this  speech  had  fallen 
on  appreciative  ears.  A  young  clerk  in  Gen- 
eral's Clarke's  office,  who  had  heard  the  sad 
plaint  of  the  chief,  wrote  to  George  Catlin.  in 
Pittsburg,  historian  and  painter,  an  account  of 
the  scene.  Thereafter  events  moved  rapidly; 
the  seed  was  sown  and  the  harvest  was  about 
to  be  fulfilled.  One  Indian  only  lived  to  return 
to  his  people,  without  the  Book,  but  it  cannot 
be  said  that  his  mission  was  a  failure.  The  edi- 
torial appeal  of  President  Fisk  produced  re- 
sults. Measures  were  at  once  taken  by  the 
American  Board  of  Commissioners  for  For- 
eign Missions,  and  the  Methodist  Board  of 
Missions  to  send  missionaries  to  Oregon. 
Revs.  Jason  and  David  Lee  were  pioneers  in 
this  scriptural  crusade.  They  went  under  ap- 
pointment of  the  Methodist  Board.  They  were 
followed  the  next  year  by  Revs.  Samuel  Par- 
ker and  Marcus  Whitman,  M.  D.,  sent  by  the 
American  Board  of  Commissioners.  In  the 
summer  of  1835  the  latter  arrived  at  the  Amer- 
ican rendezvous  on  Green  river.  Accompanied 
by  a  body  of  Nez  Perces,  from  which  people 
the  four  chiefs  had  gone  to  St.  Louis,  Rev. 
Mr.  Parker  went  to  Walla  Walla  and  on  to 
Vancouver.  And  with  him  he  carried  the 
"Book."  Dr.  Whitman  returned  to  the  states 
the  same  fall,  married  Narcissa  Prentice,  and 
organized  an  outfit  with  which  he  returned, 
with  his  bride,  to  Oregon,  arriving  at  Walla 
Walla  in  September,  1836. 

The  question  as  to  whether  or  no  Dr.  Whit- 
man "saved  Oregon  to  the  United  States"  will 
remain  forever  a  question  of  casuistry.  Events 
might  have  shaped  themselves  as  they  subse- 
quently did,  had  Whitman  not  made  his  long 
midwinter  ride  to  Washington,  D.  C,  to  lay 
his  facts  and  fears  before  the  president.  Every- 
thing might  have  resulted  in  the  retention  by 
the  United  States  of  all  of  Oregon  south  of  the 
49th  parallel,  had  no  warning  crv'  come  from 
the  far  northwest,  a  culverin  shot  announcing 
the  attempt  of  England  to  seize  the  country, 
not  only  by  force  of  majority  colonization,  but 

through  artifices  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Com- 
pany. At  a  dinner  in  Waiilatpu,  attended  by 
Dr.  Whitman,  news  was  received  that  a  colony 
of  English,  one  hundred  and  forty  strong,  were 
then  near  Fort  Colville,  three  hundred  and  fifty 
miles  up  the  Columbia.  A  young  priest  leaped 
to  his  feet,  threw  his  cap  into  the  air  and  cried : 
"Hurrah  for  Oregon!  America  is  too  late 
and  we  have  got  the  country!" 

This  is  but  one  of  the  many  significant 
signs  witnessed  by  Whitman.  He  was  a  man 
of  foresight;  he  had  seen  and  realized  the 
wealth,  position  and  future  possibilities  of  Ore- 
gon as  had  no  other  American  at  that  period. 
And  he  rode  on  to  Washington  and  told  his 
story.  It  will  be  read  in  the  preceding  chapter 
that  not  until  he  had  done  so  did  the  American 
congress  act.  Of  the  personality  of  Dr.  Whit- 
man one  who  knew  him  contributes  the  follow- 
ing picture : 

"IMarcus  Whitman  once  seen,  and  in  our 
family  circle,  telling  of  his  one  business — he  had 
but  one — was  a  man  not  to  be  forgotten  by  the 
writer.  He  was  of  medium  height,  more  com- 
pact than  spare,  a  stout-  shoulder,  and  large 
head  not  much  above  it,  covered  with  stiff, 
iron  gray  hair,  while  his  face  carried  all  the 
moustache  and  whiskers  that  four  months  had 
beeen  able  to  put  on  it.  He  carried  himself 
awkardly,  though  perhaps  courteously  enough 
for  trappers,  Indians,  mules  and  grizzlies,  his 
principal  company  for  six  years.  He  seemed 
built  as  a  man  for  whom  more  stock  had  been 
furnished  than  worked  in  symmetrically  and 
gracefully.  There  was  nothing  peculiarly 
quick  in  his  motion  or  speech,  and  no  trace  of  a 
fanatic;  but  under  control  of  a  thorough 
knowledge  of  his  business,  and'  with  deep,  ar- 
dent convictions  about  it,  he  was  a  profound 
enthusiast.  A  willful  resolution  and  a  tena- 
cious earnestness  would  impress  you  as  making 
the  man." 

Sordid  motives  have  been  attributed  to  Dr. 
Whitman's  efforts  in  behalf  of  Oregon.  One 
writer  has  assumed  that  his  sole  object  was  to 



secure  continuance  of  his  little  mission  at 
Waiilatpu.  But  there  is  abundance  of  evidence 
that  his  ideas  were  of  broader  scope  than  this. 
Let  it  be  noted  that  efforts  to  depreciate  Whit- 
man suddenly  ceased  as  late  as  1891.  That 
year  there  was  found  in  the  archives  of  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  a  letter  from  him  proposing  a 
bill  for  a  line  of  forts  from  the  Kansas  river  to 
the  Willamette.  In  the  Walla  Walla  Union- 
Journal  of  August  15,  1891,  the  letter  was  first 
published.  It  has  been  reproduced  in  Dr.  O. 
W.  Nixon's  •  work,  "How  Marcus  Whitman 
Sa\-ed  Oregon :" 

To  the  Hon.  James  W.  Porter,  Secretary  of  War : 
Sir : — In  compliance  with  the  request  you  did  me  the 
honor  to  make  last  winter  while  at  Washington,  I 
herewith  transmit  to  you  the  synopsis  of  a  bill,  which, 
if  it  could  be  adopted,  would,  according  to  my  exper- 
ience and  observation,  prove  highly  conducive  to  the  best 
interests  of  the  United  States  generally;  to  Oregon, 
where  I  have  resided  for  more  than  seven  years  as  a 
missionary,  and  to  the  Indian  tribes  that  inhabit  the 
intermediate  country. 

The  government  will  doubtless  for  the  first  time 
be  apprised  through  you,  and  by  means  of  this  communi- 
cation, of  the  immense  migration  of  families  to  Oregon, 
which  has  taken  place  this  year.  I  have,  since  our  in- 
terview, been  instrumental  in  piloting  across  the  route 
described,  in  the  accompanying  bill,  and  which  is  the 
only  eligible  wagon  road,  no  less  than  fam- 
ilies, consisting  of  one  thousand  persons  of  both  sexes, 
with  their  wagons,  amounting  in  all  to  one  hundred  and 
twenty-six ;  six  hundred  and  ninety-four  oxen  and 
seven  hundred  and  seventj'-three  loose  cattle. 

Your  familiarity  with  the  government's  policy, 
duties  and  interests,  render  it  unnecessary  for  me  to 
more, than  hint  at  the  several  objects  intended  by  the  en- 
closed bill,  and  any  enlargements  upon  the  topics  here 
suggested  as  inducements  to  its  adoption,  would  be  quite 
superflous,  if  not  impertinent.  The  very  existence  of 
such  a  system  as  the  one  above  recommended  suggests 
the  utility  of  postoffices  and  mail  arrangements,  which 
it  is  the  wish  of  all  who  now  live  in  Oregon  to  have 
granted  them,  and  I  need  only  add  that  the  contracts 
for  this  purpose  will  be  readily  taken  at  reasonable  rates 
for  transporting  the  mail  across  from  Missouri  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Columbia  in  forty  days,  with  fresh  horses 
at  each  of  the  contemplated  posts.  The  ruling  policy 
proposed,  regards  the  Indians  as  the  police  of  the 
country,  who  are  to  be  relied  upon  to  keep  the  peace, 
not  only  for  themselves,  but  to  repel  lawless  white  men 
and  prevent  banditti,  under  the  solitary  guidance  of  the 
superintendent   of   the   several   posts,   aided   by   a   well- 

directed  system  to  induce  the  punishment  of  crimes. 
It  will  only  be  after  the  failure  of  these  means  to  pro- 
cure the  delivery  or  punishment  of  violent,  lawless  and 
savage  acts  of  aggression,  that  a  band  or  tribe  should 
be  regarded  as  conspirators  against  the  peace,  or  pun- 
ished accordingly  by  force  of  arms. 

Hopmg  that  these  suggestions  may  meet  3'our  ap- 
probation, and  conduce  to  the  future  interests  of  our 
growing  country,  I  have  the  honor  to  he.  Honorable 
sir,  your  obedient  servant, 


Certainly  it  is  reasoning  from  slender,  un- 
substantial premises  to  assert  that  the  great  in- 
fluence exerted  upon  President  Tyler  and  Sec- 
retary Webster  by  Whitman  was  founded  on 
so  slight  a  pretext  as  saving  to  him,  personally, 
the  humble  mission  at  Waiilatpu.  Whitman 
must  have  been  a  man  with  "an  idea,"  larger 
than  that  to  have  commanded  respect  from  the 
ablest  statesmen  of  his  day ;  to  have  crystalized 
public  sentiment  into  a  desire  for  the  whole  of 
Oregon;  to  have  smelted  patriotism  into  the 
heraldic  proclamation  of  defiance  to  England, 
"Fifty-four  forty  or  fight." 

If  Whitman  were  purely  selfish,  why  should 
he  have  announced  his  intention,  in  1843,  of 
personally  conducting  a  large  train  across  the 
mountains?  Security  of  his  mission  did  not 
depend  on  this.  On  the  contrary  the  advance 
of  civilization,  with  attendant  churches,  would 
tend  to  do  away  entirely  with  missions  to  the 

As  we  approach  the  melancholy  close  of  Dr. 
Whitman's  varied  career  as  explorer,  mission- 
ary and  statesman,  one  can  not  fail  to  be  im- 
pressed with  a  feeling  that  less  devotion  to  a 
patriotic  sense  of  duty  would  have  conduced  to 
his  personal  safety.  Two  antagonists  were  ar- 
rayed against  him  and  his  political,  as  well  as 
his  spiritual,  plans ;  primarily  the  Hudson's  Bay 
Company,  and  the  Indians,  indirectly  influ- 
enced by  the  same  commercial  corporation.  The 
policy  of  the  company  was  to  keep  the  country 
in  the  condition  of  a  vast  game  preserve  for  the 
purpose  of  breeding  fur-bearing  animals. 
Naturally  this  pleased  the  Indians.  It  was  di- 
rectly in  line  with  their  mode  of  life.    The  pol- 



icy  of  American  colonization  was  smybolized 
by  the  axe  and  the  plow ;  complete  demolition 
of  profitable  hunting  grounds.  And  of  this 
latter  policy  Dr.  Whitman  was  high  priest  and 

Since  the  discovery  of  America  Indian  wars 
have  been  like 

"Freedom's  battle,  once  begun, 
Bequeathed  by  bleeding  sire  to  son." 

In  a  letter  written  by  Washington  to  Jay, 
in  1794,  the  first  president  says:  "There  does 
not  remain  a  doubt  in  the  mind  of  any  well- 
informed  person  in  this  country,  not  shut 
against  conviction,  that  all  the  difficulties  we 
encounter  with  the  Indians,  their  hostilities,  the 
murders  of  helpless  women  and  innocent  chil- 
dren along  our  frontiers,  result  from  the  con- 
duct of  the  agents  of  Great  Britain  in  this 
country."  Historical  justice  demands,  how- 
ever, that  we  assign  the  primary  cause  of  the 
Whitman  massacre  to  the  entagling  circum- 
stances of  the  Indians  on  the  Columbia,  under 
two  rival  peoples  and  conflicting  policies.  Also 
the  general  character  of  the  Indians  as  uncivil- 
ized and  superstitious,  must  be  duly  considered. 
Before  the  tragedy,  as  since,  many  Americans 
were  cruel,  deceitful  and  aggressive  in  their 
treatment  of  the  unsophisticated  savage.  Those 
who  have  philosophically  watched  the  trend  of 
current  events  in  the  past  twenty-five  years  need 
not  be  told  that  more  than  one  Indian  outbreak 
can  be  directly  traced  to  low  cupidity  and 
peculation  among  our  government  officials.  To 
a  certain  extent  this  cruelty  and  deception  had 
been  practiced  upon  the  Indians  by  lawless 
white  men  prior  to  the  Whitman  massacre.  To- 
day we  can  not  come  into  court  with  clean 
hands  for  the  purpose  of  accusing  the  English 
pioneers  of  Oregon.  If  their  policy  was  one 
designed  to  check  the  march  of  western  civili- 
zation, it  was  certainly  devoid  of  the  sometimes 
Satanic  cruelty  shown  by  Americans  towards 
the  Indians. 

We  now  come  to  the  savage  details  of  the 

Whitman  tragedy  and  the  immediate  cause  of 
the  outbreak.  Undoubtedly  this  will  be  found 
to  lie  in  the  innate  superstition  of  the  savage, 
educated  or  uneducated.  Following  the  return 
of  Whitman  from  Washington,  in  1843,  the  In- 
dians in  the  vicinity  of  the  mission  at  Waiilatpu 
were  restless  and  insurbordinate.  There  is  evi- 
dence that  at  this  period  Whitman  scented  dan- 
ger. He  contemplated  removal  to  The  Dalles 
for  safety,  and  had  even  gone  so  far  as  to  ar- 
range for  the  purchase  of  the  Methodist  Mis- 
sion at  that  point.  Two  personal  enemies  were 
arrayed  against  him  ;  Tamsuky,  a  Cayuse  chief, 
and  Joe  Lewis.  The  latter  was  a  sullen,  re- 
\-engeful  half-breed,  one  who  had  wandered  to 
the  mission,  been  befriended  by  the  doctor,  and 
secretly  became  the  head  center  of  a  murderous 

Measles  became  epidemic  among  the  In- 
dians during  the  summer  of  1847,  introduced 
among  the  Cayuse  tribe  by  immigrants.  It  was 
Indian  medical  practice  to  treat  all  fevers  by 
placing  the  patient  in  a  sweat-house,  followed 
by  a  bath  in  ice-cold  water.  Under  such  ig- 
norant ministrations  many  of  the  patients,  of 
course,  expired.  They  died,  too,  under  the 
medical  attendance  of  Dr.  Whitman,  whose  ut- 
most vigilance  could  not  save  his  patients  from 
the  sweat-house  and  the  fatal  douche.  It  was 
at  this  critical  period  that  the  treacherous  Lewis 
circulated  reports  that  the  doctor  was  poison- 
ing instead  of  healing  his  patients.  Lewis  af- 
firmed that  he  had  overheard  Whitman  and 
Spalding  plotting  to  obtain  possession  of  the 
country.  It  was  finally  decided  by  some  of  the 
mfluential  chiefs  of  the  tribe  to  demand  of  Dr. 
Whitman  a  test  case  of  his  professional  skill. 
An  Indian  woman  afflicted  with  the  measles 
was  given  in  his  charge.  The  terrible  alterna- 
tive, secretly  decided  upon,  was  this:  Should 
the  woman  recover,  all  would  be  peace :  should 
she  die  the  Indians  were  to  kill  all  the  mission- 

Of  this  direful  plot  Whitman  was  apprised 
by  Istikus,   a   Umatilla    friend.      The   doctor 


treated  the  story  with  levity.  Not  so  Mrs. 
Whitman.  With  the  sensitive  intuition  of 
woman,  she  fully  comprehended  the  dread  sig- 
nificance of  Istikus'  story,  and,  though  intrepid 
by  nature,  the  heroine  of  a  dangerous  pioneer 
journey  across  the  continent,  she  became 
alarmed,  and  was  in  tears  for  the  first  time  since 
the  death  of  her  child  eight  years  before.  Dr. 
Whitman  reassured  her  the  best  he  could,  and 
renewed  his  promise  to  move  down  the  river. 
It  was  too  late.  On  the  fatal  29th  of  Novem- 
ber, 1847,  great  numbers  of  Tamsuky's  adher- 
ents were  in  the  vicinity  of  Waiilatpu.  Their 
sinister  presence  added  to  the  alarm  of  Mrs. 
Whitman.  Survivors  of  the  massacre  said 
that  the  hills  were  black  with  Indians  looking 
down  upon  the  scene.  About  one  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon  of  the  29th,  while  Dr.  Whitman  was 
reading,  a  number  of  Indians  entered  his  room, 
and,  having  attracted  his  attention,  one  of  them, 
said  to  have  been  Tamchas,  buried  his  hatchet 
in  the  head  of  his  benefactor.  Another  savage, 
Telaukait,  one  who  had  received  nothing  but 
kindness,  beat  the  face  to  a  pulp.  Bloody  work, 
thus  began,  was  speedily  followed  with  relent- 
less brutality.  None  of  the  white  men,  scat- 
tered and  unsuspecting,  could  offer  adequate 
assistance.  They  were  quickly  shot  down  with 
the  exception  of  such  as  were  remote.  Five 
men  escaped.  After  incredible  suffering  they 
finally  reached  a  place  of  safety.  Mrs.  Whit- 
man was  the  only  woman  who  suffered  death. 
Other  women  were  outraged,  and  children,  boys 
and  girls,  held  in  captivity  several  days.  Will- 
iam McBean.  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company's 
agent,  at  Fort  Walla  Walla,  refused  to  harbor 
Mr.  Hall,  who  had  escaped  as  far  as  the  fort, 
and  he  subsequently  perished.  A  courier  was 
despatched  by  McBean  to  Vancouver,  but  this 
man  did  not  even  warn  the  people  at  The  Dalles 
of  danger.  Happily  they  were  unmolested.  So 
soon  as  James  Douglas,  then  chief  factor  in  the 
place  of  Dr.  Whitman,  heard  of  the  massacre, 
he  sent  Peter  Skeen  Ogden,  with  a  force,  to 
rescue  the  survivors.     Ogden  exhibited  a  com- 

mendable zeal  and  efficiency,  and  by  the  expen- 
diture of  several  hundred  dollars,  ransomed 
forty-seven  women  and  children. 

Following  are  the  names  of  the  victims  of 
this  outbreak;  the  people  slaughtered  during 
the  eight  days  of  murderous  riot:  Marcus 
Whitman,  Narcissa  Whitman,  John  Sager, 
Francis  Sager,  Crockett  Brewley,  Isaac  Gillen, 
James  Young  and  Rogers,  Kimball,  Sales, 
]\Iarsh,  Saunders,  Hoffman  and  Hall.  After- 
\\ards  there  was  found  on  the  site  of  the  massa- 
cre a  lock  of  long,  fair  hair,  which  was,  un- 
doubtedly taken  from  the  head  of  Mrs.  Whit- 
man. Among  the  relics  of  this  tragedy,  in 
Whitman  College,  it  is  now  preserved.  An  ac- 
count of  the  escape  of  Mr.  Osborne  was  pub- 
lished a  number  of  years  ago.  It  is  a  graphic 
description  of  the  horrors  of  the  event,  and 
from  it  we  take  the  following  extracts : 

As  the  guns  fired  and  the  yells  commenced  I 
leaned  my  head  upon  the  bed  and  committed  myself  and 
family  to  my  maker.  My  wife  removed  the  loose  floor. 
I  dropped  under  the  floor  with  my  sick  family  in  their 
night  clothes,  taking  only  two  woolen  sheets,  a  piece 
of  bread  and  some  cold  mush,  and  pulled  the  floor  over 
us.  In  five  minutes  the  room  was  full  of  Indians,  but 
they  did  not  discover  us.  The  roar  of  guns,  the  yells 
of  the  savages,  and  the  crash  of  clubs  and  knives,  and 
the  groans  of  the  dying  continued  until  dark.  We 
distinctly  heard  the  dying  groans  of  Mrs.  Whitman, 
Mr.  Rogers  and  Francis,  till  they  died  away  one  after 
the  other.  We  heard  the  last  words  of  Mr.  Rogers  in 
a  slow  voice,  calling,  "Come.  Lord  Jesus,  come  quickly." 

Soon  after  this  I  removed  the  floor  and  we  went  out. 
We  saw  the  white  face  of  Francis  by  the  door.  It  was 
warm,  as  we  laid  our  hand  upon  it,  but  he  was  dead. 
I  carried  my  two  youngest  children,  who  were  sick,  and 
my  wife  held  on  to  my  clothes  in  her  great  weakness. 
We  had  all  been  sick  with  measles.  Two  infants  had 
died.  She  had  not  left  her  bed  for  six  weeks  till  that 
day,  when  she  stood  up  a  few  minutes.  The  naked, 
painted  Indians  were  dancing  a  scalp  dance  around  a 
large  fire  at  a  little  distance.  There  seemed  no  hope 
for  us  and  we  knew  not  which  way  to  go,  but  bent 
our  steps  toward  Fort  Walla  Walla.  A, dense,  cold 
fog  shut  out  every  star  and  the  darkness  was  complete. 
We  could  see  no  trail  and  not  even  the  hand  before  the 
face.  We  had  to  feel  out  the  trail  with  our  feet.  My 
wife  almost  fainted,  but  staggered  along.  Mill  Creek, 
which  we  had  to  wade,  was  high  with  late  rains  and 
came  up  to  the  waist.  My  wife  in  her  great  weakness 
came  night  washing  down,  but  held  to  my  clothes.     I 



braced  myself  with  a  stick,  holding  a  child  in  one  arm. 
I  had  to  cross  five  times  for  the  children.  The  water 
was  icy  cold  and  the  air  freezing  some.  Staggering 
along  about  two  miles  Mrs.  Osborne  fainted  and  could 
go  no  further,  and  we  hid  ourselves  in  the  brush  of 
the  Walla  Walla  river,  not  far  below  the  lodges  of 
Tamsuky,  a  chief  who  was  very  active  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  butchery.  We  were  thoroughly  wet,  and  the 
cold,  fog-like  snow  was  about  us.  The  cold  mud  was 
partially  frozen  as  we  crawled,  feeling  our  way  into  the 
dark  brush.  We  could  see  nothing  the  darkness  was  so 
extreme.  I  spread  one  wet  sheet  down  on  the  frozen 
ground;  wife  and  children  crouched  upon  it.  I  covered 
the  other  over  them.  I  thought  they  must  soon  perish 
as  they  were  shaking  and  their  teeth  rattling  with  cold. 
I  kneeled  down  and  commended  us  to  our  Maker.  The 
day  finally  dawned  and  I  could  see  Indians  riding 
furiously  up  and  down  the  trail.  Sometimes  they  would 
come  close  to  the  brush  and  our  blood  would  warm  and 
the  shaking  would  stop  from  fear  for  a  moment.  The 
day  seemed  a  w'eek.  I  expected  every  moment  my  wife 
would  breathe  her  last.  Tuesday  night  we  felt  our  way 
to  the  trail  and  staggered  along  to  Sutucks  Nima 
(Dog  Creek),  which  we  waded  as  we  did  the  other 
creek,  and  kept  on  about  two  miles,  when  my  wife 
fainted  and  could  go  no  farther.  Crawled  into  the 
brush  and  frozen  mud  to  shake  and  suffer  on  from 
hunger  and  cold,  and  without  sleep.  The  children,  too, 
wet  and  cold,  called  incessantly  for  food,  but  the  shock 
of  groans  and  yells  at  first  so  frightened  them  that  they 
did  not  speak  loud.  Wednesday  night  wife  was  too 
weak  to  stand.  I  took  our  second  child  and  started  for 
Walla  Walla;  had  to  wade  the  Touchet;  stopped  fre- 
quently in  the  brush  from  weakness ;  had  not  recovered 
from  measles.  Heard  a  horseman  pass  and  repass  as 
I  lay  concealed  in  the  willows.  Have  since  learned  it 
was  Mr.  Spalding.  Reached  Fort  Walla  Walla  after 
daylight;  begged  Mr.  McBean  for  horses  to  go  to  my 
family,  for  food,  blankets  and  clothing  to  take  to  them, 
and  to  take  care  of  my  child  till  I  could  bring  my 
family  in  should  I  live  to  find  them  alive.  Mr.  McBean 
told  me  I  could  not  bring  my  family  to  his  fort.  Mr. 
Hall  came  in  on  Monday  night,  but  he  could  not 
have  an  American  in  his  fort,  and  he  had  him  put  over 
the  Columbia  river ;  that  he  could  not  let  me  have 
horeses  or  anything  for  my  wife  or  children,  and  I  must 
go  on  to  Umatilla.  I  insisted  on  bringing  my  family  to 
the  fort,  but  he  refused ;  said  he  would  not  let  us  in. 
I  next  begged  the  priest  to  show  pity,  as  my  wife  and 
children  must  perish  and  the  Indians,  undoubtedly,  kill 
me,  but  with  no  success. 

There  were  many  priests  at  the  fort.  Mr.  McBean 
gave  me  breakfast  but  I  saved  most  of  it  for  my  family. 
Providentially  Mr.  Stanley,  an  artist,  came  in  from 
Colville,  and  narrowly  escaped  the  Indians  by  telling 
them  he  was  "Alain,"  H.  B.,  meaning  that  his  name 
was  Alain  and  that  he  was  a  Hudson's  Bay  Company 
employe.  He  let  me  have  his  two  horses,  some  food 
he   had   left   from   Revs.   Ellis'   and   Walker's  mission; 

also  a  cap,  a  pair  of  socks,  a  shirt  and  handkerchief, 
and  Mr.  McBean  furnished  an  Indian  who  proved  most 
faithful,  and  Thursday  night  we  started  back,  taking  my 
child,  but  with  a  sad  heart  that  I  could  not  find  mercy 
at  the  hands  of  God.  The  Indian  guided  me  in  the  thick 
darkness  to  where  I  supposed  I  had  left  my  dear  wife 
and  children.  We  could  see  nothing  and  dared  not  call 
aloud.  Daylight  came  and  I  was  exposed  to  Indians,  but 
we  continued  to  search  till  I  was  about  to  give  up  in 
despair,  when  the  Indian  discovered  one  of  the  twigs  I 
had  broken  as  a  guide  in  coming  out  to  the  trail.  Follow- 
ing this  he  soon  found  my  wife  and  children  still  alive. 
I  distributed  what  little  food  and  clothing  I  had  and  we 
started  for  the  Umatilla,  the  guide  leading  the  way 
to  a  ford. 

^Ir.  Osbonie  and  family  went  to  William- 
ette  Valley  where  they  lived  many  years,  as 
honored  members  of  the  community,  though 
jNIrs.  Osborne  never  entirely  regained  her 
health  from  the  dreadful  experiences  incident 
to  the  massacre  and  escape. 

The  most  ingenious  casuisty  will  fail  to 
palliate  the  heartlessness  of  Mr.  McBean.  At 
the  present  day  when  charity,  chivalry,  nay, 
self-sacrifice  to  aid  the  suffering  meet  with 
heartiest  approval  from  nearly  all  civilized  na- 
tions, it  is  difficult  to  conceive  of  such  base  mo- 
tives as  appear  to  have  actuated  him.  That  he 
reflected  the  baser  qualities  of  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company's  policy,  no  one  can  reasonably 
deny.  It  seemed  necessary  to  him  to  show  the 
Indians  that  so  far  from  reproving  their  con- 
duct the  representative  of  the  company  was  in 
sympathy,  if  not  in  actual  collusion  with  the 
savage  conspirators.  McBean's  attitude  on  this 
occasion  stands  forth  as  one  of  the  darkest 
chapters  in  the  history  of  the  Hudson's  Bay 
Company's  "joint  occupancy"  with  Americans 
of  the  territory  of  Oregon. 

If  further  proof  were  wanted  of  the  appar- 
ent understanding  between  the  Indians  and  the 
company  the  case  of  the  artist  who  gave  his 
name  as  "Alain,"  representing  himself  as  con- 
nected with  the  interests  of  the  Hudson's  Bay 
Company  is  before  us.  Refusal  of  assistance  to 
Mr.  Osborne  by  the  priests  at  Fort  Walla  Walla 
is  readily  understood.  Their  tenure  of  spiritual 
office  wag  dependent  on  the  company.     Their 



heartless  action  was  not  based  on  theological 
antagonism.  No  difference  of  creed  entered 
into  the  matter.  They  were  guided  simply  by 
personal  interest ;  they  were  but  another  form 
of  the  abject  creatures  to  which  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company  sought  to  reduce  all  their  de- 
pendents. But  in  the  annals  of  American  his- 
tory there  is  no  more  pathetic  recital  than  the 
story  of  Osborne's  and  Hall's  rejection  at  the 
English  fort  to  which  they  had  fled  for  shelter. 
A  less  distressing  case  of  a  few  weeks  later 
is  presented  in  the  following  extract  from 
some  reminiscences  of  Mrs.  Catherine  Pringle, 
formerly  of  Colfax.  Mrs.  Pringle  was  one  of 
the  Sager  children,  adopted  by  Doctor  and  Mrs. 
Whitman.  The  story  of  the  "Christmas  din- 
ner" which  follows  was  given  by  her  to  the 
Commoner,  of  Colfax,  in  1893  : 

The  Christmas  of  1847  was  celebrated  in  the  midst 
of  an  Indian  village  where  the  .American  families  who 
kept  the  day  were  hostages,  whose  lives  were  in  constant 
danger.  There  is  something  tragically  humorous  about 
that  Christmas,  and  I  laugh  when  I  think  of  some  things 
that   I   cried  over  on  that  day. 

When  the  survivors  moved  to  the  Indian  village  a 
set  of  guards  was  placed  over  us.  and  those  guards  were 
vagabond  savages,  in  whose  charge  nobody  was  safe. 
Many  times  we  thought  our  final  hour  had  come.  They 
ordered  us  around  like  slaves,  and  kept  us  busy  cook- 
ing for  them.  Whenever  we  made  a  dish  they  compelled 
us  to  eat  of  it  first,  for  fear  there  was  poison  in  it. 
They  kept  up  a  din  and  noise  that  deprived  us  of  peace 
by  day  and  sleep  at  night.  Some  days  before  Christmas 
we  complained  to  the  chief  of  the  village  who  was  sup- 
posed to  be  a  little  generous  in  our  regard,  and  he  gave 
us  a  guard  of  good  Indians  under  command  of  one 
whom  we  knew  as  "Beardy."  The  latter  had  been 
friendly  to  Dr.  Whitman:  he  had  taken  no  part  in  the 
massacre,  and  it  was  claimed  that  it  was  through  his 
intercession   that  our  lives  were  spared. 

We  hailed  the  coming  of  Beardy  as  a  providential 
thing,  and  so,  when  the  holiday  dawned,  the  elder  folks 
resolved  to  make  the  children  as  happy  as  the  means 
at  hand  would  allow.  Mrs.  Sanders  had  brought  across 
the  plains  with  her  some  white  flour  and  some  dried 
peaches,  and  these  had  been  brought  to  our  abode  in 
William  Gray's  mission.  White  flour  was  a  luxury  and 
so  were  dried  peaches  then.  Mrs.  Sanders  made  white 
bread  on  Christmas  morning,  and  then  she  made  peach 
pie.  Beardy  had  been  so  kind  to  us  that  we  had  to  in- 
vite him  to  our  Christmas  dinner.  We  had  ever  so 
many  pies,  it  seemed,  and  Beardy  thought  he  had  tasted 

nothing  so  good  in  all  his  life.  He  sat  in  one  corner 
of  the  kitchen  and  crammed  piece  after  piece  of  that 
dried  pie  into  his  mouth.  We  were  determined  that  he 
should  have  all  the  pie  he  wanted,  even  if  some  of  us 
went  hungry,  because  Beardy  was  a  friend  on  whose 
fidehty  probably  ou-r  lives  depended. 

And  so  we  had  our  Christmas  festival,  and  we  sang 
songs  and  thanked  heaven  that  we  were  still  alive.  After 
dinner,  and  about  an  hour  after  Beardy  went  away,  we 
were  thrown  into  alarm  by  a  series  of  mad  yells  and  we 
heard  Indian  cries  of  "Kill  them!  Tomahawk  them!" 
A  band  of  savages  started  to  attack  the  Gray  residence, 
and  we  saw  them  from  the  windows.  Our  time  had 
come  and  some  of  us  began  to  pray.  The  day  that 
opened  with  fair  promises  was  about  to  close  in  despair. 
To  our  amazement  and  horror  the  Indian  band  was  led 
by  Beardy  himself,  the  Indian  we  counted  on  to  police  us 
in  just  such  emergencies.  He  was  clamoring  for  the 
death  of  all  the  white  women.  Fortune  favored  us  at 
this  critical  juncture  for  just  as  the  Indians  were  enter- 
ing the  house  messengers  arrived  from  Fort  Walla 
Walla.  The  messengers  knew  Beardy  well,  and  they 
advanced  on  him  and  inquired  the  reason  for  his  wild 

Me  poinsoned !"  cried  Beardy,  "Me  Killed.  White 
squaw  poisoned  me.  Me  always  white  man's  friend, 
now  me  enemy.     White  squaw  must  die." 

That  would  be  a  liberal  translation  of  the  Indian 
words.  Then  followed  a  colloquy  between  Beardy  and 
the  messengers,  and  from  the  language  used  we  learned 
that  Beardy  had  suffered  from  an  overdose  o'  American 
pie,  and  not  knowing  about  the  pains  that  lie  in  wait 
after  intemperate  indulgence  even  in  pie,  he  rushed  to 
the  conclusion  that  he  had  been  poisoned.  It  required 
a  long  time  for  the  messengers  to  convince  Beardy  that 
they  were  innocent  of  any  intention  to  cause  him  pain, 
but  that  he  was  simply  suffering  from  the  effects  of 
inordinate  indulgence  in  an  indigestible  lu.xury.  The 
messengers  talked  Beardy  into  a  reasonable  frame  of 
mind ;  he  called  off  his  horde  of  savages  and  peace  once 
more  spread  her  wings  over  the  William  Gray  mission. 
We  were  all  happy  that  night— happy  that  Mrs.  Saun- 
dres'  pie  had  not  been  the  means  of  a  wholesale 
slaughter  of  white  families  on   Christmas  day. 

The  messengers  I  speak  of  brought  good  news  from 
the  fort.  Succor  was  at  hand,  and  on  December  29th 
we  were  moved  to  the  fort  and  started  down  the  river 
to  The  Dalles,  January  3,  1848.  The  Christmas  of  the 
year  1847,  as  it  was  celebrated  in  this  territory,  offers 
something  of  a  contrast  to  the  yuletide  merriment  in  all 
the  churches  and  homes  to-day. 

We  have  described  the  AA'hitman  Mission, 
Whitman's  mid-winter  journey,  his  work  for 
Oregon  and  the  massacre.  It  remains  to  speak 
of  the  Cayuse  war  which  followed  as  a  nat- 
ural sequence. 



Friends  of  Mr.  McBean  have  come  forward 
with  an  explanation  of  his  treatment  of  the 
refugees  from  the  Waiilatpu  massacre.  It  is 
claimed  tht  his  reluctance  to  do  any  act  which 
appeared  like  befriending  Americans  was 
through  fear  of  the  Cayuse  Indians  and  a  be- 
lief that  they  were  about  to  begin  a  war  of  ex- 
termination upon  Americans,  their  friends  and 
allies.  Therefore  it  would  be  dangerous  to 
assist  such  Americans  as  were  then  seeking  re- 
fuge from  massacre,  outrage  and  torture. 

It  was  reserved  for  Americans,  however,  to 
take  the  initiative  in  this  war.  News  of  the 
Whitman  tragedy  stirred  the  hearts  of  genuine 
men;  men  in  Avhose  veins  ran  the  milk  of  hu- 
man kindness  instead  of  ice-water.  On  the  day 
following  the  massacre  Vicar  General  Brouillet 
visited  the  Waiilatpu  mission.  He  found  the 
bodies  of  the  victims  unburied;  he  left  them 
with  such  hasty  interment  as  was  possible,  and 
soon  after  met  Mr.  Spalding  whom  he  warned 
against  attempting  to  visit  the  mission.  This 
was,  indeed,  a  friendly  act  on  the  part  of  the 
Vicar  General,  for  the  horrors  of  this  tragedy 
did  not  come  to  a  close  on  the  first  day.  While 
it  was  safe  for  Brouillet,  in  close  touch  with  the 
Hudson's  Bay  Company,  to  repair  to  that  sad 
scene  of  desolation,  it  was  not  considered  safe 
for  any  Americans  to  visit  the  spot.  On  Tues- 
day Mr.  Kimball,  who  had  remained  with  a 
broken  arm  in  Dr.  Whitman's  house,  was  shot 
and  killed.  Driven  desperate  by  his  own  and 
the  sufferings  of  three  sick  children  with  him, 
he  had  attempted  to  procure  water  from  a 
stream  near  the  house.  The  same  week  Mr. 
Young  and  Mr.  Bulee  were  killed.  Saturday 
the  savages  completed  their  fiendish  work  by 

carrying  away  the  young  women  for  wives.  Of 
the  final  ransom  of  the  captives  F.  F.  Victor,  in 
"The  River  of  the  West,"  says : 

"Late  in  the  month  of  December  (1847) 
there  arrived  in  Oregon  City  to  be  delivered  to 
the  governor,  sixty-two  captives,  bought  from 
the  Cayuses  and  Nez  Perces  by  Hudson  Bay 
blankets  and  goods ;  and  obtained  at  that  price 
by  Hudson's  Bay  influence.  'No  other  power 
on  earth,'  says  Joe  Meek,  the  American,  'could 
have  rescued  those  prisoners  from  the  hands  of 
the  Indians,'  and  no  man  better  than  Mr.  Meek 
understood  the  Indian  character  or  the  Hud- 
son's Bay  Company's  power  over  them." 

On  December  7,  1847,  from  Fort  Van- 
couver, James  Douglas  sent  the  following  let- 
ter to  Governor  Abernethy : 

SIR: — Having  received  intelligence  last  night,  by- 
special  express  from  Walla  Walla,  of  the  destruction  of 
the  missionary  settlement  at  Waiilatpu,  by  the  Cayuse 
Indians  of  that  place,  we  hasten  to  communicate  the 
particulars  of  that  dreadful  event,  one  of  the  most 
atrocious  which  darkens  the  annals  of  Indian  crime. 

Our  lamented  friend.  Dr.  Whitman,  his  amiable  and 
accomplished  lady,  with  nine  other  persons,  have  fallen 
victims  to  the  fury  of  these  remorseless  savages,  who 
appear  to  have  been  instigated  to  this  appalling  crime  by 
a  horrible  suspicion  which  had  taken  possession  of  their 
superstitious  minds,  in  consequence  of  the  number  of 
deaths  from  dysentery  and  measles,  that  Dr.  Whitman 
was  silently  working  the  destruction  of  their  tribes  by 
administering  poisonous  drugs,  under  the  semblance  of 
salutary  medicines. 

With  a  goodness  of  heart  and  a  benevolence  truly 
his  own,  Dr.  Whitman  had  been  laboring  incessantly 
since  the  appearance  of  the  measles  and  dysentery 
among  his  Indians  converts,  to  relieve  their  sufferings ; 
and  such  has  been  the  regard  of  his  generous  labors. 

A  copy  of  Mr.  McBean's  letter,  herewith  trans- 
mitted, will  give  you  all  the  particulars  known  to  us  of 
this  indescribably  painful  event.  Mr.  Ogden,  with  a 
strong  party,  will  leave  this  place  as  soon  as  possible 




for  Walla  Walla,  to  endeavor  to  prevent  further  evil ; 
and  we  beg  to  suggest  to  you  the  propriety  of  taking 
immediate  measures  for  the  protection  of  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Spalding,  who,  for  the  sake  of  his  family,  ought  to 
abandon  the  Clearwater  mission  without  delay,  and  re- 
tire to  a  place  of  safety,  as  he  cannot  remain  at  the 
isolated  station  without  imminent  risk,  in  the  present 
excited  and  irritable  state  of  the  Indian  population. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  most  obedient 
servant,  JAiVIES  DOUGLAS. 

The  reception  of  this  letter  was  followed 
by  intense  excitement  among  people  in  the 
Wallamet  settlement.  The  governor  was  au- 
thorised to  mobilize  a  company  of  riflemen,  not 
exceeding  fifty  in  number,  their  objective  point 
being  The  Dalles,  which  they  were  instructed 
to  garrison  and  hold  until  such  time  as  they 
could  be  reinforced.  Three  commissioners 
were  chosen  to  carry  out  such  provisions.  The 
commissioners  addressed  a  circular  letter  to  the 
superintendent  of  the  Methodist  Mission,  the 
"merchants  and  citizens  of  Oregon"  and  the 
Hudson's  Bay  Company.  This  document  is 
valuable  as  explaining  existing  conditions  in 
Oregon  at  that  date,  December  17,  1847: 

Gentlemen  : —  You  are  aware  that  the  undersigned 
have  been  charged  by  the  legislature  of  our  provisional 
government  with  the  difficult  duty  of  obtaining  the 
necessary  means  to  obtain  full  satisfaction  of  the  Cayuse 
Indians  for  the  late  massacre  at  Waiilatpu,  and  to  pro- 
tect the  white  population  of  our  common  country  from 
further  aggression.  In  furtherance  of  this  subject  they 
have  deemed  it  their  duty  to  make  immediate  application 
to  the  merchants  and  citizens  of  the  country  for  the 
requisite    assistance. 

Though  clothed  with  the  power  to  pledge  to  the 
fullest  extent  the  faith  and  means  of  the  present  govern- 
ment of  Oregon,  they  do  not  consider  this  pledge  the 
only  security  to  those,  who,  in  this  distressing  emer- 
gency, may  extend  to  the  people  of  this  country  the 
means  of  protection  and  redress. 

Without  claiming  any  special  authority  from  the 
government  of  the  United  States  to  contract  a  debt  to 
be  liquidated  by  that  power,  yet  from  all  precedents  of 
like  character  in  the  history  of  our  country,  the  under- 
signed feel  confident  that  the  United  States  government 
will  regard  the  murder  of  the  late  Dr.  Whitman  and  his 
lady,  as  a  national  wrong,  and  will  fully  justify  the 
people  of  Oregon  in  taking  active  measures  to  obtain 
redress  for  that  outrage,  and  for  their  protection  from 
further  aggression. 

The   right  of  self   defense  is   tacitly   acknowledged 

to  every  body  politic  in  the  confederacy  to  which  we 
claim  to  belong,  and  in  every  case  similar  to  our  own, 
within  our  knowledge,  the  general  government  has 
promptly  assumed  the  payment  of  all  liabilities  growing 
out  of  the  measures  taken  by  the  constituted  authorities 
to  protect  the  lives  and  property  of  those  who  reside 
within  the  limits  of  their  districts.  If  the  citizens  of 
the  states  and  territories,  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
are  justified  in  promptly  acting  in  such  emergencies,  who 
are  under  the  immediate  protection  of  the  general 
government,  there  appears  no  room  for  doubt  that  the 
lawful  acts  of  the  Oregon  government  will  receive  a 
like  approval. 

Though  the  Indians  of  the  Columbia  have  com- 
mitted a  great  outrage  upon  our  fellow  citizens  passing 
through  the  country,  and  residing  among  them,  and 
their  punishment  for  these  murders  may,  and  ought  to 
be,  a  prime  object  with  every  citizen  of  Oregon,  yet, 
as  that  duty  more  particularly  develops  upon  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  United  States,  we  do  not  make  this  the 
strongest  ground  upon  which  to  found  our  earnest  ap- 
peal to.  you  for  pecuniary  assistance.  It  is  a  fact  well 
known  to  every  person  acquainted  with  the  Indian 
character,  that  by  passing  silently  over  their  repeated 
thefts,  robberies  and  murders  of  our  fellow  citizens,  they 
have  been  emboldened  to  the  commission  of  the  ap- 
palling massacre  at  Waiilatpu.  They '  call  us  women, 
destitute  of  the  hearts  and  courage  of  men,  and  if  we 
allow  this  wholesale  murder  to  pass  by  as  former  ag- 
gressions, who  can  tell  how  long  either  life  or  property 
will  be  secure  in  any  part  of  the  country,  or  what 
moment  the  Willamette  will  be  the  scene  of  blood  and 

The  officers  of  our  provisional  government  have 
nobly  performed  their  duty.  None  can  doubt  the  readi- 
ness of  the  patriotic  sons  of  the  west  to  offer  their 
personal  services  in  defense  of  a  cause  so  righteous. 
So  it  now  rests  with  you,  gentlemen,  to  say  whether 
our  rights  and  our  firesides  shall  be  defended  or  not. 
Hoping  that  none  will  be  found  to  falter  in  so  high 
and  so  sacred  a  duty,  we  beg  leave,  gentlemen,  to  sub- 
scribe ourselves. 

Your  servants  and  fellow  citizens, 
Jesse  Applegate, 
A.  L.  LovEjoY, 
Geo.  L.  Curry, 


This  patriotic  communication  produced  a 
certain  effect,  though  not,  perhaps,  financially 
commensurate  with  the  hopes  of  its  authors. 
The  amount  secured  was  less  than  five  thousand 
dollars,  but  this  sufficed  to  arm  and  equip  the 
first  regiment  of  Oregon  riflemen.  In  the 
month  of  January  they  proceeded  to  the  Cayuse 



We  are  now  acquainted  \Yith  the  agency 
tlirough  which  the  ransomed  missionaries, 
their  wives  and  children  reached  the  ^Villa- 
mette  vahey  in  safety.  Concerning  the  people 
who  were  brought  from  Lapwai  and  Tchima- 
kin,  it  may  be  said  to  the  credit  of  the  Indians 
that  though  one  band,  the  Cayuses,  were  mur- 
derers, two  bands,  the  Nez  Perces  and  Spo- 
kanes,  were  saviors.  Few  narratives  are  more 
thrilling  than  that  relating  to  Fathers  Eells  and 
Walker,  who  attended  the  council  of  the  Spo- 
kanes  at  Tchimakin,  which  council  was  to  de- 
cide whether  or  no  to  join  the  Cayuses.  On 
their  decision  hung  the  lives  of  the  missionaries. 
Imagine  their  emotions  as  they  waited  with 
bated  breath  in  their  humble  mission  house  to 
learn  the  result  of  the  Indians'  deliberations. 
Hours  of  animated  discussion  followed;  argu- 
ment with  the  Cayuses  emissaries;  and  finally 
the  Spokanes  announced  their  conclusions  in 
these  words  :  "Go  and  tell  the  Cayuses  that  the 
missionaries  are  our  friends  and  we  will  defend 
them  with  our  lives." 

The  Nez  Perces  arrrived  at  the  same  con- 
clusion. Bold  though  these  Cayuses  were — 
the  fiercest  warriors  of  the  inland  empire — 
their  hearts  must  have  sunk  within  them  as  they 
saw  that  the  Umatillas,  the  Nez  Perces  and  the 
Spokanes  and,  even  at  that  particular  period, 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  were  all  against 
them,  and  that  they  must  meet  the  infuriated 
whites  from  the  Willamette.  The  provisional 
government  had  entered  upon  the  work  of 
equipping  fourteen  companies  of  volunteers. 
The  act  of  the  legislature  providing  for  this  had 
been  passed  December  9,  1847.  A  large  ma- 
jority of  these  volunteers  furnished  their  own 
horses,  arms  and  ammunition.  This,  too,  with- 
out thought  of  pecuniary  gain  or  reimburse- 
ment. The  response  to  the  dircular  letter  of 
the  commissioners  had  been  prompt,  open- 
handed  and  hearty. 

Coruelius  Gilliam,  father  of  W.  S.  Gilliam, 
of  Walla  Walla,  was  chosen  colonel  of  the  reg- 
iment.    He  was  a  man  of  superlative  energy. 

brave  and  resourceful,  and,  pushing  all  neces- 
sary arrangements,  he  set  forth  from  the  ren- 
dezvous at  The  Dalles  on  February  ij.  1848. 
Several  battles  occurred  on  the  way  into  the 
Cayuse  country,  the  most  severe  being  at  Sand 
Hollows,  in  the  Umatilla  country.  Five  Crows 
and  War  Eagle,  famous  fighters  of  the  Cayuse 
tribe,  had  gathered  their  braves  to  dispute  the 
crossing  of  this  region  with  the  Oregon  rifle- 
men. Fi\'e  Crows  flamboyantly  claimed  that 
by  his  wizard  powers  he  could  stop  all  bullets 
while  \Var  Eagle's  gasconade  was  couched 
in  the  boastful  statement  that  he  would 
agree  to  swallow  all  missies  fired  at  him. 
This  same  spirit  of  braggadocio  has,  through- 
out all  historical  times,  animated  pagan  sol- 
diers. During  the  war  with  the  Filipinos  the 
natives  were  solemnly  told  by  their  priests  that 
all  bullets  fired  by  American  soldiers  would 
turn  to  water  before  reaching  them. 

Mark  the  result  of  the  engagement  between 
the  avengers  of  Dr.  Whitman  and  the  supersti- 
tious Cayuses.  At  the  first  onset  the  "Swallow 
Ball"  was  killed,  and  the  "wizard"  was  so  seri- 
ously wounded  that  he  was  compelled  to  retire 
from  the  war. 

Nevertheless  the  Indians  maintained  a 
plucky  fight.  A  number  of  casualties  were  suf- 
fered by  the  whites.  But  at  last  the  Indians 
were  compelled  to  break,  and  the  way  for  the 
first  regiment  of  Oregon  riflemen  was  clear  to 
Waiilatpu.  The  desolated  mission  was  reached 
by  Colonel  Gilliam's  command  ]\Iarch  4.  Here 
the  soldiers  passed  several  days  to  recuperate 
from  the  effects  of  a  short  but  arduous  cam- 
paign, and  give  to  the  remains  of  the  martyrs 
of  the  Whitman  massacre  a  reverent  burial. 
Some  of  the  dead  had  been  hastily  covered  with 
earth  by  Vicar  General  Brouillet,  and  his  com- 
panions; others  when  Ogden  ransomed  the 
captives,  but  afterward  they  had  been  partially 
exhumed  by  coyotes ;  hyena-like  allies  of  the 
dastradly  Cayuses. 

The  Indians  had  now  fallen  back  to  Snake 
river.    Following  them  thither  the  whites  were, 



somewhat,  outgeneraled  by  the  wily  savages,  an 
event  that  has  been  dupHcated  several  times  in 
Indian  wars  of  more  recent  date.  The  Oregon 
riflemen  surprised  and  captured  a  camp  of 
Cayuse  Indians  among  whom,  as  was  afterward 
divulged,  were  some  of  the  murderers  of  Dr. 
Whitman  and  his  friends  at  Waillatpu.  The 
Machiavellian  Cayuses  suddenly  professed 
great  friendship  for  the  Oregon  avengers,  and, 
pointing  to  a  large  band  of  horses  on  a  hill, 
declared  that  the  hostiles  had  abandoned  them, 
and  gone  across  the  river.  This  deception  was 
successful.  Completely  deluded  the  whites 
surrounded  the  camp  and,  rounding  up  the 
horses,  started  on  their  return.  It  was  the  hour 
of  temporary  Cayuse  triumph.  The  released 
captives,  mounting  at  once,  began  a  furious  at- 
tack on  the  rear  of  the  batallion  of  riflemen 
which  proved  so  harrassing  that  the  volunteers 
were  compelled  to  retreat  to  the  Touchet  river, 
and  finally,  although  they  repelled  the  Indians, 
they  were  forced  to  turn  loose  the  captured 
horses.  These  animals  the  strategetic  Indians 
immediately  seized  and  with  them  vanished 
over  the  plains.  They  had  outwitted  Gilliam's 
men.  Not  only  had  they  secured  life  and  lib- 
erty for  themselves,  but  had  actually  recovered 
the  bait  with  which  they  had  inveigled  the  vol- 
unteers into  a  trap. 

It  was  soon  made  evident  that  the  Cayuse 
Indians  had  no  real  desire  to  fight.  The  whites 
insisted  on  a  surrender  of  the  murderers  of  Dr. 
Whitman  and  his  people.  Finding  that  the  vol- 
unteers were  in  earnest  in  making  this  demand 
the  treacherous  tribe  scattered  in  different  di- 
rections; Tamsuky,  with  his  friends,  going  to 
the  headwaters  of  the  John  Day  river.  There, 
despite  various  efforts  to  capture  them,  they  re- 
mained two  years.  In  1850,  a  band  of  Uma- 
tillas  undertook  the  task  of  securing  them,  for 
trial,  and  after  fierce  and  desperate  resistance, 
killed  Tamsuky  and  captured  a  number  of  his 
murderous  compatriots.  Of  these  captives  five 
were  hanged  at  Oregon  City,  June  3,  1850. 

The  Cayuse  Indians,  howe\er,  assert  that 

only  one  of  these  condemned  and  executed  In- 
dians were  really  guilty  of  participation  in  the 
horrible  deeds  at  Waiilatpu.  That  one,  they  de- 
clared, was  Tamahas,  who  struck  Dr.  Whitman 
the  fatal  blow.  The  claim  that  the  others  were 
innocent  may  be  true,  so  far  as  the  actual  mur- 
der of  the  doctor  or  his  friends  is  concerned, 
but  as  accessories  to  a  great — indeed,  a  national 
crime — they  were,  undoui)tedly,  guilty.  If  they 
were  not,  it  is  but  one  more  instance  of  lament- 
able failure  to  apply  either  punishment  or  mercy 
accurately,  which  has  characterized  all  Indian 
wars  on  both  sides.  The  innocent  have 
home  the  sins  of  the  guilty  in  more  ways 
than  one. 

In  this  Cayuse  war  many  men,  who  after- 
ward became  famous  in  Oregon  and  Washing- 
ton history  took  an  active  part.  Among  them 
may  be  named  James  Nesmith,  who  was  United 
States  Senator.  He  was  the  father  of  Mrs.  Levi 
Ankeny,  of  Walla  Walla,  present  United  States 
senator  from  Washington.  William  Martin,  of 
Pendleton,  Oregon,  was  one  of  the  captains  in 
the  corps  of  rifle  men  during  this  war.  Joel 
Palmer,  Tom  ]\IcKay,  J.  M.  Garrison  and 
many  others  bore  their  part  in  the  beginning,  or 
later  in  the  maturer  development  of  the  coun- 
try. Colonel  Gilliam,  who  had  shown  himself 
to  be  a  brave  and  sagacious  commander,  was 
accidentally  killed  on  the  return  of  his  trooops,  a 
inost  melancholy  close  of  a  career  full  of  prom- 
ise to  this  country,  then  slowly  unfolding  its 
wealth  of  varied  industries. 

In  taking  leave  of  this  stirring  epoch  in  the 
history  of  a  certain  portion  of  the,  now,  state  of 
Washington,  pursuit,  capture  and  punishment 
of  principals  and  instigators  of  the  murder  of 
Dr.  Whitman,  and  his  associates  in  missionarj- 
work,  it  may  be  said  in  the  way  of  retrospec- 
tion that,  grevious  as  was  the  end  of  Whitman's 
career,  no  doubt  it  will  ultimately  be  seen  to 
have  produced  greater  results  for  this  region 
and  the  world  than  if  he  had  survived  to  have 
enjoyed  a  well-merited  rest  from  his  labors. 
Subsequent   development   of   this   section,    the 



founding  of  Whitman  College,  and  the  whole 
train  of  circumstances  arising  from  American 
occupation  of  Oregon  may  be  seen,  in  some 
measure,  to  have  grown  out  of  the  tragedy  at 
Waiilatpu.  Here,  as  elsewhere,  martyrdom 
appears  a  necessary  accompainment  to  the  most 
brilliant  progress  in  civilization. 

While  the  offense  of  these  Indians  can  not 
be  condoned,  charity  compels  the  admission  that 
the  ignorant  creatures  were  scarcely  more  re- 
sponsible than  the  wild  beasts  who,  also,  dis- 
puted this  territory  with  civilized  man.  The 
very  superstition  which  it  is  the  duty  of  every 

missionary  to  eradicate  from  pagan  minds  as 
speedily  as  possible,  is  primarily  to  blame  for 
the  undoing  of  Dr.  Whitman.  Steeped  in  this 
barbaric  superstition,  pampered  by  the  Hud- 
son's Bay  Company,  treacherously  deceived  by 
agents  and  emissaries  of  the  great  octupus  of 
the  Northwest  Coast,  we  can  not  hold  these 
savages  to  a  higher  degree  of  responsibility  than 
the  source  from  which  they  drew  their  grew- 
some  inspiration.  But  in  1848  the  progress  of 
western  civilization  demanded  their  suppres- 
sion, if  not  ultimate  removal,  along  with  the 
coyote  and  rattlesnake. 



Previous  to  1859  the  territory  of  Oregon 
comprised  the  present  states  of  Washington, 
Oregon  and  Idaho.  It  is  not  within  the  prov- 
ince of  this  history  to  follow  the  careers  of  In- 
dian "braves,"  Indian  thieves  and  Indian  raps- 
callions along  the  entire  course  of  their  devious 
warpaths  throughout  all  of  the  country  out- 
lined above.  Of  the  Indian  wars  immediately 
affecting  Washington,  the  territory  covered  by 
these  annals,  it  becomes  our  duty  to  treat  them 
in  an  impartial  yet  concise  manner. 

The  massacre  of  the  Ward  train,  by  the 
Snake  Indians,  occurred  near  Fort  Boise  in  the 
autumn  of  1854.  Determined  to  show  the  In- 
dians that  the  government  would  not  remain  in- 
active in  the  face  of  such  outrages  Major  Gran- 
ville O.  Haller  organized  an  expedition  with 
M-hich  he  pushed  over  into  the  Snake  country, 
from  Fort  Dalles.  Nothing  tangible  resulted 
from  this  march  other  than  a  demonstration  in 
force ;  the  Indians  retreated  into  the  mountains ; 
Major  Haller  and  his  soldiers  returned  to  The 
Dalles.    During  the  summer  of  1855,  however. 

he  made  another  attempt  to  reach  the  Snake  In- 
dians, and  this  time  successfully,  finally  captur- 
ing and  executing  the  murderers  of  the  Ward 

Discovery  of  gold  in  tlie  vicinity  of  Fort 
Colville  incited  a  stampede  to  that  country. 
This  was  in  the  spring  of  1855.  -^t  that  period 
Governor  Stevens  was  making  his  famous  east- 
ern tour  through  the  territory  engaged  in  treat- 
ies and  agreements  with  the  various  tribes,  and 
this  gold  discovery  so  excited  the  members  of 
his  escort  that  it  was  with  difficulty  they  were 
prevented  from  deserting.  On  meeting  with 
the  Kettle  Falls,  Fend  d'Oreilles,  Spokanes  and 
Coeuf  d'Alenes  Governor  Stevens  had  told 
them  that  he  would  negotiate  with  them  for  the 
sale  of  their  lands  on  his  return.  Offers  to  pur- 
chase lands  by  the  whites  had  always  been  re- 
garded with  suspicion  by  the  Indians.  To  them 
it  appeared  the  preliminary  step  toward  sub- 
jugation and  domination  of  the  country  which, 
perhaps  was  not  an  unusual  view  of  the  matter. 
The  gradual  but  steadv  increase  of  the  white 



men  was  far  from  pleasing  to  the  Indians ;  they 
were  dissatisfied  with  the  terms  of  treaties  al- 
ready negotiated,  and  one  chief  Peupeumox- 
mox  "Yellow  Bird,"  was  on  the  eve  of  repudi- 
ating the  sale  of  certain  territory. 

The  first  note  of  defiance  was  sounded  by 
Pierre  Jerome,  chief  of  the  Kettle  Falls  Indians, 
about  August  i,  1855.  He  declared  emphat- 
ically that  no  white  man  should  pass  through 
his  country.  This  declaration  was  soon  fol- 
lowed by  rumors  of  murders  committed  by  the 
Yakimas.  A  number  of  small  parties  had  set 
forth  from  the  Sound  en  route  to  Fort  Col- 
ville,  via  Nisqually  pass  and  the  Ahtanahm 
Catholic  mission.  Such  was  the  report  com- 
municated by  Chief  Garry,  of  the  Spokanes,  to 
A  J.  Bolon,  special  agent  for  the  Yakimas.  It 
was  Bolon's  intention  to  meet  Governor  Stev- 
ens on  the  latter's  return  from  Fort  Benton,  and 
assist  at  the  councils  and  treaties.  But  on  re- 
ceiving these  sanguinary  reports  Bolon  rashly 
deflected  his  course  for  the  purpose  of  investi- 
gating them.  He  went,  unattended  to  the  Cath- 
olic mission  to  meet  Kamiakin,  and  was  mur- 
dered by  Owhi,  a  nephew  of  Kamiakin,  and 
chief  of  the  Umatillas,  who  treacherously  shot 
him  in  the  back. 

Then  Kamiakin  declared  war  on  the  whites, 
which  war,  he  said,  he  was  prepared  to  carry 
on  five  years,  if  necessary.  The  gauntlet  had 
been  thrown  down  and  war  was  inevitable.  The 
Tunior  of  whites  having  been  killed  by  the 
Yakimas  was  confirmed  by  miners  returning 
frcm  Fort  Cloville,  on  September  20.  A 
requisition  for  troops  from  Vancouver  and 
Steilacoom  was  at  once  made  by  acting  Gov- 
ernor Mason.  Fears  for  the  safety  of  Governor 
Stevens  warranted  sending  a  detachment  to  his 
assistance.  A  force  of  eighty-four  men  from 
Fort  Dalles,  under  Major  Haller,  was  ordered 
to  proceed  against  Kamiakin  and  Peupeumox- 
mox,  two  chiefs  most  to  be  dreaded.  Haller's 
objective  point  was  the  Catholic  mission,  the 
home  of  Kamiakin.    He  set  forth  October  3. 

Indians  were  discovered  the  third  dav  out. 

A  sharp  skirmish  ensued  in  the  afternoon  of 
that  day,  and  at  nightfall  the  Yakimas  with- 
drew. Of  Haller's  force  eight  men  were  killed 
and  wounded.  On  the  following  day  the  fight 
was  renewed,  the  whites  being  without  water 

[  and  having  but  very  little  food.  The  Indians 
attempted  to  surround  Haller,  and  so  sharp  was 
their  attack  that  at  dark  a  messenger  was  des- 
patched to  Major  Raines,  at  The  Dalles,  asking 
for  assistance.  On  the  third  day  of  this  en- 
gagement, which  was  in  reality  a  signal  defeat 
for  the  whites,  the  cavalry  horses  and  pack  ani- 
mads  were  turned  loose  to  find  water  and  grass. 

i  Haller  determined  to  return  to  The  Dalles,  and 
was  again  attacked  by  the  Indians  who,  for  ten 
miles,  harassed  the  retreating  soldiers  with  a 
sharp,  running  fire.  The  force  separated  into 
two  divisions,  one  of  them  being  under  the  com- 
mand of  Captain  Russell.  Two  detachments 
of  reinforcements  failed  to  connect  with  Haller, 
for  any  effective  stand  against  the  enemy,  and 
Major  Haller  reached  The  Dalles  with  a  loss 
of  five  men  killed,  seventeen  wounded  and  con- 
siderable government  property.  It  was  esti- 
mated that  the  Indians  suffered  a  loss  of  forty 

The  disastrous  result  of  this  initial  cam- 
paign against  the  Yakimas  inflamed  both  sol- 
diers and  civilians.  Preparations  for  a  war  of 
considerable  magnitude  were  hastily  made.  It 
was  reported  at  Forts  Vancouver  and  Steila- 
coom that  there  were  fifteen  hundred  fighting 
braves  in  the  field  against  the  whites.  One 
company  of  volunteers  was  called  on  from 
Clarke,  and  one  from  Thurston  county,  these 
companies  to  consist  of  eighty-five  men  each. 
Acting  Governor  Mason  asked  for  arms  from 
the  commanders  of  the  revenue  cutter  Jefferson 
Davis  and  sloop  of  war  Decatur,  which  were 
furnished  promptly.  Company  B,  of  the  Puget 
Sound  Volunteers,  was  organized  at  Olympia, 
Gilmore  Hays,  captain,  James  S.  Hurd,  first 
lieutenant,  William  Martin,  second  lieutenant, 

j  Joseph    Gibson,    Henry    D.     Cock,    Thomas 

I  Prathar.  and  Joseph  White,  sergeants;  Joseph 


S.  Taylor,  \Vhitfield  Kirtley,  T.  Wlieelock  and 
John  Scott,  corporals.  On  the  20th  they  re- 
ported at  Fort  Steilacoom  and  on  the  21st,  un- 
der command  of  Captain  Maloney,  set  out  for 
White  river  to  reinforce  Lieutenant  Slaughter, 
who  had  gone  into  the  Yakima  country  with 
forty  men. 

The  history  of  Xesmitli's  campaign  against 
the  Yakima  Indians  is  uneventful.  J.  W. 
Nesmith  was  placed  in  command  of  several  vol- 
unteer companies,  organized  by  proclamation 
of  Acting  Governor  Mason,  numbering, 
all  told,  about  seven  hundred  men.  They 
were  enrolled  at  Seattle.  Olympia,  Van- 
couver and  Cathlamet.  James  Tilton  was 
appointed  adjutant-general  of  the  volun- 
teer forces  and  Major  Raines  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  regulars  to  cooperate  with 
Xesmith.  The  volunteers  and  regulars  formed 
a  junction  at  Simcoe  Valley  on  November  7. 
The  day  following  there  was  a  sharp  skirmish 
with  the  Indians,  but  the  latter  finding  the  force 
of  the  whites  greatly  augumented  were  timid, 
and  more  inclined  to  retreat  than  advance.  Be- 
ing supplied  with  fresh  horses  they  could  escape 
easily,  and  were  driven  up  the  Yakima  river  to 
a  narrow  gap  in  the  mountains  where  they 
made  a  feeble  stand.  Haller  and  Captain  Augur 
charged  them,  upon  which  they  retreated  and 
fled  down  the  other  side  of  the  mountain,  leav- 
ing the  whites  in  possession.  On  the  loth  they 
made  another  stand,  and  an  attempt  was  made 
by  the  volunteers  and  regulars  to  surround 
them.  Owing  to  a  misunderstaftding  a  charge 
was  made  at  an  inopportune  moment,  and  again 
the  wily  foe  were  enabled  to  retreat  in  compar- 
ative safety.  On  reaching  the  Ahtanahm  mis- 
sion it  was  found  deserted  and,  after  a  number 
of  unimportant  movements,  Nesmith  pushed  on 
to  \\'alla  Walla.  Major  Raines  reported  to 
General  Wool,  who  had  recently  arrived  in  the 
territory.  The  latter  was  supplied  with  four 
thousand  stand  of  arms,  a  large  amount  of  am- 
unition  and  had  with  him  fifty  dragoons. 

General  Wool  at  this  period  appears  to  have 

been  extremely  critical  and  fault-finding.  He 
was  particularly  severe  on  the  volunteers  nor 
did  he  spare  Majors  Raines  and  Haller.  One 
of  General  Wool's  orders,  which  appears  to 
have  given  great  offense  to  the  citizens  of  Ore- 
gon, was  to  disband  the  company  enrolled  to 
proceed  to  the  relief  of  Governor  Stevens,  and 
this  order  was  subsequently  bitterly  resented 
by  the  governor.  The  result  of  Wool's  con- 
duct was  what  might  have  been  expected ;  con- 
tentions between  the  regulars  and  volunteers, 
rendering  void  their  efficiency  and  making  it 
impossible  for  them  to  co-operate.  Practically 
future  campaigns  against  the  hostiles  were  in 
the  hands  of  the  volunteers.  January  11,  1856. 
General  Wool  received  information  of  Indian 
troubles  in  Southern  Oregon  and  California, 
and  he  left  for  San  Francisco,  having  first  as- 
signed command  of  the  Columbia  River  Dis- 
trict to  Colonel  George  Wright,  with  head- 
quarters at  The  Dalles. 

In  the  Puget  Sound  district  the  year  1855 
was  punctuated  with  a  number  of  Indian  trag- 
edies. Lieutenant  McAllister  and  M.  McCon- 
nell,  of  McConnell's  prairie,  were  killed  by  the 
hostiles  in  October  of  that  year.  Sunday,  the 
28th,  in  the  White  Valley,  the  Indians  fell  upon 
the  farming  settlements.  W.  H.  Braman,  wife 
and  child,  H.  H.  Jones  and  wife,  Simon  Cooper 
and  George  E.  King  and  wife  were  killed. 
Others  escaped  to  Seattle.  The  death  of  Lieu- 
tenant Slaughter,  in  December,  1855,  cast  a 
heavy  gloom  over  the  ^•arious  communities  then 
in  the  territory.  While  in  command  of  sixty- 
five  men,  on  Brannans'  prairie,  Lieutenant 
Slaughter  was  sitting  at  night  in  a  small  log 
house.  For  the  purpose  of  drying  their  wet 
clothing  the  soldiers  had  started  a  small  fire 
near  the  door  of  the  cabin,  and  the  Indians, 
guided  by  this  light  were  able  to  shoot  Slaugh- 
ter through  the  heart.  Without  uttering  a 
word  he  fell  dead  from  his  chair.  An  attack 
on  Seattle,  in  December  of  the  same  year,  was 
repulsed  with  heavy  losses  to  both  sides,  the 
sloop  of  war,  Decatur,  taking  a  prominent  part 


in  this  fight  and  doing  good  execution.  Other 
United  States  vessels,  including  the  Active  and 
Massachusetts,  were  conspicuous  in  defense  of 
the  town.  It  was  aboard  the  Decatur  that  the 
sanguinary  Patkanim  delivered  the  heads  of  In- 
dians for  which  a  bounty  was  offered.  Pat- 
kanim had  entered  into  a  contract  with  the  ter- 
ritorial government  by  which  he  was  to  receive 
eighty  dollars  apiece  for  all  heads  of  Indian 
chiefs,  and  twenty  dollars  for  the  heads  of  war- 
riors. Subsequently  these  ghastly  trophies  were 
forwarded  to  Olympia.  In  this  horrible  hunt 
for  hostile  heads  Patkanim  was  assisted  by 
eighty  warriors  of  the  Snoqualimich  and' 
Skokomish  tribes,  and,  also,  a  chief  called  John 
Taylor.  The  United  States  navy  at  that  time 
rendered  most  valuable  services  in  repulsing 
Indian  attacks  along  the  shore-line  of  Puget 
Sound.  Working  in  conjunction  with  the  land 
forces  of  the  whites  the  guns  of  the  ships  at 
times  did  terrible  execution  among  the  painted 
savages.  On  the  morning  of  October  22,  1856, 
a  party  of  Indians  surrendered  to  the  com- 
mander of  the  Massachusetts  and  were  taken 
to  Victoria.  It  was  generally  supposed  that  the 
severe  treatment  accorded  unfriendly  Indians 
on  the  Sound  would  result  in  the  abatidonment 
of  depredations  in  that  vicinity.  But  on  August 
II,  1857,  a  party  of  savages  landed  at  Whidby 
Island,  killed  a  man  named  I.  N.  Eby,  decapi- 
tated him  and  looted  his  house  before  an  alarm 
could  be  given.  Nor  was  this  the  extent  of 
later  depredations.  It  became  necessary  for 
vessels  heavily  armed  to  cruise  in  the  sound 
and  through  Fuca  Strait. 

Our  territorial  limitations  demand  that  we 
return  to  the  Yakima  country  where  Indian  hos- 
tilities were  renewed.  In  October,  1855  rumors 
were  rife  of  a  combination  of  Oregon  and 
Yakima  Indians.  It  was  reported,  also,  that  the 
Des  Chutes,  Walla  Wallas  and  Cayuses  were 
inclined  to  be  unfriendly.  To  prevent  such  a 
combination  Indian  Agent  Olney  had  been  sent 
from  The  Dalles  to  Walla  Walla.  It  was  con- 
strued   as    an    unfavorable    circumstance    that 

Peupeumoxmox  should  have  been  found  on  the 
north  side  of  the  Columbia.  Other  signs  indi- 
cated the  truculency  of  Peupeumoxmox,  and  he 
even  denied  that  he  had  ever  sold  the  Walla 
Walla  valley.  To  Olney  it  seemed  apparent 
that  the  chief  was  preparing  to  join  the  Ya- 
kimas  in  a  war  against  the  whites.  It  was  de- 
cided in  conference  between  Agent  Olney  and 
McKinlay,  Anderson  and  Sinclair,  officers  of 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  to  destroy  the 
amunition  in  Walla  Walla  to  prevent  it  from 
falling  into  the  hands  of  the  Indians.  It  was, 
therefore,  thrown  into  the  river.  All  whites 
were  then  ordered  to  leave  the  country,  and  this 
order  included  Sinclair,  who  abandoned  prop- 
erty in  the  fort  valued  at  $37,000. 

To  a  winter  campaign  against  the  Indians 
in  the  Yakima  valley,  Colonel  Nesmith  was 
stoutly  opposed.  He  directed  attention  to  the 
fact  that  his  horses  and  men  were  exhausted, 
some  of  the  latter  being  severely  frost-bitten 
and  otherwise  unfit  for  duty.  One  hundred  and 
twenty-five  of  them  had  been  discharged.  How- 
ever, Governor  Curry  ordered  Major  M.  A. 
Chinn  to  proceed  to  Walla  Walla  and  join 
Nesmith.  This  order  was  followed  by  a  general 
uprising  of  the  Indians.  Chinn  resolved  to 
fortify  the  Umatilla  agency,  and  await  rein- 
forcements, believing  it  impossible  to  form  the 
contemplated  union  with  Nesmith.  Accord- 
ingly Chinn.  who  had  arrived  at  the  agency 
November  18,  1855,  where  he  found  the  build- 
ings destroyed,  erected  a  stockade  and  named 
the  same  Fort  Henrietta,  in  honor  of  the  wife 
of  Major  Haller.  Later  Kelly  arrived  and  suc- 
ceeding reinforcements  gave  him  four  hundred 
and  seventy-five  men.  The  first  sally  from 
Walla  Walla  was  made  on  December  2.  The 
force  of  three  hundred  and  ninety-nine  men 
was  met  by  Chief  Peupeumoxmox,  who  carried 
a  white  flag  at  the  head  of  a  band  of  warriors. 
Following  a  conference  the  Indians  were  held 
as  prisoners  and.  during  a  subsequent  attack 
on  Waiilatpu,  were  killed.  The  truculent  chief 
of  the  \\''a]la  ^^^'tllas  met  his  deatli  earlv  in  the 



insurrection  of  which  he  was  the  instigator. 
The  fight  at  Waiilatpu  continued  through  the 
7th,  8th  and  9th,  the  fortunes  of  war  being  tem- 
porarily with  the  Indians.  Reinforcements  for 
Kelly  arrived  on  the  loth,  from  Fort  Henrietta, 
thus  enabling  the  whites  to  snatch  victory  from 
the  jaws  of  defeat,  and  Continue  the  pursuit  of 
the  Indians  until  nightfall.  Kelly  then  built 
Fort  Bennett,  two  miles  above  Waiilatpu. 

It  is  impossible  to  attempt  a  description  of 
the  battle  between  the  upper  and  lower  cascades 
of  the  Columbia  river  without  being  brought 
face  to  face  with  another  blunder  of  General 
Wool.  However  valuable  may  have  been  his 
services  during  the  Mexican  war,  and  no  one 
could  justly  censure  any  portion  of  his  career 
in  those  campaigns,  truth  compels  the  state- 
ment that  General  Wool's  knowledge  of  Indian 
warfare  was  limited.  Undoubtedly  his  inten- 
tions were  the  best,  but  he  appears  singularly 
unfortunate  in  a  number  of  his  military  orders 
while  at  the  head  of  the  troops  in  Washington 
and  Oregon. 

About  the  middle  of  December,  1855,  Kelly 
received  news  of  the  resignation  of  Colonel 
Nesmith.  The  latter  was  succeeded  by  Thomas 
R.  Cornelius,  and  Kelly,  anxious  to  return  to 
civil  duties,  gave  his  command  to  Davis  Layton. 
A.  M.  Fellows  took  the  place  of  Captain  Ben- 
nett, Fellows  being  succeeded  by  A.  Shepard, 
and  the  latter  by  B.  A.  Barker.  Thus  was 
effected  a  partial  reorganization  of  the  volun- 
teer forces  in  the  Walla  Walla  valley.  On  the 
return  of  Governor  Stevens,  who  arrived  in 
camp  December  20,  he  expressed  himself  as 
highly  gratified  by  the  assistance  rendered  us 
by  the  Oregon  trooops.  During  the  ten  days  he 
remained  in  the  Walla  Walla  valley,  a  com- 
pany of  home-guards,  composed  of  French 
Canadians,  was  formed  and  officered  by  Sidney 
E.  Ford,  captain.  Green  McCafferty,  first  lieu- 
tenant. It  was  decided,  after  discussion  with 
the  Oregon  volunteers,  to  intrench  Walla  Walla 
and  hold  the  same  until  the  regular  trooops 
were  prepared  to  prosecute  another  campaign. 

Similar  means  of  defense  were  provided  for  the 
Spokane  and  Colville. 

Before  his  return  to  Olympia  Governor 
Stevens  expressed  his  appreciation  of  the  serv- 
ices of  sixty-nine  Nez  Perce  volunteers  in  a 
substantial  manner.  He  directed  that  they  be 
cordially  thanked,  mustered  out  of  service  and 
their  muster  rolls  forwarded  to  Olympia  for 
future  payment.  No  one  can  gainsay  this 
judicious  measure,  for  it  was  of  the  utmost  im- 
portance to  retain  the  friendship  of  any  tribe  of 
Indians  disposed  to  be  at  all  friendly  toward  the 
whites.  In  return  for  the  generous  treatment 
by  Governor  Stevens  the  Nez  Perces  coven- 
anted to  furnish  horses  with  which  to  mount 
the  Oregon  volunteers. 

The  return  of  Governor  Stevens  and  Kelly, 
the  one  to  Olympia,  the  other  to  Oregon  City, 
was  marked  in  each  instance  by  a  series  of  pub- 
lic ovations  from  the  people.  January  19,  1856, 
the  governor  was  received  with  a  salute  of 
thirty-eight  guns;  Kelly  was  given  a  public 
banquet  and  escorted  to  the  hall,  an  honor 
worthily  bestowed  on  one  who,  without  doubt, 
had  prevented  a  dangerous  coalition  between 
the  Indians  of  Northern  Washington  and 
Southern  Oregon.  But  the  praiseworthy 
efforts  of  Oregon  were  not  to  cease  at  this  point. 
A  proclamation  was  issued  by  Governor  Curry 
on  January  6,  1856,  asking  for  five  companies 
to  be  recruited  in  Yamhill,  Polk,  Clackamas, 
Marion  and  Linn  counties,  supplemented  by 
forty  men  to  round  out  the  skeltonized  company 
of  scouts  under  Captain  Conoyer.  These  troops 
arrived  at  Walla  Walla  about  March  i. 

Nine  days  later  the  campaign  was  opened  by 
Colonel  Cornelius  who  started  with  six  hundred 
men.  The  plan  was  to  proceed  along  the  Snake 
and  Columbia  rivers  to  the  Palouse  and  Ya- 
kima; thence  to  Priest's  Rapids  and  down  the 
east  bank  of  the  Columbia  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Yakima.  During  this  march  a  few  Indians 
were  found,  but  no  heavy  engagement  followed, 
and  the  command  reached  the  Yakima  March 
30.    Here  ominous  reports  were  received.    Be- 



tween  the  two  cascades  of  the  Cokimbia  were 
a  number  of  settlements.  These  had  been  at- 
tacked by  hostile  Indians. 

One  blunder  of  General  Wool's,  to  which 
attention  has  been  called,  was  made  at  this  junc- 
ture. On  his  arrival  from  California  he  had 
found  at  Vancouver  three  companies  of  in- 
fantry. He  ordered  two  of  these  to  repair  to 
Fort  Steilacoom.  The  territory  of  the  hostile 
Klikitats  and  Yakimas  adjoined  a  portage  be- 
tween the  cascades,  on  which  portage  a  large 
quantity  of  government  stores  was  exposed. 
This  was  a  strong  inducement  to  the  Indians  to 
attack  the  point,  and  it  should  have  been  heav- 
ily guarded.  On  the  contrary  the  company  at 
the  Cascades,  on  March  24,  was  sent  away, 
with  the  exception  of  eight  men  under  com- 
mand of  Sergeant  Matthew  Kelly.  The  latter 
was  a  member  of  the  4th  infantry.  The  upper 
and  lower  ends  of  the  portage  were  connected 
by  a  wagon  road.  The  stream  above  the  port- 
age was  named  Rock  Creek,  on  which  was  a 
saw  mill.  In  this  vicinity  were  a  number  of 
families  and  the  trading  post  of  Bradford  & 
Company.  An  island  in  the  river  was  con- 
nected with  the  mainland  by  a  bridge.  The  first 
steamer  to  run  on  the  Columbia,  trading  be- 
tween The  Dalles  and  the  Cascades,  was  the 
Mary.  This  craft  was  at  her  landing  near  Rock 
Creek.  The  block-house  was?  located  about 
midway  between  the  two  cascades  and  near  it 
lived  the  families  of  George  Griswold  and  W. 
K.  Kilborn. 

General  Wool,  after  giving  his  orders, 
which  resulted  so  disastrously,  had  returned  to 
California.  The  force  of  Colonel  Wright  had 
moved  from  The  Dalles;  his  rear  left  un- 
guarded. At  the  upper  settlement  of  the  Cas- 
cades, on  the  morning  of  March  26,  a  force  of 
Klikitats  and  Yakimas  appeared  with  hostile 
demonstrations.  Some  of  the  settlers  had  gone 
to  their  daily  avocations,  but  the  hour  being 
early,  the  crew  of  the  Mary  had  not  reached 
the  boat.  The  Indians  who  had  taken  their  po- 
sition   under    cover    of    darkness    opened    the  | 

fight,  if  such  an  attack  on  almost  defenseless 
settlers  could  be  termed  a  fight,  with  a  rapid 
rifle  fire  from  the  brush.  One  of  the  whites  was 
shot  dead  and  a  number  wounded  at  the  first 
volley.  It  developed  into  an  Indian  massacre 
accompanied  by  all  the  horrid  features  inci- 
dental to  such  scenes,  and  those  who  fell  vic- 
tims to  rifle  balls  were  immediately  toma- 
hawked and  scalped.  Among  the  first  to  fall 
was  the  family  of  B.  W.  Brown.  Himself, 
wife,  a  young  boy  and  his  sister,  eighteen  years 
of  age,  were  slain  and  thrown  into  the  river. 

Bradford  &  Company's  store,  a  log  struc- 
ture, appeared  to  be  the  only  place  of  refuge, 
and  to  this  fled  the  workmen  on  the  bridge  and 
a  number  of  settlers.  Then  began  the  memor- 
able siege  of  the  Cascades.  Of  the  forty  people 
gathered  in  the  store  building  eighteen  were 
able  to  make  a  defensive  showing,  and  armed 
with  nine  government  rifles  which,  with  some 
ammunition,  had  been  left  of  the  store  to  be  for- 
warded to  Vancouver,  they  replied  to  the  fire  of 
the  enemy  to  the  best  of  their  ability.  All  ad- 
vantages of  position  were  with  the  hostiles. 
They  were  concealed  on  higher  ground  and,  ap- 
parently, had  the  settlers  at  their  mercy.  It  was 
in  the  first  onslaught  of  this  savage  attack  that 
James  Sinclair,  one  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Com- 
pany's agents,  was  killed.  He  was  shot  through 
an  open  door  in  a  manner  similar  to  the  assas- 
sination of  Lieutenant  Slaughter. 

Providentially  the  steamer  Mary  was  not 
captured.  An  attack  was  made  upon  the  boat 
and  the  fireman,  James  Linsay,  shot  through  the 
shoulder.  A  negro  cook,  having  been  wounded, 
leaped  into  the  stream  and  was  drowned.  One 
Indian  was  shot  and  killed  by  the  engineer, 
Buskminister,  and  John  Chance,  son  of  the 
steward,  killed  another  hostile.  To  effect  the 
escape  of  the  boat  it  became  necessary  for  Har- 
din Chenoweth,  the  pilot,  to  manipulate  the 
wheel  while  lying  prone  on  the  floor  of  the  pilot 
house.  The  families  of  Sheppard  and  Vander- 
pool  ventured  from  the  shore  in  skiffs,  and  were 
picked   up   in    midstream.      The   gallant   little 


Mary  was  tlien  off  up  tiie  river  for  succor.  Sev- 
eral fatalities  afterward  occurred  among  the 
settlers  and  a  number  of  hairbreadth  escapes 
are  recorded.  The  Indians  fired  the  mill  and 
lumber  yards  and  tried  desperately  to  burn  the 
log  store.  The  absence  of  water  was  added  to 
the  elements  of  horror  surrounding  the  be- 
seiged  settlers.  Within  the  store  one  man  was 
dead,  Sinclair,  and  four  others  severely 
wounded.  A  few  dozen  bottles  of  ale  and  whis- 
key comprised  the  liquids  available  for  thirty- 
nine  people,  the  greater  number  being  women 
and  children. 

In  this  dire  emergency  justice  demands  that 
credit  be  given  to  a  Spokane  Indian  in  the  party 
who  risked  his  life  to  procure  water  from  the 
stream.  At  first  he  succeeded  in  getting  water 
only  sufficient  for  the  wounded,  but  the  suc- 
ceeding day  he  was  enabled  to  fill  two  barrels 
and  convey  them  inside  the  store.  Meanwhile 
the  imprisoned  settlers  were  harassed  by  fears 
^  for  the  safety  of  the  Mary.  The  capture  of  this 
boat  meant  utter  failure  to  receive  reinforce- 
ments and  relief. 

The  attack  on  the  block-house  below  Brad- 
ford &  Company's  store  was  simultaneous  with 
the  assault  above.  The  garrison  comprised  nine 
persons,  five  of  whom  only  were  inside  the 
structure  at  the  time  of  the  unexpected  attack. 
The  Indians  had  massed  themselves  on  an  ad- 
jacent hill.  One  of  the  garrison  who  had  been 
caught  outside  the  block-house  was  shot 
through  the  hip,  but  managed  to  crawl  to  the 
door,  where  he  was  admitted.  Cannon  was 
brought  to  bear  on  the  enemy,  and  soon 
afterward  the  neighboring  settlers  came 
running  to  the  rude  fort  for  protec- 
tion. A  number  of  them  were  killed,  but  such 
as  reached  the  fort  alive  were  taken  inside.  Dur- 
ing four  hours  a  heavy  fire  was  kept  up  by  Ixith 
sides,  and  an  attempt  to  fire  the  block-house  at 
night  was  repulsed.  The  Indians  prowled  about 
with  horrid  yells,  and  did  what  damage  they 
could  do  to  surrounding  property.  Some  pro- 
visions were  procured  on  the  27th  from  an  ad- 

jacent house  by  three  soldiers.  The  congres- 
sional report  of  "Indian  Hostilities  in  Oregon 
and  Washington  Territories,"  11-12,  gives  the 
names  of  the  plucky  garrison  of  this  block- 
house. They  were  M.  Kelly,  Frederick  Beman, 
Owen  McManus,  Lawrence  Rooney  (killed  in 
the  first  attack).  Smiley,  Houser,  Williams, 
Roach  and  Sheridan.  On  the  second  day  of  the 
fight  the  latter  four  went  out  and  returned 
with  the  dead  and  wounded. 

An  attack  on  the  Lower  Cascades  did  not 
result  in  loss  of  lives.  Many  of  the  settlers 
were  warned  of  the  assault  on  the  block-house 
by  a  half-breed  boy,  who  informed  W.  K.  Kil- 
born  and  urged  him  to  leave  the  neighborhood. 
Kilborn  owned  a  Columbia  river  freight  boat, 
and  by  means  of  this  craft  he  saved  the  lives  of 
his  own  family  and  those  of  several  others.  Ar- 
riving at  Vancoviver  Kilborn  apprised  the  resi- 
dents of  that  place  of  the  outbreak.  This  news 
threw  the  people  into  consternation,  and  they 
expected  momentarily  to  be  attacked.  The  dif- 
ficult problem  presented  was  to  send  reinforce- 
ments to  the  Cascades  and  retain,  at  the  same 
time,  sufficient  force  to  protect  Vancouver.  To 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company's  fort,  for  greater 
safety.  Colonel  Morris  removed  the  women  and 
children  of  the  garrison.  In  his  "History  of 
Washington,  Idaho  and  Montana,"  Hubert 
Howe  Bancroft  states  that  Coloneil  Alorris 
"refused  arms  to  the  captain  of  the  volunteer 
home  guards  in  obedience  to  the  orders  of 
General  Wool."   Mr.  Bancroft  says  further : 

"I  take  this  statement  from  a  correspondent 
of  the  Olympi-a  Pioneer  and  Democrat  of  April 
25,  1856,  who  says  that  Kelly,  of  the  volun- 
teers, went  to  the  officer  in  command  at  that 
post  and  requested  to  be  furnished  with  arms,  as 
all  the  arms  in  the  country  had  gone  to  furnish 
a  company  in  the  field — Captain  Maxon's.  'He 
was  insulted — told  to  mind  his  own  business.' 
A  few  days  later  a  consignment  of  arms  from 
the  east  arrived,  for  the  use  of  the  territory, 
and  the  settlers  were  furnished  from  that 



.If  such  was  the  order  of  General^  Wool  it 
cerininly  exhibits  a  marked  degree  of  hostility 
toward  the  volunteers  of  Washington  and  Ore- 
gon, and  unpleasantly  emphasized  one  more 
blunder  on  the  part  of  the  veteran  of  the  Mexi- 
can war.  It  will  be  noted  in  another  portion  of 
this  chapter  that  the  brunt  of  the  fighting  in  the 
various  Indian  outbreaks  fell  upon  volunteers. 
The  efforts  of  the  regulars  were  purely  sup- 
plementary and  were  not  conducted  with  the 
success  worthy  of  the  most  ordinary  tactician. 

Lieutenant  Philip  Sheridan,  of  whom  we 
now  hear  for  the  first  time  in  connection  with 
military  movements,  on  the  morning  of  the  27th 
left  on  the  steamer  Belle  for  the  Cascades.  With 
him  were  a  small  detachment  of  one  company 
assigned  by  General  Wool  for  the  protection  of 
Vancouver.  Fugiti\es  were  met.  in  the  river; 
some  of  them  on  a  schooner,  others  in  a 
batteau.  The  men  among  these  settlers,  flying 
for  their  lives,  immediately  volunteered  to  re- 
turn and  participate  in  the  punishment  of  the 
hostiles,  an  exhibition  of  manliness  which  fully 
illustrates  the  spirit  which  invariably  animated 
the  Washington  and  Oregon  volunteers,  despite 
the  severe  and  unwarranted  strictures  of  Gen- 
eral Wool.  A  reconnoitre  was  made  by  Sheri- 
dan on  arriving  at  the  lower  end  of  the  portage, 
and  the  condition  of  affairs  at  the  Cascades  and 
the  block-house  was  gleaned  from  some  Cas- 
cade Indians.  On  the  Washington  side  of  the 
Columbia  Sheridan  landed  his  men ;  the  boat 
being  sent  back  for  more  ammunition  to  Van- 
cou\'er.  Two  of  Sheridan's^  men  were  shot 
down  while  effecting  a  landing.  Relief  of  the 
block-house  was  not  effected  immediately  as 
the  party  was  unable  to  advance  during  the  day. 

On  the  steamer  Fashion  another  relief  party 
was  enroute  from  Portland.  Thirty  men  had 
been  recruited  by  Benjamin  Stark  and  H.  P. 
Dennison  on  the  26th,  and  this  number  was  in- 
creased by  other  volunteers  from  Vancouver. 
It  was  midnight,  the  26th,  that  Colonel  Wright 
received  news  of  the  attack  on  the  Cascades. 
He   had   remo\-ed   from   The   Dalles  with   his 

troops  to  Five-Mile  Creek,  where  he  was  en- 
camped. With  two  hundred  and  fifty  men  he 
went  back  to  The  Dalles,  boarded  the  steamers 
Mary  and  Wasco,  and  reached  the  Cascades  on 
the  morning  of  the  28th.  At  the  latter  place 
it  was  the  belief  of  the  garrison  that  the  Mary 
had  been  captured  by  the  Indians.  With  only 
four  rounds  of  ammunition  left,  and  in  ignor- 
ance of  the  arrival  of  Sheridan,  the  settlers  in 
their  desperation  had  determined  to  board  a 
government  flat-boat  and  go  over  the  falls 
rather  than  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  Indians. 
The  pleasure  with  which  they  caught  sight  of 
the  Mary  and  Wasco  rounding  the  bend  of  the 
river  can  be  better  imagined  than  described. 
With  the  timely  arival  of  these  troops  the  In- 
dians disappeared.  Under  command  of  Colonel 
Steptoe  two  companies  of  the  9th  infantry,  a 
detachment  of  dragoons  and  the  3rd  artillery 
advanced  to  the  block-house  and  from  this  point 
to  the  landing  below.  Lieutenant  Sheridan's 
command  coming  up  at  the  same  time  alarmed 
the  Indians  and  they  vanished  with  remarkable 
celerity.  Colonel  Steptoe  lost  one  soldier  and 
one  hostile  was  killed.  Subsequently  nine  In- 
dians who  were  identified  as  having  engaged 
in  the  massacre  at  the  Cascades  were  captured 
and  executed. 

It  was  the  opinion  of  Governor  Stevens, 
formed  after  his  return  to  Olympia,  that  Indian 
hostilities  in  the  immediate  future  were  to  be 
confined  to  the  Yakima  country  and  Walla 
Walla  valley.  January  21,  1856,  in  a  special 
message  addressed  to  the  legislative  assembly, 
he  dwelt  with  great  earnestness  on  the  desirabil- 
ity of  acquiring  title  to  the  country  unincum- 
bered by  Indian  claims.  This  had  been  the  mo- 
tive of  his  recent  trip  to  the  country  of  the  Nez 
Perces,  Coeur  d'Alenes  and  other  tribes  far  to 
the  eastward  of  the  Cascade  range.  He  said 
that  nearly  all  the  diff'erent  tribes  whom  he  had 
interviewed  had  laeen,  apparently,  quite  willing 
to  concede  this  point.  But  the  governor  added. 
that  he  had  been  deceived  in  this  respect,  and 
that  it  would  now  be  necessarv  to  send  soldiers 



from  the  Sound  into  the  Indian  country  east  of 
the  Cascades.  Furthermore  he  was  opposed  to 
treaties  and  favored  extermination. 

In  this  conclusion  Governor  Stevens  was, 
as  events  subsequently  proved,  greatly  de- 
ceived. So  far  from  confining  their  depreda- 
tions to  the  Walla  Walla  valley  the  Indians 
were  even  then  making  preparations  to  raid  the 
coast  of  the  Sound.  Althogh  the  ensuing  war 
was,  for  a  period,  confined  to  the  country  north 
of  the  Steilacoom,  terror  ran  riot  in  other  iso- 
lated and  unprotected  localities.  Many  mur- 
ders were  committed  and  a  great  deal  of  valu- 
able property  destroyed  by  the  remorseless  sav- 
ages. Then  it  was  that  Governor  Stevens  re- 
turned to  Olympia  and  ordered  a  portion  of 
the  southern  battalion  to  the  Sound  country, 
During  the  spring  of  1856  a  decisive  engage- 
ment with  the  Indians  was  had  at  White  river, 
resulting  in  the  complete  rout  of  the  savages, 
although  they  outnumbered  the  whites  two  to 
one.  Governor  Ste\'ens  proclaimed  martial 
law.  Fighting  occurred  on  John  Day  river  and 
in  June,  1856,  Major  Layton  captured  thirty- 
four  warriors.  A  spirited  engagement  between 
the  Indians  and  Colonel  Shaw  took  place  on  the 
Grand  Rond,  but  following  this  the  hostiles 
broke  up  into  small  bands,  but  sufficiently  ag- 
gressive to  create  considerable  activity  among 
the  troops.  One  of  the  most  effective  methods 
adopted  to  dishearten  the  enemy  was  that  of 
stopping  supplies  and  capturing  the  Indians' 
horses  in  various  raids.  Some  of  the  savages 
were  neutral ;  nearly  all  of  them  needy ;  and 
during  a  vigorous  march  through  the  country 
overtures  made  by  the  United  States  were,  in  a 
large  number  of  cases,  accepted.  Of  the 
Wasco,  Des  Chutes,  Tyghe  and  John  Day 
tribes,  nine  hundred  and  twenty-three  surren- 
dered, and  four  hundred  of  the  more  truculent 
Yakimas  and  Klikitats  surrendered  to  Colonel 
Wright.  Following  this  they  received  gov- 
ernment aid. 

While  these  scenes  were  being  enacted  on  i 
the  Sound  it  had  been  impossible  for  Governor  ! 

Stevens  to  deploy  troops  east  of  the  Cascade 
range.  Of  this  fact  the  Indians  in  that  country 
took  advantage.  It  required  the  best  diplomatic 
efforts  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Graig  to  hold  the 
Nez  Perces  and  Spokanes  to  their  allegiance, 
and  finally,  July  24,  Captain  Robie  informed 
Colonel  Shaw  that  the  Nez  Perces  had  become 
recalcitrant,  declared  hostile  intentions  and  re- 
fused all  ofifers  of  government  supplies.  It  was 
at  this  annoying  juncture  of  affairs  that  Gov- 
ernor Stevens  decided  to  go  to  Walla  Walla 
and  hold  a  council.  He  found  conditions  de- 
cidedly worse  than  had  been  reported.  Al- 
though Colonel  Wright  had  been  pressed  to 
join  the  council  he  declined,  urging  that  it 
would  be  better  to  establish  at  Walla  Walla  a 
strong  military  post  with  Stepoe  in  command. 

This  council  was  not  crowned  with  the 
most  satisfactory  results.  The  Cayuses,  Des 
Chutes  and  Tyghes,  although  they  arrived  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  meeting  place,  were  disposed 
to  be  sullen  and  unfriendly.  They  refused  to 
pay  a  visit  to  Governor  Stevens,  exhibited  signs 
of  hostility  by  firing  the  grass  and  otherwise 
gave  evidence  of  malevolence.  Kamiakin  and 
Owhi,  Yakimas  and  Oualchin,  of  the  Cceur 
d'Alenes,  also  refused  to  attend  and  passed  their 
time  sowing  seeds  of  dissension  whenever  and 
wherever  opportunity  offered.  On  the  nth  of 
September  the  council  opened  and  closed  dis- 
mally on  the  17th.  It  became  necessary  for 
Governor  Stevens  to  remove  to  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  Steptoe's  camp  through  fear  of  vio- 
lence from  the  Indians.  No  pipe  of  peace  was 
smoked  and  no  satisfactory  results  achieved. 
The  Indians  demanded  to  be  left  in  peaceful 
possession  of  all  the  country  claimed  by  them 
as  "domains,"  and  declared  most  emphatically 
that  no  other  terms  would  be  accepted.  It  was 
with  no  little  difficulty  that  Governor  Stevens 
succeeeded  in  getting  out  of  the  country  alive. 
His  train  was  attacked  on  its  way  back  to  The 
Dalles  and  two  of  the  escort  killed.  Following 
this  humiliating  repulse  of  the  governor,  and 
after  his  return  to  the  Sound,  Colonel  Wright 



marched  to  Walla  Walla  and  ordered  all  the 
chiefs  to  meet  him  in  council.  It  was,  evident- 
ly, the  intention  of  Wright  to  adopt  drastic 
measures,  but  few  Indians  attended  the  coun- 
cil, and,  like  the  preceding  one,  it  bore  no 
fruit.  Those  who  came  said,  sullenly,  that  they 
were  opposed  to  confirmation  of  the  Walla 
Walla  treaty.  Troops  were  at  once  thrown 
into  the  various  posts,  including  Mill  Creek, 
Fort  Dalles  and  the  Cascades  settlement,  and 
preparations  made  to  secure  all  from  invasion 
during  the  approaching  winter. 

Throughout  this  summer  and  while  at- 
tempts were  being  made  to  pacify  the  Indians 
east  of  the  Cascade  range,  hostilities  continued 
on  the  Sound.  The  Puyallups  and  Nisquallies, 
at  a  council  held  at  Fox  Island,  August  4th, 
convinced  Governor  Stevens  that  an  injustice 
had  been  done  them  through  the  limitations  of 
their  reservation.  An  enlargement  was  recom- 
mended by  the  governor,  and  a  resurvey  or- 
dered, which  absorbed  thirteen  donation  claims. 
Subsequently  congress  appropriated  $5,000  to- 
ward improvements. 

The  story  of  the  capture  and  execution  of 
Leschi  is,  perhaps,  one  of  the  most  sensational 
Indian  episodes  in  the  career  of  Governor  Ste- 
vens. Leschi,  together  with  Nelson,  Stahi, 
Quiemuth  and  the  younger  Kitsap,  had  been 
ringleaders  in  the  attack  on  the  Decatur,  in  the 
Sound,  and  now  Governor  Stevens  desired  to 
try  them  for  murder.  These  Indians  had  at- 
tended the  council  with  Colonel  Wright,  in  the 
Yakima  country,  and  Wright  had  paroled  them. 
At  that  period  an  attempt  was  being  made  to 
quiet  the  Indians  east  of  the  Cascade  range. 
In  the  opinion  of  Wright,  of  whom  these  five 
savages  had  been  demanded,  it  would  be  unwise 
at  this  juncture  to  give  them  over  to  certain  ex- 
ecution, but  the  governor  was  insistent  in  his 
demands,  and  again  made  requisition  for  the 
hostiles.  To  this  demand  nearly  all  the  army 
officers  were  opposed,  believing  the  policy  to  be 

In  November  Leschi  was  arrested.     Slug- 

gia  and  Elikukah,  two  of  his  own  people,  be- 
trayed him  into  the  hands  of  the  whites.  At 
that  period  Leschi  was  an  outcast  and,  practi- 
cally, outlawed  by  both  Yakimas  and  whites. 
The  traitorous  Sluggia  and  Elikukah  found  him 
and  handed  him  over  to  Sydney  S.  Ford  who 
forwarded  him  on  to  Olympia.  Leschi  was 
now  t6  stand  trial  for  the  killing  of  A.  B. 
Moses.  At  the  first  trial,  November  14,  the 
jury  failed  to  agree.  March  18,  1857,  a  sec- 
ond trial  was  had,  resulting  in  conviction 
June  10  was  the  day  set  for  his  execution. 
The  attorneys  engaged  for  Leschi' s  defense 
appealed  the  case  to  the  supreme  court,  and  this 
appeal  served  as  a  stay  of  proceedings  and  de- 
ferred execution  beyond  the  day  assigned. 
However,  the  verdict  of  the  lower  court  was 
sustained  and  January  22,  1858,  was  set  as  the 
day  for  the  hanging  of  Leschi.  McMullin, 
who  had  succeeded  Stevens,  was  now  governor 
of  Washington.  Friends  of  Leschi  appealed  to 
him  for  pardon ;  seven  hundred  settlers  vigor- 
ously protested.  The  execution  was  to  be  at 
Steilacoom  and  on  the  day  set  there  was  a  large 
audience.  This  time,  however,  the  death  pen- 
j  alty  was  delayed  by  friends  of  the  condemned 
by  a  most  peculiar  legal  manipulation.  Shortly 
before  the  time  for  the  execution  the  sherifif  and 
his  deput}-  were  placed  under  arrest  by  a  Uni- 
ted States  marshal.  The  charge  against  the 
prisoners  was  that  of  selHng  liquor  to  Indians. 
In  vain  an  attempt  was  made  to  reach  the 
sherifif  and  secure  the  death  warrant,  without 
which  it  would  be  impossible  to  strangle  Leschi 
legally.  But  that  officer  was  retained  in  close 
custody  until  the  period  set  for  Leschi's  hang- 
ing had  passed.  The  "United  States  marshall" 
in  these  proceedings  was  Lieutenant  McKibben, 
stationed  at  Fort  Steilacoom,  who  had  been  ap- 
pointed for  that  express  purpose.  All  in  all 
this  coup  was  in  the  nature  of  a  ruse  on  the 
part  of  the  regular  army,  between  whom  and 
the  citizens  of  the  territory  there  was  at  all 
times  considerable  friction. 

Indignation  at  this  perversion  of  justice  and 



palpable  miscarriage  of  law  ran  high  among  the 
people.  Public  meetmgs  of  protest  were  held 
and  the  legislature  appealed  to.  This  body  pro- 
ceeded to  adjust  matters  in  a  most  strenuous 
manner,  repealing  certain  laws  and  enacting 
new  ones  until  the  legal  coils  around  Leschi 
were  deemed  sufficiently  strong  to  insure  his 
punishment.  Again  the  prisoner  was  tried  and, 
although  his  counsel  demurred  to  the  jurisdic- 
tion of  the  court,  he  was  overruled  and  Febru- 
ary 19.  1858,  the  Indian  who  had  so  success- 
fully fought  off  the  hounds  of  law  was  hanged. 
It  is  a  matter  of  historical  record  that  fe\v  of 
the  more  active  Indian  participants  in  the  vari- 
ous outbreaks  on  the  Sound  escaped.  Three 
of  them  were  assassinated  by  white  men  in  re- 
venge for  the  murder  of  friends;  a  number 
were  hanged  at  Fort  Steilacoom;  one  of  his 
own  people  killed  Kitsap  in  June,  1857,  on 
Muckleshoot  prairie,  and  Leschi's  friends  re- 
venged themselves  by  taking  the  life  of  the 
treacherous  Sluggia.  Comparative  peace  was 
restored  to  the  Sound  country,  yet  the  horrors 
of  the  outbreak  were  long  remembered.  To 
the  Puyallup  and  upper  White  River  valley 
many  of  the  settlers  did  not  return  until  1859. 

Patkanim,  the  horrible  blood-hunter,  who, 
for  American  gold,  trafficked  in  human  heads 
as  nonchalantly  as  he  would  deal  in  wolf-pelts, 
did  not  long  survive  the  war.  The  following 
estimation  of  this  barbarian  is  given  by  the 
Pioneer  and  Democrat  under  date,  January  21, 
1859:  "It  is  just  as  well  that  he  is  out  of  the 
way,  as,  in  spite  of  everything,  we  never  be- 
lieved in  his  friendship." 

Indemnity  claims  following  Indian  troubles 
on  the  Sound  amounted  to  some  twelve  thous- 
and dollars,  which  sum  was  appropriated  by 
congress.  But  the  actual  expenses  incidental 
to  the  conduct  of  this  war,  a  war  in  behalf  of 
the  peace  and  prosperity  of  ^Vashington  and 
Oregon,  approached  quite  nearly  six  million 
dollars,  or  exactly  $5,931,424.78,  divided  as 
follows:  Washington,  $1,481,475.45;  Ore- 
gon.   $4,449,949.33.      Payment    of    $1,409,- 

604.53  ^'^'^s  made  to  the  Oregon,  and  $519,- 
593.06  to  the  Washington  volunteers.  At  that 
period  the  eminent  editor  and  publicist,  Horace 
Greeley,  had  not  advised  the  young  men  of  the 
country  to  "go  west,"  and  he  was  unkind 
enough  to  say,  in  the  New  York  Tribune: 
"The  enterprising  territories  of  Oregon  and 
Washington  have  handed  into  congress  their 
little  bill  for  scalping  Indians  and  violating 
squaws  two  years  ago.  After  these  (the 
French  spoliation  claims)  shall  have  been  paid 
half  a  century  or  so,  we  trust  the  claims  of  the 
Oregon  and  Washington  Indian  fighters  will 
come  up  for  consideration." 

The  scene  of  Indian  troubles  now  removes 
itself  to  a  point  in  eastern  Washington  more 
immediately  identified  with  the  limitations  of 
this  history.  In  April,  1858,  the  mines  in  the 
vicinity  of  Colville  had  become  attractive  to 
"stampeders,"  and  two  white  men  pushing  on 
into  the  "gold  country,"  had  been  slain  by  a 
party  of  savages  belonging  to  the  Palouse  tribe. 
A  petition  for  troops,  signed  by  forty  residents 
of  Colville,  had  been  forwarded  to  Colonel 
Steptoe.  The  latter  informed  General  Clarke 
of  the  fact  and  advised  that  an  expedition  be 
sent  north  to  punish  the  savages  and  protect 
the  settlers.  Adding  to  the  crime  of  murder 
the  Palouses  had  gone  down  into  the  Walla 
Walla  country  and  driven  away  a  band  of  gov- 
ernment cattle.  The  Palouses  who,  it  was 
claimed,  had  killed  the  Colville  miners,  were 
found  by  Colonel  Steptoe  at  the  Alpowah. 
Steptoe  had  left  Walla  Walla  May  6,  1858, 
with  one  hundred  and  tliirty  dragoons  cji  route 
for  the  country  of  the  Nez  Perces.  On  ap- 
proach of  the  whites  the  Indians  fled.  Because 
Steptoe  placed  no  confidence  in  a  report  he  re- 
ceived on  the  1 6th  that  the  Spokanes  were 
making  arrangements  to  attack  him  he,  unfor- 
tunately, found  himself  surrounded  with  a  force 
of  six  hundred  miscellaneous  "braves,"  includ- 
ing warriors  of  the  Cceur  d'Alenes,  Palouses, 
Spokanes  and  Nez  Perces.  They  were  attired 
in  war'paint  and  had  chosen  a  position  where 



from  three  sides  they  could  assault  Steptoe's 
detachment  of  troops.  During  a  short  parley 
the  Spokanes  confirmed  the  reports  that  they 
were  on  the  war  path,  and  announced  that  they 
purposed  to  do  considerable  fighting  before  the 
whites  would  be  permitted  to  ford  the  Spokane 
river.  Doubtless  the  Indians  were  emboldened 
in  their  conduct  by  the  fact  that  these  dragoons 
of  Steptoe's  were  without  other  means  of  de- 
fense than  their  small  arms.  For  this  inexcus- 
able blunder  no  reason  has  ever  been  assigned, 
and  none  could  be  that  would,  at  this  day,  be 
acceptable  to  a  military  man.  The  savages 
rode  along  side  by  side  with  the  troops  and 
hurled  at  them  insults  and  cries  of  defiance. 
At  nightfall  the  chiefs  demanded  to  know  the 
reason  for  this  invasion  of  their  country. 

No  explanation  was  made  that  in  any  way 
pacified  the  chiefs,  although  Steptoe  said  that, 
having  learned  of  trouble  near  Colville  he  was 
on  his  way  thither  to  inquire  into  the  cause  of 
it.  The  chiefs  pointed  out  the  fact  that  he  was 
not  on  the  Colville  road  at  all.  Unfortunately 
he  had  been  led  astray  by  a  guide,  Timothy,  by 
name.  Without  suitable  arms,  and  otherwise 
unprepared  for  fighting,  Steptoe  decided  to  re- 
treat. He  began  his  return  to  the  Palouse  on 
the  17th.  A  few  miles  away  a  party  of  Coeeur 
d'Alenes  were  gathering  roots,  and  to  them  the 
Spokanes  appealed  asking  their  assistance  in 
bagging  an  enemy  whom  the  Spokanes,  par- 
ticularly, did  not  intend  to  allow  to  leave  the 
country  alive.  A  Cceeur  d'Alene  chief,  named 
Vincent,  attempted  to  hold  a  parley  with  Colo- 
nel Steptoe,  but  firing  was  commenced  by  the 
Palouses  and  the  skirmish  soon  resolved  itself 
into  a  general  engagement.  Encumbered  by  a 
pack  train,  which  it  was  necessary  to  guard; 
passing  over  ground  rough  and  most  favorable 
for  Indians  and  their  mode  of  warfare  Step- 
toe's command  labored  under  a  serious  disad- 
vantage, and  were  in  no  condition  for  any 
effective  fighting.  The  savages  charged  a  com- 
pany commanded  by  Lieutenant  Gregg,  but 
the  prompt  support  given  by  Lieutenant  Gas- 

ton repulsed  the  Indians  and  they  suffered  se- 
verely at  this  point.  Twelve  of  them  were 
killed,  including  Jacques  Zachary,  brother-in- 
law  of  Vincent:  James  and  Victor,  the  latter 
one  of  the  powerful  chiefs  of  the  Cceur  d' 
Alenes.  Later  on,  while  attemping  to  reach  a 
stream  of  water.  Lieutenant  William  Gaston 
and  Captain  Oliver  H.  P.  Taylor  were  killed. 
The  result  of  this  "Battle  of  Steptoe  Butte,"" 
fought  at  a  place  seven  miles  from  the  present 
town  of  Colfax,  must  be,  impartially,  recorded 
as  a  defeat  for  the  whites.  On  the  morning  of 
the  19th  the  retreating  troops  reached  Snake 
river  and  from  this  point  continued  on  to  Walla 

The  animosity  of  the  Indians  exhibited  in- 
this  disaster  has  been  variously  explained.  The 
most  plausible  reason  for  it  lies,  probably,  in  the 
fact  that  the  Cceur  d'  Alenes  had  been  told  of 
the  proposed  government  road  through  their 
country,  from  the  Missouri  to  the  Columbia 
river.  This  was  subsequently  completed  by 
Lieutenant  Mullan,  from  Fort  Walla  Walla 
to  Fort  Benton. 

In  June,  1858,  active  preparations  were 
made  to  avenge  the  defeat  of  Steptoe.  Quite  a 
large  body  of  troops  were  mobilized  at  Fort 
Walla  Walla,  some  of  them  being  brought 
from  San  Francisco  and  other  California 
points;  some  from  the  Sound.  Here  for  a 
period  of  time  they  were  industriously  drilled 
in  the  tactics  of  Indian  warfare.  This  was  to 
be  an  expedition  against  the  Cceur  d'  Alenes 
and  Spokanes ;  another  was  being  put  in  motion 
against  the  Yakimas.  The  campaign  plan  was 
to  have  Major  Garnett  move  toward  Colville 
with  three  hundred  men,  co-operate  with  Cap- 
tain Keyes,  and  "round  up"  the  tribes  of  In- 
dians. Major  Garnett  was  to  leave  August 
15;  Captain  Keyes  left  Walla  Walla  on  the 
7th.  Fort  Taylor  was  built  at  the  junction  of 
Tucannon  and  Snake  rivers,  which,  with  its 
six  hundred  and  forty  acres  of  reservation,  was 
intended  as  a  permanent  post.  Here  Colonel 
Wright  arrived  August   18.     The  expedition 



consisted  of  one  hundred  and  ninety  dragoons, 
four  hundred  artillery  and  ninety  infantry,  the 
latter  armed  with  Sharpe's  rifles.  Seventy-six 
miles  north  from  Fort  Taylor  Indians  appeared 
on  the  hills  and  fired  on  a  company  of  Nez 
Perces  Indians  who  had  been  enlisted  as  volun- 
teers by  the  whites  and  uniformed  as  regular 
soldiers.  Soon  afterward  the  hostiles  retreated. 
They  reappeared  on  September  i,  in  force, 
and  one  of  the  most  important  battles  of  this 
particular  Indian  war  was  fought.  The  victon,^ 
was  plainly  with  the  whites,  the  savages  losing 
twenty  killed  and  many  wounded. 

But  the  Indians  were  desperate.     Colonel  ' 

\\'right  resumed  his  march  September  5th,  and 
was  again  attacked  by  the  enemy.  Shells  from 
the  howitzers  burst  among  them ;  the  fire  of  the 
whites  was  deadly,  and  defeat  of  the  Indians 
complete.  On  September  10  the  Cceur 
d'Alenes  surrrendered,  and  the  redoubtable 
Vincent  was  not  the  least  active  in  inducing 
this  submission.  They  had  attempted  to  stay 
the  progress  of  civilization  through  their  wil- 
derness and  civilization  would  not  be  stayed. 
Whatever  of  home  or  country  they  once  had 
was  gone.  Henceforth  enterprise,  industry  and 
intelligence  were  to  supplant  barbaric  ignorance 
and  Indian  squalor. 



"The  West"  of  the  days  of  the  Revolution 
was  embraced  within  the  limits  of  the  Atlantic 
coast  and  longitude  89  degrees  west  from 
Greenwich,  or  12  degrees  west  from  Washing- 
ton, D.  C.  Compare  this  narrow  strip  of  terri- 
tory with  the  magnitude  of  the  Northwest  of  to- 
day and  remember,  also,  that  the  geographical 
center  of  the  United  States,  from  east  to  west, 
lies  at  a  point  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  six  hundred 
miles  west  from  San  Francisco,  California. 
From  the  latter  fact  we  are  enabled  to  obtain  a 
fair  comprehension  of  the  extreme  western  ex- 
tension of  our  Alaskan  possessions. 

States  have  increased,  territorially,  since  the 
surrender  of  Lord  Cornwallis.  The  "midgets," 
smaller  than  many  western  counties,  lie  along 
the  Atlantic  shore.  Washington,  the  "Ever- 
green State,"  of  whose  stirring  and  romantic 
past  this  history  treats,  is  more  than  three- 
fourths  the  size  of  New  York  and  Pennsyl- 
vania, combined,  or  more  than  equalling  the 
size  of  all  Kentucky,  Connecticut,  Massachu- 

setts, Delaware  and  Maryland.  Its  area  is 
69,994  square  miles.  Its  entire  western  boun- 
dary is  washed  by  the  waves  of  the  Pacific ;  the 
great  "ill-tasting  lake"  of  the  Indians;  discov- 
ered by  Balboa  and  once  claimed  in  all  its  sub- 
lime immensity  by  Spain  as  her  own  national 
property.  From  British  Columbia  it  is  sep- 
arated by  the  Strait  of  Juan  de  Fuca,  which 
forms  its  boundary  until  it  reaches  a  point  where 
the  49th  degree  of  north  latitude  crosses  the 
strait.  Thence  the  northern  boundary  line  of 
Washington  runs  east  on  the  49th  parallel  two 
hundred  and  fifty  miles  nearly  to  the  1 1 7th  de- 
gree of  longitude  west  from  Greenwich,  and 
thence  south  to  the  46th  degree  of  latitude; 
thence  west  on  that  degree  until  the  Columbia 
river  is  reached,  where  Klickitat,  Walla  Walla 
and  Yakima  counties  converge,  the  Columbia 
river  then  forming  its  southern  boundary  on  to 
the  coast. 

The  Puget  Sound  Basin  and  the  great  val- 
ley of  the  Upper  Columbia  combine  to  greatly 


diversify  the  topography  of  Washington.  Be- 
tween these  two  distinctively  marked  territor- 
ies runs  the  Cascade  Range  of  mountains,  north 
and  south,  separating  "The  Inland  Empire" 
from  "The  Coast,"  or  variably,  "The  Sound 
Country."  This  mountain  range  is,  in  its  en- 
tirety, one  of  the  most  imposing  on  the  North 
American  continent.  Creeping  upward  from 
the  far  south,  for  hundreds  of  miles  but  a  suc- 
cession of  low  hills,  or  chain  of  buttes,  the  range 
grows  bolder  in  contour  and  height  until  to  the 
far  north  Mount  St.  Elias  accentuates  its  most 
imposing  altitude.  Volcanic,  snow-capped 
cones  rise  to  heights  of  fifteen  and  twenty 
thousand  feet,  and  a  number  of  the  highest  of 
these  are  within  the  boundaries  of  Washington. 
In  a  preceding  chapter  outlining  the  "Ore- 
gon Controversy,"  it  was  noted  that  in  1846, 
when  the  southern  line  of  British  Columbia  was 
finally  determined,  all  that  remained  south  of 
that  boundary  to  the  42d  parallel  was  called 
Oregon.  In  1849  ^  territorial  government  was 
granted  covering  all  the  original  Oregon.  It 
was  then  an  indefinite  region  embracing  the 
lands  lying  between  the  Rock_\-  Mountains  and 
the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  north  of  the  42d  parallel. 
In  185 1  steps  were  taken  toward  dividing  Ore- 
gon. All  that  portion  north  and  west  of  the 
•Columbia  river  was  thrown  into  a  new  territory, 
supplied  with  a  distinct  territorial  government. 
No  opposition  having  appeared  either  from  the 
Oregon  legislature  or  from  congress  the  con- 
summation of  this  division  was  effected  in 
1853.  Then  Washington  embraced  the  rather 
indefinite  territory  of  Idaho.  Oregon  became  a 
state  in  1859.  Washington,  then  including 
Idaho,  was  under  territorial  government,  re- 
maining thus  until  March  3,  1863,  when  the 
territory  of  Idaho  was  set  off  by  congress.  The 
eastern  portion  of  Washington,  from  a  line 
near  the  117th  degree  of  west  longitude,  and 
portions  of  Montana,  Dakota  and  Nebraska 
combined  to  form  the  creation  of  Idaho  at  that 

Of   the   first   inroads   of   civilization,   aside   1 

from  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  into  the  ter- 
ritory of  Oregon,  then  including  Washington, 
Archibald  M'Vickar  writes: 

The  earliest  emigration  from  the  United  States 
for  the  purpose  of  settlement  in  this  territory  was  in 
1832.  Three  years  afterward  a  small  party  went  out 
by  land  with  Nathaniel  Wyeth,  of  the  Boston  Fishing 
and  Trading  Company  under  the  direction  of  Rev. 
James  Lee  and  David  Lee,  who  established  a  mission 
settlement  among  the  Callopoewah  Indians,  on  the 
Willamette  river.  This  colony  afterward  received  some 
small  accessions,  and  in  November,  1839,  Rev.  James 
Lee  sailed  from  the  United  States  for  the  Columbia 
river  with  a  party  of  fifty-four  persons,  among  them  six 
missionaries  and  a  physician,  with  their  families.  This 
party  arrived  safely  out,  and  the  annual  report  of  the 
missionary  society  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church, 
in  May,  1841,  presents  a  favorable  account  of  their 
labors  among  the  Indians.  Some  parties  of  young  men 
had  started  for  the  Columbia  from  states  bordering  on 
the  Mississippi.  The  whole  number  directly  attached  to 
the  mission  is  only  sixty-eight,  including  men,  women 
and  children.  The  first  settlers  along  the  river,  accord- 
ing to  Mr.  Parker,  who  visited  the  country  in  1835, 
consisted  of  Canadian  Frenchmen  formerly  in  the  em- 
ployment of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company. 

"The  Oregon  Controversy,"  and  "Tragedy 
of  \Vhitman's  Mission,"  preceding  chapters, 
have  traced  in  outline  the  more  important  de- 
tails of  this  early  settlement.  Western  W^ash- 
ington,  on  the  coast,  was  the  first  portion  of  the 
torritory  settled.  The  advantages  of  sea  coast 
fishing  and  fur-trading,  of  course,  account  for 
this  fact,  together  with  its  accessibility  by  voy- 
ages around  the  Horn,  and  proximity  to  the 
more  fully  developed  settlements  of  California. 
The  name,  "Puget  Sound"  was  much  more 
familiar  to  eastern  people  and  students  than  the 
coasts  of  Oregon  or  Washington.  Thus,  in  a 
general  way,  the  resources  of  western  Wash- 
ington became  gradually  known  to  a  certain 
limited  number  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  ex- 
treme east.  Concerning  the  various  enterprises 
of  these  pioneers  of  Washington  Hubert  Howe 
Bancroft  has  pertinently  said  in  his  "History  of 
Washingtoti,  Idaho  and  Montana:"  "In  the 
previous  chapters  I  have  made  the  reader  ac- 
quainted with  the  earlier  American  residents  of 



the  territory  north  of  the  Columbia,  and  the 
methods  by  which  the}-  secured  themselves 
homes  and  laid  the  foundation  for  fortunes  by 
making  shingles,  bricks  and  cradling  machines, 
by  building  mills,  loading  vessels  with  timber, 
laying  out  towns,  establishing  fisheries,  explor- 
ing for  gold  and  mining  for  coal.  But  these 
were  private  enterprises  concerning  only  indi- 
viduals, or  small  groups  of  men  at  most,  and  I 
now  come  to  consider  them  as  a  body  politic, 
with  relations  to  the  government  of  Oregon 
and  to  the  general  government." 

The  plan  of  this  history  demands  that  we 
pursue  the  same  course  in  the  treatment  of  our 
subject,  and  also  to  show  how  narrowly  Wash- 
ington escaped  being  called  "Columbia."  The 
provisional  government  of  Oregon  adopted  in 
1843  did  not  include  the  terrritory  north  of  the 
Columbia  river.  So  late  as  1845,  at  the  time  of 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  made  a  compact 
with  this  provisional  governm,ent,  there  existed 
no  county  organizations  north  of  that  river  with 
the  exception  of  Tualatin  and  Clackamas  "dis- 
tricts," which  claimed  to  extend  northward  as 
far  as  54  degrees  40  minutes.  But  these  dis- 
tricts were  not  peopled  by  American  citizens, 
and  not  until  the  compact  went  into  efifect  was 
there  established  an  American  settlement  in  the 
region  of  Puget  Sound,  and  a  new  district 
created  called  Vancouver.  The  first  judges 
were  M.  T.  Simmons,  James  Douglas,  and 
Charles  Forrest.  John  R.  Jackson  was 

Lewis  county  was  created  December  19, 
1845.  Primarily  its  northern  limit  extended  to 
54  degrees,  40  minutes,  or  was  supposed  to, 
comprising  territory  north  of  the  Columbia, 
and  west  of  the  Cowlitz,  rivers.  In  1846  it  was 
represented  in  the  legislature  by  W.  F.  Tolmie ; 
Vancouver  county  by  Henry  N.  Peers,  the  lat- 
ter described  as  "a  good  versifier  and  fair  leg- 
islator." He  was  an  attache  of  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company.  The  initial  agitation  for  a  new 
territory  north  of  the  Columbia  was  made  July 
4,  1 85 1.     At  Olympia  a  number  of  American 

citizens  of  the  Sound  had  assembled  to  appro- 
priately celebrate  the  day.  In  his  oration  Mr. 
Chapman  alluded  eloquently  to  "the  future 
state  of  Columbia."  His  remarks  awakened  an 
enthusiastic  response,  and  the  same  evening  a 
meeting  was  held,  the  avowed  object  of  which 
was  to  procure  a  separate  territorial  govern- 
ment. Of  this  meeting  Clanrick  Crosby  was 
chairman ;  A.  M.  Poe,  secretary.  H.  A.  Golds- 
borough,  I.  N.  Eby,  J.  B.  Chapman  and  C. 
Crosby  addressed  the  audience.  Their  speeches 
were  followed  by  the  appointment  of  a  commit- 
tee on  resolutions  which  recommended  that  a 
meeting  to  be  held  August  29  at  Cowlitz  land- 
ing, the  object  of  which  "to  take  into  care- 
ful consideration  the  present  peculiar  position 
of  the  northern  portion  of  the  territory,  its 
wants,  the  best  methods  of  supplying  those 
wants,  and  the  propriety  of  an  early  appeal  to 
congress  for  a  division  of  the  territory."  The 
convention  thus  called  was  attended  by  twenty- 
six  delegates.  It  adjourned  the  following  day, 
having  defined  the  limits  of  twelve  intended 
counties,  requested  the  benefits  of  donation 
lands,  petitioned  congress  for  a  plank  road 
from  the  Sound  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cowlitz, 
and  a  territorial  road  from  some  point  on 
Puget  Sound  to  Walla  Walla,  and  otherwise 
memorializing  congress  on  the  important  sub- 
ject of  division.  It  was  the  expressed  inten- 
tion of  the  delegates  to  move,  should  their  re- 
quest be  denied,  for  immediate  admission  into 
the  union  as  a  state.  It  is  needless  to  say  that 
enthusiasm  ran  high  at  this  meeting  on  the 
Cowlitz.  At  that  period  the  population  of 
the  territory  under  consideration  was  less  than 
four  thousand  souls. 

Nothing  tangible  resulted  from  this  meet- 
ing, although  The  Columbian,  a  weekly  news- 
paper, published  at  Olympia,  continued  the  agi- 
tation for  territorial  division  and  independent 
organization.  November  25,  1852,  a  conven- 
tion was  held  at  Monticello,  on  the  Cowlitz 
river,  at  that  period  an  enterprising  munici- 
pality   of    Northern    Oregon.      Congress    was 



again  memorialized  and  the  document  for- 
warded to  Hon.  Joseph  Lane,  territorial  dele- 
gate. This  memorial  contains  so  concise  and 
graphic  a  description  of  early  territorial  condi- 
tions that  it  is  deemed  best  to  reproduce  it  in 
full : 

To  the  Honorable,  the  Senate  and  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives of  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled: 

The  memorial  of  the  undersigned,  delegates  of  the 
■citizens  of  Northern  Oregon,  in  convention  assembled, 
respectfully  represent  to  your  honorable  bodies  that  it 
is  the  earnest  desire  of  your  petitioners,  and  of  said 
citizens,  that  all  that  portion  of  Oregon  Territory  lying 
north  of  the  Columbia  river  and  west  of  the  great 
northern  branch  thereof,  should  be  organized  as  a 
saparate  territory  under  the  name  and  style  of  the  Terri- 
tory of  Columbia,  urging  these  reasons :  In  support  of 
the  prayer  of  this  memorial,  your  petitioners  would 
respectfully  urge  the  following,  among  many  other 
reasons,  viz. : 

First:  That  the  present  Territory  of  Oregon  con- 
tains an  area  of  341,000  square  miles,  and  is  entirely  too 
large  an  extent  of  territory  to  be  embraced  within  the 
limits  of  one  state. 

Second:  That  said  territory  possesses  a  sea  coast 
of  650  miles  in  extent,  the  country  east  of  the  Cascade 
mountains  is  bound  to  that  on  the  coast  by  the  strongest 
ties  of  interest ;  and,  inasmuch  as  your  petitioners  be- 
lieve that  'the  territory  must  inevitably  be  divided  at 
no  very  distant  day,  they  are  of  the  opinion  that  it  would 
be  unjust  that  one  state  should  possess  so  large  a  sea- 
board to  the  exclusion  of  that  of  the  interior. 

Third:  The  territory  embraced  within  the  bound- 
aries of  the  proposed  "'Territory  of  Columbia,"  contain- 
ing an  area  of  about  32,000  square  miles,  is,  in  the 
opinion  of  your  petitioners,  about  a  fair  and  just  medium 
of  territorial  extent  to  form  one  state. 

Fourth :  The  proposed  "Territory  of  Columbia" 
presents  natural  resources  capable  of  supporting  a  popu- 
lation at  least  as  large  as  that  of  any  state  in  the  union 
possessing  an  equal  extent  of  territory. 

Fifth :  Those  portions  of  Oregon  Territory  lying 
respectively  north  and  south  of  the  Columbia  river  must, 
from  their  geographical  position,  always  rival  each 
other  in  commercial  advantages,  and  their  respective 
citizens  must,  as  they  now  and  always  have  been,  be 
actuated  by  a  spirit  of  opposition. 

Sixth:  The  southern  part  of  Oregon  Territory,  hav- 
ing a  majority  of  voters,  have  controlled  the  territorial 
legislature,  and  benefit  from  the  appropriations  made 
by  congress  for  said  territory,  which  were  subject  to  the 
disposition  of  said  legislature. 

Seventh :  The  seat  of  the  territorial  legislature  is 
now  situated,  by  the  nearest  practicable  route,  at  a  dis- 
tance of  four  hundred  miles  from  a  large  portion  of  the 
citizens  of  Northern  Oregon. 

Eighth :  A  great  part  of  the  legislation  suitable  to 
the  south,  is,  for  local  reasons,  opposed  to  the  interests 
of  the  north,  inasmuch  as  the  south  has  a  majority  of 
votes,  and  representatives  are  always  bound  to  reflect 
the  will  of  their  constituents,  your  petitioners  can  enter- 
tain no  reasonable  hopes  that  their  legislative  wants  will 
ever  be  properly  regarded  under  the  present  organiza- 

Ninth :  Exprience  has,  in  the  opinion  of  your 
petitioners,  well  established  the  principle  that  in  states 
having  a  moderate  sized  territory,  the  wants  of  the 
people  are  more  easily  made  known  to  their  representa- 
tives there  is  less  danger  of  a  conflict  between  sectional 
interests,  and  more  prompt  and  adequate  legislation  can 
always  be  obtained. 

In  conclusion  your  petitioners  would  respectfully 
represent  that  Northern  Oregon,  with  its  great  natural 
resources,  presenting  such  unparalleled  inducements  to 
immigrants,  and  with  its  present  large  population,  and 
rapidly  increasing  by  immigration,  is  of  sufficient  im- 
portance, in  a  national  point  of  view,  to  merit  the  foster- 
ing care  of  congress,  and  its  interests  are  so  numerous 
and  so  entirely  distinct  in  their  character,  as  to  demand 
the  attention  of  a  separate  and  independent  legislature. 

Wherefore  your  petitioners  pray  your  honorable 
bodies  will  at  an  early  day  pass  a  law  organizing  the 
district  of  country  above  described  under  a  territorial 
government,  to  be  named  "The  Territory  of  Columbia." 

Done  in  convention  assembled  at  the  town  of  Monti- 
cello,  Oregon  Territory,  this  25th  day  of  November, 
A.  D.,  1852. 

G.  M.  McC0N.A.HA,   President. 
R.  V.  White,  Secretary. 

This  memorial  was  signed  by  forty-one 
other  delegates.  Congressional  Delegate 
Joseph  Lane  earnestly  supported  the  bill  for 
the  formation  of  Columbia  Territory  subse- 
quently introduced.  February  10,  1853,  the 
bill,  amended  by  Mr.  Stanton,  of  Kentucky, 
striking  out  the  word  "Columbia"'  and  insert- 
ing in  lieu  thereof  "Washington,"  passed  the 
house  by  a  vote  of  128  to  29,  and  on  March  2, 
without  further  amendment,  it  was  passed  by 
the  senate.  It  should  be  taken  into  considera- 
tion that  the  bill,  as  passed  by  both  houses,  did 
not  liinit  the  new  Territory  to  the  boundaries 
prescribed  by  the  memorial  of  the  Monticello 
convention.  Our  national  legislators  took  a 
broader  view  of  the  matter,  and  continued  the 
line  of  partition  from  a  point  near  Walla 
Walla,  east  along  the  46th  parallel  to  the  Rocky 
Moimtains.     This  was  a  far  more  equal  di- 



vision,  and  included  what  is  now  the  "Pan- 
handle" of  Idaho,  an  area  considerably  larger 
than  the  present  state  of  Washington.  At  that 
period,  according  to  a  census  taken  in  1853  by 
Marshal  Anderson,  the  counties  in  the  new 
Washington  Territory  contained  the  following 
population:  Clarke,  1,134,  Island,  195,  Lewis, 
616,  Jefferson,  189,  King,  170,  Pierce,  513, 
Thurston,  996,  Pacific,  152;  total,  3,965.  Of 
these  1,682  were  voters. 

The  first  Territorial  governor  of  Washing- 
ton was  Isaac  Ingalls  Stevens,  who  was  ap- 
pointed to  this  office  and-,  also,  made  ex  officio 
Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs  of  Washing- 
ton Territory,  and  by  the  secretary  of  war  was 
given  charge  of  an  exploration  and  survey  of  a 
railroad  from  the  headwaters  of  the  Mississippi 
to  Puget  Sound.  In  a  communication  to  A.  A. 
Denny,  dated  at  Washington,  D.  C,  April  18, 
1853,  Governor  Stevens  said: 

"Herewith  you  will  find  a  printed  copy  of 
my  instructions  from  the  secretary  of  war,  by 
which  you  will  see  an  exploration  and  survey 
of  a  railroad  from  the  headwaters  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi to  Puget  Sound  is  entrusted  to  me 
*  *  *  A  military  road  is  to  be  built  from 
Fort  Walla  Walla  to  Puget  Sound.  Captain 
McClellan,  an  officer  distinguished  for  his  gal- 
lantry in  Mexico,  has  command  of  the  party 
who  will  make  the  exploration  of  the  Cascade 
range  and  the  construction  of  the  military  road. 
His  undertaking  of  the  task  is  a  sure  guarantee 
of  its  accomplishment.  I  expect  to  pierce  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  and  this  road  is  to  be  done 
in  time  for  the  fall's  immigration,  so  that  an 
open  line  of  communication  between  the  states 
and  Sound  will  be  made  this  year." 

Isaac  Ingalls  Stevens  was  born  in  the  his- 
toric and  classic  town  of  Andover,  Massachu- 
setts, and  educated  at  West  Point,  from  which 
military  institution  he  was  graduated  with  hon- 
ors in  1837.  For  several  years  the  young  of- 
ficer was  in  charge  of  the  New  England  coast 
fortifications.  During  the  war  with  Mexico 
he  was  attached  to  the  staff  of  General  Scott. 

Four  years  preceding  his  appointment  as  Ter- 
ritorial Governor  of  Washington  he  was  asso- 
ciated with  Professor  Bache  in  the  coast  sur- 
vey. It  will  be  seen  that  the  duties  assigned  to 
Governor  Stevens  were  manifold  and  ardu- 
ous. Aside  from  the  appointive  office  of  gov- 
ernor of  a  young,  though  important  Territory, 
he  was  to  superintend  the  construction  of  a  mil- 
itary road  from  the  Sound  to  the  Rockies ;  sur- 
vey the  line  of  what  eventually  became  the 
great  transcontinental  highway,  the  Northern 
Pacific  Railroad,  and  at  the  same  time  superin- 
tend the  complicated  affairs  of  the  savage  and 
turbulent  Indian  tribes  between  the  coast  and 
the  Rocky  Mountains.  Certainly  a  heavy  re- 
sponsibility to  be  placed  upon  the  shoulders  of 
one  man.  The  sagacity  and  efficiency  with 
:'  which  he  met  these  heavy  responsibilities  have 
j  Ireen  recardecl  in  preceding  chapters  of  this 
work.  It  was  his  destiny  to  be  called  higher. 
In  May,  1861,  news  was  received  at  Olympia 
of  the  surrender  by  Major  Anderson  of  Fort 
Sumter.  "The  Irrepressible  Conflict"  be- 
tween North  and  South  had  for  years  worn 
heavily  on  the  patriotic  spirit  of  Governor  Stev- 
ens. He  was  a  pro-slavery  democrat,  yet  he 
loved  his  country  and  placed  her  national  and 
indisoluble  interests  above  party  or  purely 
sectional  benefits.  In  reply  to  a  speech  wel- 
coming him  home  from  his  perilous  expedition 
among  hostile  tribes  of  Indians  he  said  :  "I  con- 
ceive my  duty  to  be  to  stop  disunion."  These 
were  brave  words,  for  at  this  period  the  Terri- 
tory of  which  he  was  chief  executive  was 
thickly  populated  with  avowed  secessionists. 

Dissensions  were  rife  in  his  own  party. 
Assaults  were  made  by  the  press  upon  his  pa- 
triotism and  even  his  personal  character  was 
assailed.  He  was  accused  of  attempting  a  coali- 
tion with  Lane  and  Grim  for  the  purpose  of 
forming  an  independent  Pacific  republic.  Vis- 
ionary and  chimerical  as  was  this  scheme;  im- 
possible for  one  of  the  sterling  patriotism  of 
Governor  Stevens  to  cherish  for  a  moment,  the 
charge  found  many  professed  lielievers  among 



his  opponents.  With  the  darkening  of  war 
clouds  Stevens,  who  had  intended  to  stand  for 
re-election,  renounced  the  project  and  hastened 
to  Washington  to  offer  his  services  to  the  gov- 
ernment. July  31,  1861,  he  was  appointed  col- 
onel of  the  79th  New  York  Infantry,  and  was 
among  the  first  of  the  defenders  of  Washington 
and  Arlington  Heights.  In  March,  1862,  he 
received  a  commission  as  brigadier  general,  and 
on  July  4,  was  made  a  Major  General  of  vol- 
unteers. Such  was  his  rapid  rise  by  promotion 
in  the  army.  His  death  was  a  fitting  close  of  a 
heroic  life.  At  the  battle  of  Chantilly  he  seized 
the  flag  which  had  fallen  from  the  dead  hand  of 
a  color  sergeant,  and  was  shot  in  the  forehead, 
dying  upon  the  field.  Sudden  was  the  revul- 
sion of  feeling  in  Washington  Territory  when 
news  of  his  death  was  received.  The  legisla- 
ture passed  resolutions  in  his  honor,  and  crape 
was  worn  by  the  members  ten  days.  He  died 
at  forty-four  years  of  age.  In  a  letter  touching 
upon  the  character  of  Governor  Stevens,  writ- 
ten by  Professor  Bache,  of  the  coast-survey, 
he  said : 

"He  was  not  one  who  led  by  looking  on  but 
by  example.  As  we  knew  him  in  the  coast- 
survey  office,  so  he  was  in  every  position  of  life. 
*  *  *  This  place  he  filled,  and  more  than 
filled,  for  four  years,  with  a  devotion,  an  en- 
ergy, a  knowledge  not  to  be  surpassed,  and 
which  left  its  beneficient  mark  upon  our  organ- 
ization. *  *  *  Generous  and  noble  in  im- 
pulses, he  left  our  office  with  our  enthusiastic 
admiration  of  his  character,  appreciation  of  his 
sendees,  and  hope  for  his  success." 

The  apportionment  for  the  first  Washing- 
ton Territorial  legislature  was  made  by  Gov- 
ernor Stevens  soon  after  his  arrival  from  the 
east.  The  proclamation  concerning  the  same 
was  made  November  28,  1853,  designating 
January  30,  1854,  as  the  day  for  election  of 
legislati\<e  members.  February  27  was  the 
time  set  for  the  meeting  of  the  legislature  and 
Olympia  the  place.  Nine  members  composed 
the    original    council :    Clarke   county,    D.-   F. 

Bradford,  William  H.  Tappan ;  Lewis  and 
Pacific  counties.  Seth  Catlin,  Henry  Miles; 
Thurston  county,  D.  R.  Bigelow,  B.  F.  Yantis; 
Pierce  and  King  counties,  Lafayette  Balch,  G. 
N.  McConaha;  Jefferson  and  Island  counties, 
William  P.  Sayward. 

Twice  this  number  of  members  composed 
the  house,  viz :  Clarke  county,  F.  A.  Chenow- 
eth,  A.  J.  Bolan,  Henry  R.  Crosbie,  A.  C. 
Lewis  and  John  D.  Biles :  Thurston  county.  C. 
H.  Hall,  L.  D.  Durgin,  David  Shelton  and  Ira 
Ward.  Jr. ;  Island  county,  Samuel  D.  Howe ; 
Pierce  county,  H.  C.  Moseley,  L.  F.  Thompson 
and  John  M.  Chapman ;  Jefferson  county,  Dan- 
iel F.  Brownfield ;  King  county,  A.  A.  Denny ; 
Lewis  county,  H.  D.  Huntington  and  John  R. 
Jackson ;  Pacific  county,  John  Scudder. 

In  this  legislative  membership  we  have  a 
fair  roster  of  the  pioneer  statesmen  of  Wash- 
ington Territory.  The  most  of  them  have  been 
stricken  by  the  hand  of  death,  but  the  work 
they  did  in  laying  the  foundation  of  Washing- 
ton's future  territorial  and  commonwealth  im- 
provement can  never  be  stricken  from  the  pages 
of  history.  One  of  these  members,  Hon.  A.  A. 
Denny,  representative  from  King  county,  in  a 
paper  read  before  the  Historical  Society,  at 
Tacoma,  said  : 

At  the  time  of  the  Monticello  convention,  Thurston 
county  embraced  all  the  territory  north  of  Lewis  county 
to  the  British  line,  and  the  session  of  the  Oregon  legis- 
lature, just  prior  to  the  division  of  the  territory,  formed 
out  of  Thurston  county  Pierce,  King,  Island  and  Jeffer- 
son counties,  making  a  total  of  eight  counties  in  Wash- 
ington Territory  when  organized,  Clarke  county  at  that 
time  extending  to  the  summit  of  the  Rocky  Mountains. 
The  first  session  of  the  legislature  formed  eight  new 
counties.  Walla  Walla  was  formed  at  this  session,  em- 
bracing all  the  territory  east  of  the  mouth  of  the  Des 
Chutes  river  and  running  to  the  forty-ninth  parallel  on 
the  north  and  the  parallel  of  forty-si.x  degrees  thirty 
minutes  eastward  to  the  summit  of  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains, and  I  well  remember  that  a  board  of  county  officers 
was  appointed  and  representation  in  the  legislature  pro- 
vided for,  but  when  the  succeeding  legislature  convened, 
no  members  from  Walla  Walla  appeared,  and  it  was 
found  that  no  organization  of  the  county  had  been  made 
for  want  of  population,  and  the  widely  scattered  condi- 
tion of  the  few  who  then  inhabited  that  vast  territory. 



It  will  be  recalled  that  so  early  as  1852  the 
impetuous  members  of  the  Monticello  conven- 
tion were  determined  to  demand  admission  to 
the  union  as  a  state  should  congress  deny  terri- 
torial division.  But  thirty-seven  years  were 
destined  to  pass  before  the  culmination  of  such 
an  event.  And  yet,  during  a  large  portion  of 
the  last  half  of  this  period  Washington  was  a 
state  in  all  but  name.  Her  statesmen  and  poli- 
ticians indulged  in  commonwealthian  struggles 
much  the  same  as  those  at  present  exploited  by 
older  states  in  the  union.  In  1859-60  a  cer- 
tain faction  plotted  for  the  removal  of  the  Ter- 
ritorial capital  from  Olympia  to  Vancouver.  It 
was  secretely  arranged  by  legislative  manipu- 
lation to  apportion  Territorial  institutions  as 
follows:  to  Vancauver  the  capital;  to  Seattle 
the  university ;  to  Port  Townsend  the  peniten- 
tiary. An  act  to  this  effect  passed  both  bodies 
of  the  legislature.  It  carried,  however,  two 
fatal  defects;  no  enacting  clause  was  inserted, 
and  it  violated  the  terms  of  the  organic  act  by 
attempting  a  permanent  location  of  the  capital. 
Consequently  the  law  fell  to  the  ground  of  its 
own  legal  impotence.  As  in  Louisiana,  in 
1872,  two  legislatures  were  in  session  in  Wash- 
ington, or  rather  the  regular  body  at  Olympia 
and  a  "rump"  organizing  at  Vancouver.  The 
supreme  court's  decision  on  the  removal  law 
brought  the  factions  again  together  at  Olympia. 
In  1 86 1  the  corner  stone  of  a  university  was 
laid  at  Seattle,  A.  A.  Denny  donating  eight, 
and  Edward  Lander  two,  acres  of  land  for  that 
purpose.  In  this  circumstance,  also,  the  Ter- 
ritory of  Washington  assumed  many  of  the  ef- 
fects of  modern  statehood,  through  subsequent 
"mismanagement"  of  university  funds.  Truly 
a  state  in  all  but  name! 

Quite  similar  in  point  of  contention  for  the 
capital  was  the  strugle  for  the  possession  of  the 
custom-house  between  Port  Townsend  and 
Port  Angeles.  In  August,  1861,  Victor  Smith 
arrived  from  Washington,  D.  C,  with  creden- 
tials as  collector  of  United  States  revenue. 
Possessing  the  confidence  of  the  national  ad- 

ministration he  was  accused  of  utilizing  it  to 
further  an  intrigue  for  removal  of  the  custom- 
house. It  was  openly  charged  that  he  was 
speculating  in  Port  Angeles  real  estate  and 
working  for  his  personal  financial  interests.  Be- 
sides this  Smith  was  one  of  the  original  "car- 
pet-baggers," even  at  that  early  day  detested 
by  the  democracy  in  Washington  Territory, 
which  party  was,  numerically,  quite  powerful. 
Removal  of  the  custom-house  from  Port 
Townsend  to  Port  Angeles  was  recommended 
by  Secretary  Salmon  Portland  Chase,  and  in 
June,  1862,  congress  passed  a  bill  making  the 
change.  A  subsequent  act  of  congress  was  in 
the  nature  of  "a  bill  for  increasing  revenue  by 
reservation  and  sale  of  townsites."  It  was  at 
this  point  that  the  crux  of  Smith's  real  estate 
enterprises  became  apparent.  Port  Townsend 
citizens  were  wild  with  excitement.  They  ac- 
cused Smith  of  a  defalcation  of  $15,000,  but  he 
promptly  repaired  to  the  national  capital  and 
showed  conclusively  that  the  alleged  crime  was 
nothing  more  than  the  transference  of  one 
fund  to  another.  This  custom-house  imbroglio 
continued  for  some  time,  in  the  course  of  which 
the  guns  of  the  revenue  cutter  Shubrick  were 
shotted  and  brought  to  bear  on  the  town  of 
Port  Townsend.  Finally,  after  many  serious 
complications,  involving  numerous  arrests  and 
much  ill-feeling,  the  custom-house  was  re- 
moved from  Port  Townsend  to  Port  Angeles. 
George  B.  McClellan.  afterwards  general 
commanding  the  army  of  the  Potomac,  had  re- 
ported favorably  upon  the  change  of  location. 
Here  the  institution  remained  until  December 
16,  1863,  when  the  town  of  Port  Angeles  was 
washed  away,  causing  the  death  of  Inspector 
William  B.  Goodell  and  Deputy  Collector  J. 
W.  Anderson.  In  1865  the  custom-house  was 
taken  back  to  Port  Townsend,  and  the  same 
year  Victor  Smith  was  lost  in  the  wreck  of  the 
steamship  Brother  Jonathan,  wrecked  near 
Crescent  City,  involving  the  loss  of  three  hun- 
dred lives. 

For  a  number  of  vears  the   residents   of 



Washington  had  been  engaged  in  various  wars 
with  Indians.  Therefore  it  was  not  unusual 
that  some  most  excellent  fighting  material  was 
to  be  found  among  the  ex-volunteers  of  the 
Cayuse  war,  Steptoe's  invasion  and  the  im- 
portant battle  of  White  River.  In  May,  1861, 
news  of  President  Lincoln's  call  for  volunteers 
was  received  at  Olympia.  Henry  M.  McGill 
was  acting-governor;  Frank  Matthias  adju- 
tant-general. The  latter  appointed  enrolling 
officers  in  each  county  in  the  Territory,  at  this 
period  comprising  twenty-two,  east  and  west 
of  the  Cascades.  The  same  summer  Wright, 
now  brigadier  general,  was  placed  in  command 
of  the  department  of  the  Pacific,  and  Colonel 
Albermarle  Cady  of  the  district  of  the  Colum- 
bia. Colonel  Justin  Steinberger  came  to  the 
coast  in  January,  1862,  and  enlisted  four  in- 
fantry companies,  one  each  from  Port  Madi- 
son, Walla  Walla,  Port  Townsend  and  What- 
com. From  the  Olympia  Standard,  of  July  20, 
1 86 1,  it  is  learned  that  a  company  had  prev- 
iously, in  May,  been  enlisted  at  Port  Madison, 
designated  at  the  Union  Guards,  consisting  of 
seventy  men,  officered  as  follows:  William 
Fowler,  captain;  H.  B.  Manchester,  first  lieu- 
tenant; E.  D.  Kromer,  second  lieutenant;  non- 
commissioned officers,  A.  J.  Tuttle,  Noah  Falk, 
William  Clendennin,  Edgar  Brown,  S.  F. 
Coombs,  R.  J.  May,  J.  M.  Grindon,  John  Tay- 
lor. The  Lewis  County  Rangers,  mounted, 
were  organized  in  June,  1861,  Henry  Miles, 
captain;  L.  L.  Dubeau,  first  lieutenant;  S.  B. 
Smith,  second  lieutenant.  To  the  four  com- 
panies enlisted  by  Colonel  Steinberger  four 
more  were  added  from  California,  General  Al- 
vord  assumed  command  in  July,  and  Colonel 
Steinberger  went  to  Fort  Walla  \Valla,  where 
he  relieved  Colonel  Cornelius,  of  the  Oregon 
cavalry.  These  troops  were  stationed  at  Walla 
Walla  and  Fort  Pickett. 

In  i860  the  discovery  of  valuable  aurifer- 
ous deposits  at  Pierce  City,  Oro  Fino,  Oro 
Grande  and  other  points  along  the  Clearwater, 
in  what  is  now  Idaho,  but  was  then  included  in 

Washington  Territory,  created  a  stampede 
which  his  seldon  been  equalled  in  the  history 
of  gold  discoveries  in  the  territory.  At  that 
period  a  treaty  with  the  Nez  Perces  existed 
which,  theoretically,  estopped  travel  across  the 
Indian  country.  Practically  it  did  nothing  of 
the  sort.  From  a  few  hundred  the  number  of 
miners  increased  to  thousands.  On  the  Colum- 
bia river  lines  of  steamers  plied  between  the 
western  portions  of  the  Territory  to  old  Fort 
Walla  Walla,  conveying  men  and  freight  as 
near  as  possible  to  these  seductive  placer  mines, 
where  pay  dirt  was  found  averaging  one  hun- 
dred dollars  a  day  to  the  miner.  In  May  the 
steamer  Colonel  Wright  came  up  the  Columbia 
and  Clearwater  to  within  forty  miles  of  Pierce 
City.  At  this  landing  was  founded  the  "spas- 
modic" mining  town  of  Slaterville,  with  its 
canvas  saloons  and  rough  board  shanties.  In 
July  five  thousand  men  were  prospecting  the 
country,  or  washing  from  ten  to  one  hundred 
and  fifty  dollars  a  day  from  the  earth.  "Town 
lot"  people  and  merchants  reaped  a  substantial 
reward  for  their  industry.  It  is  stated  that  the 
weekly  receipts  of  gold  dust  at  Portland  from 
the  Clearwater  district  was  $100,000.  Deady's 
"History  of  Oregon"  says :  "The  Colville  and 
Oro  Fino  mines  helped  Portland  greatly;  and 
in  1861  built  up  the  Oregon  Steam  Navigation 
Company.  Loaded  drays  used  to  stand  in  line 
half  a  mile  long,  unloading  at  night  freight  to 
go  in  the  morning,  that  involved  a  fortune." 

It  was  but  natural  that  the  steadily  increas- 
ing tide  of  immigration  to  this  district  should 
materially  affect  the  political  status  of  the  Ter- 
ritory. From  west  of  the  Cascades  the  pendu- 
lum of  political  power  swung  to  the  east;  to 
the  vicinity  of  Shoshone  and  Walla  Walla 
counties.  More  judges  were  required  east  of 
the  mountains.  District  courts  were  estab- 
lished at  the  county  seats.  It  was,  however,  the 
destiny  of  Washington  Territory  to  lose  the 
richest  portions  of  these  mining  districts.  Con- 
gress passed  an  act,  which  was  approved  by 
President  Lincoln,  March  3,  1863,  organizing 



the  Territory  of  Idaho  out  of  all  such  territory 
of  Washington  lying  east  of  Oregon  and  the 
117th  meridian  of  west  longitude.  The  popu- 
lation of  the  remaining  Territory  of  Washing- 
ton was  then  only  12,519.  Yet  in  i860  it  had 
been  less  than  half  this  number. 

Twelve  years  before  the  admission  of 
Washington  into  the  union  agitation  concern- 
ing this  subject  was  precipitated.  Congres- 
sional Delegate  Jacobs  in  December,  1877,  in- 
troduced a  bill  for  admission,  and  when  it  was 
fully  realized  that  a  constitutional  convention 
was  to  be  ordered,  the  old  question  of  1852 
sprung  to  the  front.  "Washington"  or  "Col- 
umbia"? June  II,  1878,  the  convention  as- 
sembled at  Walla  Walla.  By  the  constitution 
then  adopted  a  new  eastern  boundary  was 
marked  for  the  proposed  state,  including  the 
Idaho  "Panhandle"  and  much  of  the  mineral 
territory  lost  in  1863.  Twenty- four  days  were 
passed  in  "concentrating"  and  "smelting"  the 
various  provisions  of  this  document,  and,  al- 
though no  enabling  act  had  been  passed  by 
Congress,  the  constitution  was  adopted  bj^  the 
people  at  the  succeeding  November  election  for 
delegates.  As  the  entire  proceedings  of  this 
convention  were  void  and  nugatory,  it  is  need- 
less to  devote  space  to  their  consideration.  As 
illustrative  of  patriotic  zeal  and  alert  progres- 
siveness,  however,  the  attitude  of  the  people  at 
this  period  is  worthy  of  record. 

The  administration  of  Governor  Watson  C. 
Squire  was  one  especially  worthy  of  commen- 
dation. He  was  appointed  in  1884,  succeeding 
William  A.  Newell.  Squire  was  a  man  of  rare 
executive  ability,  a  veteran  of  the  Civil  war, 
and  became  one  of  the  most  prominent  factors 
in  advancing  the  interests  of  the  Territory  and 
promoting  its  progress  toward  statehood.  He 
was  bom  May  18.  1838,  at  Cape  Vincent.  New 
York,  and  in  1861  enlisted  in  the  19th  New 
York  Infantry  as  a  private,  rising  to  the  rank 
of  first  lieutenant.  He  then  resigned,  was 
graduated  from  the  Qeveland  law  school,  in 
1862,  and  then  recruited  a  company  of  sharp- 

shooters of  which  he  was  given  the  command, 
being  assigned  to  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland. 
He  served  on  the  staffs  of  both  Generals  Rose- 
cranz  and  Thomas  and  was,  after  the  war, 
agent  for  the  Remington  Arms  Company.  In 
1879  he  located  in  Seattle,  and  ten  years  there- 
after was  elected  president  of  the  statehood 
committee,  holding  its  meeting  in  Ellensburg 
in  January  of  1889.  In  framing  memorials 
afterward  presented  to  congress  in  behalf  of 
statehood  he  was  most  assiduously  employed 
and  his  efforts  met  with  cordial  appreciation 
from  the  people  of  the  Territory. 

During  the  administration  of  Governor 
Squire  occurred  the  "Chinese  Riots,"  on  the 
coast,  opinion  of  his  policy  in  the  Territory  be- 
ing at  that  time  divided.  But  it  is  certain  that 
his  courageous  attitude  in  behalf  of  law  and 
order  won  the  approval  of  a  large  majority  of 
the  most  influential  and  intelligent  citizens  of 
the  nation  at  large.  It  was  at  this  period,  1885, 
that  the  first  attempts,  under  auspices  of  the 
Knights  of  Labor,  were  made  to  expel  China- 
men from  the  Territory.  Riots  occurred; 
Chinese  were  killed  and  bloodshed  and  dis- 
order ensued  at  Seattle  among  the  coal  miners. 
Governor  Squire,  November  5,  1885,  issued  a 
proclamation  commanding  the  establishment  of 
peace,  and  to  this  so  little  attention  was  paid 
that  disorder  increased  rather  than  subsided, 
and  several  Chinese  houses  were  fired  and  the 
occupants  driven  away.  Troops  were  promptly 
forwarded  from  Vancouver  and.  the  secretary 
of  war  being  informed  of  the  conditions.  Pres- 
ident Cleveland  issued  a  proclamation  couched 
in  more  drastic  terms  than  had  been  that  of 
Governor  Squire.  Its  effect  was  temporary; 
in  Februan,^  1886,  other  outbreaks  took  place 
and  in  efforts  to  protect  the  "celestials"  a  num- 
ber of  lives  were  sacrificed  and  conditions  re- 
solved themselves  into  o\'ert  rebellion.  Gov- 
ernor Squire  declared  martial  law.  Its  pro- 
visions were  carried  out  with  firmness,  if  not 
severity.  Order  was  restored,  but  the  execu- 
tive found  himself  placed  between  the  hostile 



attacks  of  the  proletariat,  and  the  hearty  com- 
mendation of  President  Cleveland,  his.  cabinet 
and  the  members  of  the  Territorial  legislature. 

Squire's  administration  was  marked  by 
healthy  progress  and  steady  improvement  in 
the  various  industries  and  material  welfare  of 
the  Territory.  During  his  incumbency  the 
penitentiary  was  built  at  Walla  Walla,  an  addi- 
tion made  to  the  penitentiary  at  Seatco,  and  an 
insane  asylum  erected  at  Steilacoom.  At  the 
close  of  1885  the  Territory  was  free  from  debt 
and  with  a  surplus  of  $100,000.  That  his  best 
efforts  were  ever  directed  to  further  the  inter- 
ests of  Washington  is  amply  proven,  not  only 
by  gratifying  results,  but  by  his  carefully  pre- 
pared and  luminously  written  official  reports. 
The  one  forwarded  to  the  secretary  of  the  in- 
terior in  1884  was  a  concise  and  valuable  his- 
tory of  the  Territory  for  several  years  ante- 
rior to  his  administration,  embracing  much  in- 
formation that  had  been  ignored  by  preceding 
executives.  In  explaining  his  object  in  thus 
voluminously  presenting  these  valuable  statis- 
tics Governor  Squire  said : 

"I  have  diligently  corresponded  with  the 
auditors  and  assessors  of  all  the  counties  of  the 
Territory,  furnishing  them  with  printed  blanks 
to  be  returned,  and  with  all  the  managers  of 
various  educational  and  business  institutions. 
Besides  drawing  on  my  own  knowledge  of  the 
Territory,  gleaned  during  a  residence  here  dur- 
ing the  past  five  or  six  years,  I  have  gathered 
and  compiled  a  variety  of  important  facts  from 
leading  specialists  in  reference  to  the  geo- 
graphical, geologic,  and  climatic  characteris- 
tics, the  coal  and  iron  mining,  horticultural, 
agricultural,  and  manufacturing  interests,  the 
fisheries  and  the  flora  and  fauna  of  the  Terri- 
tory. The  data  thus  offered,  together  with  the 
summary  reports  of  our  charitable  and  penal 
institutions,  and  an  exhibit  of  the  financial  con- 
dition of  the  Territory,  if  published,  will  not 
only  be  of  great  service  in  encouraging  and 
stimulating  our  people,  but  will  furnish  re- 
liable information  to  the  intending  immigrant. 

and  will  indicate  to  congress  the  rightful  basis 
of  our  claim  for  admission  into  the  union  of 

In  the  last  paragraph  of  this  quotation  may 
be  traced  the  central  thought  which  appears  to 
have  actuated  Governor  Squire  in  his  untiring 
efforts.  To  accomplish  the  admission  of  Wash- 
ington he  spared  no  labor  in  collecting  an  ar- 
ray of  statistical  information  that  could  be 
molded  into  powerful  arguments  for  state- 
hood. And  to  these  reports  is  due  largely  the 
great  volume  of  immigration  which  flowed  into 
the  Territory  on  the  wheels  of  the  Northern 
Pacific  railway.  From  75,000  in  1880,  the 
population  increased  to  210.000  in  1886.  In 
the  latter  year  this  pioneer  railroad  company 
operated  four  hundred  and  fifty-five  miles  of 
railway  within  the  boundaries  of  Washington ; 
the  Oregon  Railroad  and  Navigation  Company 
two  hundred  and  ninety-five  miles ;  the  Colum- 
bia and  Puget  Sound  Company  forty-four 
miles,  and  the  Olympia  and  Chehalis  Company 
fifteen  miles,  which,  together  with  other  com- 
pleted lines,  gave  to  the  Territory  eight  hun- 
dred and  sixty-six  miles  of  railroad.  The  ef- 
fect on  all  industries  may  be  easily  conceived. 
The  building  of  shipping  tonnage  was  stimu- 
lated on  the  coast ;  the  output  of  produce  east- 
ward increased  wonderfully.  The  wheat  mar- 
ket was,  at  that  period,  still  in  the  east,  and  in 
1886  the  Northern  Pacific  Company  trans- 
ported 4,161  tone  of  wheat  and  1,600  tons  of 
other  grains  to  the  Mississippi  river ;  the  Ore- 
gon Railroad  and  Navigation  Company  took 
out  250,000  tons  of  wheat,  flour  and  barley  to 
southeastern  points.  These  appear,  at  this 
date,  insignificant  figures  compared  with  the 
present  volume  of  grain  business,  but  eighteen 
years  ago  they  gave  indubitable  proof  to  the 
people  of  the  eastern  states  of  the  remarkable 
fertility  of  the  soil  of  Washington  Territory. 

Associated  with  Governor  Squire  in  the 
Territorial  offices  were  R.  S.  Greene,  chief  jus- 
tice; J.  P.  Hoyt,  S.  C.  \\'^ingard  and  George 
Turner,  associate  justices:  N.  H.  Owings,  sec- 



retary.  Tlie  delegate  to  congress  was  Thomas 
H.  Brents.  The  federal  officers  were  John  B. 
Allen,  United  States  district  attorney;  Jesse 
George,  United  States  marshal;  C.  Bash,  cus- 
toms collector ;  C.  B.  Bagley  and  E.  L.  Heriff, 
internal  revenue  collectors ;  William  McMicken, 
surveyor-general;  John  F.  Gowley,  registrar, 
and  J.  R.  Hayden,  receiver  of  the  United  States 
land  office  at  Olympia ;  F.  W.  Sparling,  regis- 
trar, and  A.  G.  Marsh,  receiver,  of  the  Van- 
couver land  office ;  Joseph  Jorgensen,  registrar, 
and  James  Baden,  receiver,  at  Walla  Walla ;  J. 
M.  Armstrong,  registrar,  and  John  L.  Wilson, 
receiver,  at  Spokane,  and  R.  R.  Kinne,  reg- 
istrar, and  J.  M.  Adams,  receiver,  at  Yakima. 

Governor  Squire  was  succeeded  in  1887  by 
Eugene  Semple.  Although  a  republican,  he 
had  won  the  confidence  of  a  democratic  admin- 
istration at  Washington,  D.  C,  and  was  re- 
tained in  office  long  after  his  place  could  have 
lieen  conveniently  supplied  with  a  democratic 
partisan.  His  attitude  during  the  Chinese  riots 
had  done  much  to  establish  him  in  the  estima- 
tion of  President  Cleveland.  At  the  time  of 
Semple's  accession  the  questions  of  statehood 
and  woman  suffrage  were  agitating  the  people. 
Affairs  were  somewhat  disquieted.  The  suff- 
rage question  had  been  defeated  by  popular  vote 
in  1878,  but  the  legislature  of  1883-4  had 
passed  an  act  conferring  this  privilege  upon 
women,  and  the  act  had  been  declared  unconsti- 
tutional by  the  courts,  but  not  until  the  women 
of  the  Territory  had  enjoyed  the  benefits  of 
voting,  holding  office  and  serving  on  juries  for 
two  years,  were  they  disfranchised.  In  1886 
woman  suffrage  became  an  exceedingly  lively 
party  issue ;  the  republicans  favoring,  the  dem- 
ocrats opposing  the  same.  There  had,  also, 
been  a  "capital  removal"  scheme  injected  into 
the  campaign,  and  strong  "North  Yakima"  and 
"Ellensburg"  factions  developed  in  the  "In- 
land Empire."  A  large  number  of  those  favor- 
ing statehood  had  assumed,  upon  what  logical 
grounds  is  rather  obscure,  that  with  admission 

into  the  union  the  "panhandle  of  Idaho,  lost 
in  1863,  would  be  restored  to  the  state.  This 
remote  probability  was,  however,  employed  as 
an  argument  in  favor  of  capital  removal,  but 
the  strenuous  "coasters"  of  the  extreme  west 
stoutly  opposed  a  location  of  the  seat  of  gov- 
ernment east  of  the  Cascades,  and  the  hopes  of 
the  Yakima  Valley  people  were  doomed  to  dis- 
appointment. During  the  second  term  of  Gov- 
ernor Semple,  Charles  S.  Voorhees  succeeded 
Congressional  Delegate  Brents,  and  James 
Shields  succeeded  Hayden  in  the  Olympia  land 
office.  N.  H.  Owings  continued  as  secretary, 
R.  A,  Jones  was  chief  justice,  Frank  Allyn, 
George  Turner  and  W.  G.  Langford  associate 

The  fight  for  admission  continued  bravely. 
In  1886  the  Tacoma  board  of  trade  resolved 
that  "The  commercial  independence  of  Wash- 
1  ington  Territory  acompanying  the  completion 
j  of  the  Northern  Pacific  railroad  to  tide-water 
should  be  supplemented  by  its  political  inde- 
pendence as  a  state  of  the  American  union.  Ad- 
mission can  not  in  decency  be  delayed  many 
years  longer,  whatever  party  influences  may 
j  sway  congress.  The  census  of  1890  will  show 
I  a  population  within  the  present  limits  of  the 
Territory  exceeding  200,000,  and  a  property 
valuation  of  at  least  $200,000,000."  Prev- 
iously the  claims  of  Washington  for  admis- 
sion had  been  urged  by  Governor  Squire  in  one 
of  his  reports,  in  forceful  language,  assigning 
among  other  reasons  "the  sterling,  patriotic, 
and  enterprising  character  of  its  citizens;  its 
present  and  prospective  maritime  relations  with 
the  world :  its  position  as  a  border  state  on  the 
confines  of  the  dominion  of  Canada,  the  most 
powerful  province  of  Great  Britain;  its  wealth 
of  natural  resources  and  growing  wealth  of  its 
people;  the  efficiency  of  its  educational  system, 
requiring  that  its  school  lands  should  be  allotted 
j  and  utilized :  its  riparian  rights  should  be  set- 
tled, capital  and  immigration  encouraged,  and 
the  full  management  and  control  of  municipal 



and  county  affairs  should  be  assumed  by  the 
legislature,  which  is  not  allowed  during  the 
Territorial  condition." 

According  to  the  report  of  Governor 
Semple  for  1888  the  population  of  Washington 
Territory  was  167,982;  the  taxable  property 
was  $84,621,182;  the  revenue  produced  by  a 
tax  of  two  and  one-half  mills,  $212,734.92  ;  the 
amount  of  coal  mined,  1,133,801  tons;  the  lum- 
ber output  320,848,203  ;  the  estimated  capacity 
of  the  combined  mills  1,043,796,000  feet;  the 
total  railway  mileage  1,157.3,  broad-gauge, 
and  40  miles  narrow-gauge.  The  same  year  an 
insane  asylum  at  Steilacoom  was  completed  at  a 
cost  of  $100,000  and  $60,000  appropriated  for 
a  hospital  for  the  insane  at  Medical  Lake.  The 
citizens  of  Vancouver  donated  land,  and  the 
legislature  appropriated  money  for  the  erection 
at  that  point  of  a  school  for  defective  youth. 
The  national  guard  consisted  of  two  regiments 
of  infantry  and  one  troop  of  cavalry. 

Such,  in  rough  outline,  was  the  material 
condition  of  the  Territory  of  Washington  on 
the  eve  of  statehood.  On  the  anniversary  of 
President  Washington's  birthday,  February 
22,  1889,  congress  passed  an  enabling  act  pro- 
posing the  terms  on  which  the  Territory  might 
be  admitted  into  the  union.  By  these  pro- 
visions the  governor  was,  on  April  15,  1889, 
to  call  for  the  election  of  seventy-five  delegates 
on  the  first  Tuesday  after  the  first  Monday  in 
May,  to  meet  in  constitutional  convention  at 
Olympia  on  July  4,  1889,  for  organization  and 
formulation  of  a  state  constitution.  The  en- 
abling act  by  virtue  of  which  W^ashington  Ter- 
ritory was  permitted  to  call  a  constitutional 
convention  embraced  other  territories.  Its  title 
was  as  follows :  "An  act  to  provide  for  the 
division  of  Dakota  into  two  states  and  to  en- 
able the  people  of  North  Dakota,  South  Da- 
kota, Montana  and  Washington  to  form  con- 
stitutions and  state  governments,  and  to  be  ad- 
mitted into  the  union  on  an  equal  footing  with 
the  original  states,  and  to  make  donations  of 
public  lands  to  such  states."    The  land  grant  to 

Washington  was:  "For  the  establishment  and 
maintenance  of  a  scientific  school,  one  hundred 
thousand  acres;  for  state  normal  schools,  one 
hundred  thousand  acres ;  for  public  buildings  at 
the  state  capital,  in  addition  to  the  grant  here- 
inbefore made,  for  that  purpose,  one  hundred 
thousand  acres;  for  state  charitable,  educa- 
tional and  reformatory  institutions,  two  hun- 
dred thousand  acres." 

To  defray  the  expenses  of  the  constitutional 
convention  the  sum  of  $20,000  was  appropri- 
ated by  congress.  It  was  further  provided  that 
there  should  be  appointed  one  district  judge, 
United  States  attorney,  and  United  States 
marshal;  the  state  to  constitute  one  judicial  dis- 
trict to  be  attached  to  the  ninth  judicial  dis- 
trict; the  regular  terms  of  court  to  commence 
in  April  and  November ;  the  clerks  of  the  courts 
to  have  their  offices  at  the  state  capital;  the 
judge  to  reside  in  the  district  and  receive  a 
salary  of  $3,500  per  annum,  and  the  courts  of 
the  state  to  become  the  successors  of  the  terri- 
torial courts. 

On  July  4,  1889,  the  delegates  elected  to 
the  constitutional  convention  proceeded  to  bus- 
iness at  Olympia.  Following  is  the  represen- 
tation of  the  several  counties : 

Stevens,  S.  H.  Manley,  J.  J.  Travis; 
Spokane,  C.  P.  Coey,  George  Turner,  J.  Z. 
Moore,  J.  J.  Browne,  T.  C.  Griffitts,  H.  F. 
Suksdor,  Hiram  E.  Allen ;  Lincoln,  H.  W. 
Fairweather,  B.  B.  Glascock,  Frank  M.  Dal- 
lam; Kititas,  J.  A.  Shoudy,  \.  Mires,  J.  T. 
McDonald ;  Whitman,  J.  P.  T.  McCloskey,  C. 
H.  Warner,  E.  H.  Sullivan,  J.  M.  Reed,  James 
Hungate,  George  Comegys;  Adams,  D. 
Buchanan;  Garfield,  S.  C.  Cosgrove;  Franklin, 
W.  B.  Gray ;  Columbia,  M.  M.  Goodman,  R.  F. 
Sturvedant;  Walla  Walla,  Lewis  Neace,  D.  J. 
Crowley,  B.  L.  Sharpstein,  N.  G.  Blalock; 
Yakima,  W.  F.  Prosser;  Clarke,  Louis  Johns, 
A.  A.  Lindsley;  Skamania,  G.  H.  Stevenson; 
Pacific,  J.  A.  Burk ;  Wahiakum,  O.  A.  Bowen ; 
Cowlitz,  Jesse  Van  Name:  Mason,  Henry 
Winsor,  John  McReaw:  Chehalis,  A.  J.  West; 



Jefferson,  Allen  Weir,  George  H.  Jones,  H. 
C.  Wilson;  Skagit,  James  Power,  Thomas 
Hayton,  H.  Clothier;  Whatcom,  J.  J.  Weisen- 
berger,  E.  Eldridge;  Snohomish,  A.  Schooley; 
Island,  J.  C.  Kellogg;  Kitsap,  S.  A.  Dickey; 
King,  R.  Jeff's,  T.  T.  Minor,  T.  P.  Dyer,  D. 
E.  Dwrie,  John  P.  Kinnear,  John  P.  Hoyt,  M. 
J.  McElroy,  Morgan  Morgans,  George  W. 
Tibbetts,  W.  L.  Newton;  Pierce.  T.  L.  Stiles, 
P.  C.  Sullivan;  Gwin  Hicks,  H.  U.  Lillis,  C.  T. 
Fay,  R.  S.  Moore,  Robert  Jamison ;  Thurston, 
John  T.  Gowey,  T.  M.  Reed,  Francis  Henry; 
Lewis,  O.  H.  Joy,  S.  H.  Berry. 

J.  Z.  Moore,  of  Spokane  Falls,  was  elected 
temporary  chairman  of  the  convention,  and  Al- 
len Weir,  of  Port  Townsend,  was  chosen  tem- 
porary secretary.  Permanent  organization  was 
effected  by  the  election  of  John  P.  Hoyt,  of 
Seattle,  president,  John  I.  Booge,  Spokane 
Falls,  chief  clerk,  and  Clarence  M.  Bartin, 
Tacoma,  reading  clerk.  The  deliberations  of 
the  session  occupied  fifty  days.  At  the  election 
of  October  i,  1889,  the  constitution  framed  by 
these  seventy-five  delegates,  representing  twen- 
ty-eight counties,  was  adopted  by  the  people. 
All  in  all  it  was  an  instrument  fairly  well 
adapted  to  the  requirements  of  the  people  of 
Washington.  Although  not  extravagant  the 
salaries  allowed  state  oflficers  were  liberal;  the 
corporations  were  treated  impartially;  it  pro- 
vided for  five  supreme  judges  and  ordained  su- 
perior courts  in  all  the  counties ;  fixed  the  num- 
ber of  representatives  at  not  less  than  sixty- 
three  nor  more  than  ninety-nine ;  and  the  senate 
at  nor  more  than  half  nor  less  than  a  third  of 
that  number;  and  claimed  all  tide-lands  except 
such  as  had  been  patented  by  the  United  States. 
The  question  of  woman  suffrage,  prohibition 
and  capital  removal  were  voted  upon  separately. 
Of  the  votes  cast  40,152  were  for  adoption  of 
the  constitution  and  11,879  against  it.  Pro- 
hibition was  defeated  by  a  vote  of  31,487  to 
19,546;  woman  suffrage  was  again  laid  aside 
by  34,513  votes  against,  and  16,527  for,  that 
question,  and  for  location  of  the  state  capital 

Olympia  received  25,490  votes;  North  Yakima, 
14,718;  Ellensburg.  12,833;  Centralia,  607; 
Yakima,  314;  Pasco,  120;  scattering,  1,088. 

At  this  initial  state  election  John  L.  Wilson 
was  chosen  for  congressman  and  Elisha  Pyre 
Ferry  for  governor.  The  other  state  officers 
elected  were  Charles  E.  Laughton,  lieutenant 
governor;  Allen  Weir,  secretary  of  state;  A. 
A.  Lindsley,  treasurer;  T.  M.  Reed,  auditor; 
William  C.  Jones,  attorney  general ;  Robert  B. 
Bryan,  superintendent  of  public  instruction ; 
W.  T.  Forrest,  commissioner  of  public  lands. 
Ralph  O.  Dunbar,  Theodore  L.  Stiles,  John  P. 
Hoyt,  Thomas  J.  Anders  and  Elman  Scott 
were  elected  to  the  supreme  brench.  All  of  these 
succeessful  candidates  were  republicans.  Of 
the  one  hundred  and  five  members  of  the  legis- 
lature elected  one  senator  and  six  representa- 
tives were  democrats.  Following  is  the  per- 
sonnel of  the  first  Washington  state  senate  and 
house  of  representatives 

Senate — F.  H.  Luce,  Adams,  Franklin  and 
Okanogan;  C.  G.  Austin,  Asotin  and  Garfield; 

C.  T.  Wooding,  Chehalis;  Henry  Landes, 
Clallam,  Jefferson  and  San  Juan;  L.  B.  Clough, 
Clarke;  H.  H.  Wolfe,  Columbia;  C.  E.  For- 
sythe,  Cowlitz;  J.  M.  Snow.  Douglas  and  Ya- 
kima ;  Thomas  Paine,  Island  and  Skagit ;  W. 

D.  Wood,  J.  H.  Jones,  O.  D.  Gilfoil,  John  R. 
Kinnear,  W.  V.  Reinhart,  Iving;  W.  H.  Knee- 
land,  Kitsap  and  Mason;  E.  T.  Wilson, 
Kittitas:  Jacob  Hunsaker,  Klickitat  and  Ska- 
mania; J.  H.  Long,  Lewis:  H.  W.  Fair- 
weather,  Lincoln;  B.  A.  Seaborg,  Pacific  and 
Wahkiakum;  John  S.  Baker.  L.  F.  Thompson, 
Henry  Drum,  Pierce;  Henry  \'estal,  Snoho- 
mish :  Alexander  Watt,  E.  B.  Hyde,  B.  C.  Van 
Houton,  Spokane;  H.  E.  Houghton,  Spokane 
and  Stevens;  N.  H.  Owings,  Thurston;  Piatt 
A.  Preston,  George  T.  Thompson,  Walla 
Walla;  W.  J.  Parkinson,  Whatcom:  John  C. 
Lawrence,  J.  T.  Whaley,  A.  T.  Farris,  Whit- 

House — W.  K.  Kennedy,  Adams ;  Will- 
iam Farrish,  Asotin :  L.  B.  Nims,  T-  D.  Med- 



calf,  Chehalis;  Amos  F.  Shaw,  John  D. 
Geoghegan,  S.  S.  Cook,  Clarke;  A.  B.  Luce, 
Clallam;  A.  H.  Weatherford,  H.  B.  Day,  Col- 
umbia; Chandler  Huntington,  Jr.,  Cowlitz;  E. 

D.  Nash,  Douglas ;  C.  H.  Flummerfell,  Frank- 
lin; W.  S.  Oliphant,  Garfield;  George  W. 
Morse,  Island;  Joseph  Kuhn,  Jefferson;  J.  T. 
Blackburn,  W.  C.  Rutter,  W.  H.  Hughes, 
Alex.  Allen,  W.  J.  Shinn,  George  Bothwell,  F. 
W.  Bird,  F.  B.  Grant,  King:  ]\I.  S.  Drew,  Kit- 
sap ;  J.  N.  Power,  J.  P.  Sharp,  Kittitas ;  Bruce 

F.  Purdy,  R.  H.  Blair,  Klickitat;  S.  C.  Herren, 
Charles  Gilchrist,  Lewis ;  P.  R.  Spencer,  T.  C. 
Blackfan,  Lincoln ;  John  McReavy,  Mason ; 
Henry  Hamilton,  Okanogan;  Charles  Foster, 
Pacific ;  George  Browne,  A.  Hewitt.  George  B. 
Kandle,  Oliff  Peterson,  James  Knox,  Stephen 
Judson,  Pierce ;  J.  E.  Tucker,  San  Juan ;  J.  E. 
Edens,  B.  D.  Minkler,  Skagit;  George  H.  Stev- 
enson, Skamania;  Alexander  Robertson,  A.  H. 
Eddy,  Snohomish;  J.  W.  Feighan,  J.  E. 
Gandy,  S.  C.  Grubb,  J.  S.  Brown,  A.  K.  Clarke, 

E.  B.  Dean,  Spokane;  M.  A.  Randall,  Stevens; 
W.  G.  Bush,  Francis  Rotch,  Thurston;  Joseph 

G.  Megler,  Wahkiakum;  Joseph  Painter,  Z.  K. 
Straight,  James  Cornwall,  Walla  Walla:  R. 
W.  Montray.  George  Judson.  Whatcom;  J.  C. 
Turner,  E.  R.  Pickerell,  J.  T.  Peterson.  R.  H. 
Hutchinson,  B.  R.  Ostrander.  Whitman;  John 
Cleman,  Yakima. 

On  joint  ballot  the  republican  majority  of 
the  legislature  was  ninety-six,  thus  insuring  the 
election  of  two  United  States  senators.  Wat- 
son C.  Squire  and  John  B.  Allen  were  elected, 
their  respective  votes  on  joint  ballot  being  sev- 
enty-six and  seventy-one.  In  the  United  States 
senate  Mr.  Squire  drew  the  short  term,  expiring 
March  4,  1891,  and  Mr.  Allen  served  the  long 

term,  expiring  March  4,  1893.  In  January, 
1891,  Mr.  Squire  was  re-elected  for  six  years. 
The  omission  of  the  signiture  of  Governor 
Mason  to  a  certificate  accompanying  a  copy  of 
the  constitution  adopted,  caused  a  delay  in  the 
proclamation  of  President  Harrison,  and  in 
consequence  of  this  the  legislature  had  assem- 
bled before  Washington  was  actualy  a  state. 
On  November  11,  1889,  the  proclamation  was 
issued  by  the  President,  attested  by  James  G. 
Blaine,  secretary  of  state,  and  Washington 
stepped  into  the  ranks  of  that  sisterhood  at 
whom  she  had  long  looked  with  rather  envious 
eyes.  During  the  past  fifteen  years  her  course 
as  a  state  has  been  one  fulfilling  the  most  san- 
guine expectations  of  her  sponcors.  Indeed,  a 
retrospective  glance  shows  scarcely  one  unwise 
step  taken  by  the  leading  factors  in  her  political 
and  industrial  history  from  the  first  agitation 
for  territorial  division  until  to-day. 

At  the  date  of  admission  into  the  union 
Washington  had,  approximately,  a  population 
of  200,000.  The  census  of  1900  accords  the 
state  518,103,  and  the  past  four  years  have  ma- 
terially increased  these  figures.  From  twenty- 
eight  counties  at  the  period  of  admission  the 
state  now  has  thirty-six,  and  Indian  reserva- 
tions to  the  number  of  fourteen.  We  can  not 
more  fittingly  close  this  portion  of  our  history 
than  with  the  words  of  the  late  Julian  Ralph, 
written  ten  years  ago  : 

"Washington  is  in  every  material  way  a 
grand  addition  to  the  sisterhood  of  states.  With 
the  easy  and  rich  fancy  of  the  west,  her  people 
say  that  if  you  build  a  Chinese  wall  around 
Washington,  the  state  will  yield  all  that  her 
inhabitants  need  without  contributions  from 
the  outer  world." 

PART    II. 




Facts  supplying  the  context  of  preceding 
chapters  lead  to  one  definite  conclusion :  Had 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  retained  its  power 
north  of  the  Columbia — an  insidious  power 
constantly  encroaching  on  the  territory  to  the 
south — industrial  development  in  Stevens  coun- 
ty would  have  been  greatly  retarded.  Instead 
of  being  one  of  the  oldest  localities  in  Washing- 
ton in  point  of  historical  interest,  it  would  have 
lingered  in  the  shadow  of  primeval  wilderness 
many  years  longer — steeped  in  the  fatal  policy 
of  industrial  stagnation — a  mere  game  preserve 
for  the  wolf,  bear,  elk,  muskrat  and  beaver.  To 
that  dire  destiny  it  was  surely  doomed  had  not 
international  events  accumulated  an  impetus 
that  rolled  enterprise  into  the  country  on  the 
wheels  of  Wyeth's  and  Whitman's  wagons; 
infused  life  into  an  otherwise  moribund  domain. 
The  seacoast  of  Washington  would  have  been 
British  possessions;  civilization  in  that  direc- 
tion would  have  been  smothered;  the  enervat- 
ing reflex  of  sloth  and  ignorance  would,  un- 
doubtedly have  exerted  a  most  depressing  influ- 
ence on  all  contiguous  territory,  and  a  powerful 
opiate  would  have  been  administered  instead  of 
a  tonic.  Mining  exploitation  would  have  been 
estopped  on  the  threshold  of  discovery;  agri- 
culture would  have  been  stifled  in  infancy :  per- 
sonal ambition  immolated  on  the  altar  of  Brit- 


ish  greed.  Such  vi^as  certainly,  the  baleful  trend 
of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company's  policy. 

True,  the  claim  of  England  for  all  territory 
north  of  the  Columbia  river,  had  it  been  al- 
lowed, would  still  have  left  the  greater  portion 
of  modern  Stevens  county  to  the  Americans; 
all  but  a  small  triangle  bounded  by  the  Columbia 
and  Kettle  rivers,  and  the  49th  parallel.  But 
modern  Stevens  county  is  only  a  fraction  of  the 
immmense  district  once  designated  by  that 
name.  Let  us  examine  it.  Originally  its 
boundary  commenced  at  the  mouth  of  Snake 
river;  along  this  river  to  the  46th  degree  of 
north  latitude;  thence  east  along  this  parallel 
to  the  summit  of  the  Rocky  mountains,  includ- 
mg  the  present  "panhandle"  of  Idaho;  thence 
north  to  the  49th  parallel ;  thence  west  to  the 
Columbia  river,  and  down  the  mid-channnel  of 
this  stream  to  the  place  of  beginning.  This 
district  embraced,  aside  from  the  Idaho  "pan- 
handle," Franklin,  Adams,  Whitman,  Spokane. 
Lincoln,  Douglas  and  the  major  portion  of  the 
present  Stevens  county.  To  this  domain  were 
subsequently  added  what  are  now  Ferry,  Okan- 
ogan and  a  part  of  Chelan  counties;  the  latter 
three  all  originally  claimed  as  British  posses- 
sions, together  with  all  other  territory  westward 
to  the  coast.  One  school  district  in  Stevens 
county  embraced  all  the  territory  between  Col- 



ville  and  Spangle,  and  between  Idaho  and  the 
Columbia  river;  not  merely  a  missionary  field 
for  Indian  tribes,  but  a  legally  apportioned 
school  district  for  white  settlers.  Mr.  Swift,  an 
attorney-at-law,  residing  near  Spokane  Falls, 
was  clerk  of  this  Gargantuan  district;  M.  M. 
Cowley,  Yeaton  and  Poole,  directors,  and  Mrs. 
Swift  teacher. 

Thus,  it  will  be  seen,  the  Stevens  county  of 
to-day  is  the  result  of  a  long  period  of  territorial 
concentration ;  a  gradual  narrowing  of  unwield- 
ly  and,  at  times,  indefinite  boundaries.  Origin- 
ally the  name  of  Stevens  county  was  Spokane. 
From  the  territorial  statutes  of  1858-9  it  is 
learned  that  on  January  28,  1858,  the  Wash- 
ington Territorial  legislature  passed  a  bill  creat- 
ing the  county  of  Spokane,  the  boundaries  of 
which  are  defined  in  the  act  of  January  17, 
i860,  which  follows  later  in  this  chapter.  The 
county  seat  was  located  on  the  place  of  Angus 
McLeod,  w^ith  Lafayette  Alexander,  auditor; 
Patrick  McKenzie,  sheriff;  Robert  Douglas, 
John  Owen  and  William  McCreany,  commis- 
sioners. These  officials  do  not  appear  to  have 
accomplished  anything  and,  taking  note  of  this 
f?ct,  the  legislature  on  January  18,  1859,  nearly 
one  year  later,  made  a  second  attempt  to  orga- 
nize the  county,  and  revived  the  bill  which  had, 
through  the  neglect  of  the  officers  named,  be- 
come nugatory.  Officers  apppointed  were  Rob- 
ert Douglas,  John  McDougald  and  Angus  Mc- 
Leod, commissioners:  Thomas  Brown,  sheriff; 
Patrick  McKenzie,  auditor;  Thomas  Stensgar, 
probate  judge,  and  Solomon  Pelky.  justice  of 
the  peace.  These  men  were  empowered  to  hold 
their  respective  offices  until  the  next  regular 
election,  or  until  their  successors  were  elected 
and  qualified.  But  the  new  officers,  also,  re- 
mained inactive,  and  up  to  January  17,  i860, 
Spokane  county  remained  in  an  inchoate  and 
unorganized  condition.  On  January  11,  i860, 
the  house  passed  "An  act  to  creat  and  orga- 
nize the  county  of  Spokane,"  as  follows : 

Section  i.     Be  it  enacted  by  the  legislative  assembly 
of  the  Territory  of  Washington  that  all  that  part  of  the 

Walla  Walla  country  embraced  within  the  following 
boundaries,  to-wit :  Commencing  at  the  mouth  of 
Snake  river,  following  up  said  river  mid-channel  to 
(,46th)  forty-si.xth  parallel  of  north  latitude;  thence  east 
along  said  parallel  to  the  summit  of  the  Rocky 
mountains ;  thence  north  following  said  summit  to  the 
(49th)  forty-ninth  parallel  of  north  latitude;  thence 
west  along  said  parallel  to  the  Columbia  river;  thence 
down  mid-channel  of  said  river  to  the  place  of  begin- 
ning :  The  same  is  hereby  constituted  and  organized 
into  a  separate  county  to  be  known  and  called  Spokane 

Sec.  2.  That  said  territory  shall  compose  a  county 
for  civil  and  military  purposes  and  shall  be  under  the 
same  laws,  rules,  regulations  and  restrictions  as  all 
other  counties  in  the  Territory  of  Washington,  and  en- 
titled to  elect  the  same  officers  as  other  counties  are 
entitled  to  elect. 

Sec.  3.  That  the  county  seat  of  said  county  be, 
and  the  same  is  hereby  temporarily  located  on  the  land 
claim  of  Dr.  Bates. 

Sec  4.  The  following  named  persons  are  hereby 
appointed  officers  for  said  county,  namely:  Seaman, 
James  Hoyt,  and  Jacques  Demers,  county  commis- 
sioners :  John  Winn,  sheriff,  R.  H.  Rogers,  treasurer, 
Douglas,  auditor,  J.  R.  Bates,  justice  of  the  peace,  and 
F.  Wolf,  coroner,  who  shall  hold  their  respective  offices 
until  the  next  annual  election,  and  until  their  successors 
are  elected  or  appointed  and  qualified.  Before  entering 
upon  the  discharge  of  the  duties  of  their  offices  they 
shall  comply  with  all  existing  laws  relating  to  qualify- 
ing by  giving  bond  and  taking  an  official  oath ;  said 
bonds  may  be  approved  by  the  persons  named  as  county 
commissioners,  or  a  majority  of  them,  and  the  several 
persons  named  herein  as  officers  may  administer  the 
oath  of  office  to  each  other. 

Sec.  5.  Said  county  of  Spokane  shall  constitute 
a  part  of -the  first  judicial  district,  but  for  the  purpose 
of  hearing  and  determining  all  matters  and  causes  in 
the  district  court,  except  those  in  which  the  United 
States  is  a  party,  it  shall  remain  attached  to  the  county 
of  Walla  iWalla. 

Sec.  6.  All  vacancies  which  may  occur  by  the  non- 
acceptance,  death,  removal  or  resignation  of  any  of  the 
persons  above  named,  may  be  filled  by  the  board  of 
county  commissioners,  and  they  may  also  appoint  such 
other  officers  as  may  be  required  for  said  county  to  hold 
their  offices  until  the  next  general  election  and  until 
their  successors  are  elected  or  appointed  and  qualified. 
Sec.  7.  At  the  next  general  election  the  qualified 
voters  of  said  county  shall  elect  their  county  commis- 
sioners and  all  other  county  officers  in  the  same  manner 
as  by  law  provided  for  other  counties. 

Sec.  8.  Said  county  commissioners,  when  elected, 
as  is  in  preceding  section  provided,  shall  hold  their 
respective  offices,  one  for  one  year,  one  for  two  years 
and  one  for  three  years,  as  shall  at  their  first  meeting 
after  election  be  determined  by  lot. 

Sec.  9.     The  persons  appointed  county  commission- 



ers  may  any  time  after  the  passage  of  this  act,  and  be- 
fore the  day  appointed  for  the  next  general  election, 
upon  posting  up  suitable  notices  signed  by  a  majority 
of  them,  hold  a  meeting  of  the  board  of  county  commis- 
ioners,  at  which  they  may  transact  any  business  which 
could  be  done  at  a  regular  meeting  of  the  board. 

Sec.  10.  All  acts  and  parts  of  acts  inconsistent 
herewith  are  hereby  repealed. 

Passed  the  house  of  representatives  January  11, 
i860.  (Signed)  John  D.  Biles,  Speaker  of  the  House 
of  Representatives. 

Passed  the  Council  January  17,  i860.  (Signed) 
H.  J.  G.  Macon,  President  of  the  Council. 

In  pursuance  of  this  act  the  commissioners 
named  were  sworn  into  office  at  "Pinkney 
Cit}',"  three  miles  northeast  of  the  present  coun- 
ty seat  of  Stevens  county,  Colville,  on  May  7, 
i860,  and  individually  executed  the  bonds  re- 
quired by  law.  To  these  proceedings  the  new 
county  auditor  attested  as  follows  :  "In  witness 
whereof  I  ha\'e  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  pri- 
vate seal,  (there  being  no  official  seal  provided) , 
this  7th  day  of  May,  A.  D.,  i860.  R.  H.,Rogers, 
auditor  in  and  for  Spokane  county,  W.  T." 

January  20,  1863,  the  legislative  assembly 
passed  an  act  subdividing  this  vast  territory 
and  organizing  the  county  of  Stevens  "for  civil 
and  military  purposes,  to  be  attached  to  the 
county  of  Spokane  for  judicial  purposes."  But 
one  year  thereafter,  January  19,  1864,  an  act 
was  passed  re-annnexing  the  county  of  Spokane 
to  Stevens,  practically  obliterating  the  former, 
and  providing  that  the  county  officers  of  Spo- 
kane should  remain  the  county  officers  of  Ste- 
vens until  the  expiration  of  their  terms ;  Stevens 
county  to  be  entitled  to  representatives  and 
councilmen  of  the  two  counties  formerly  exist- 
ing. This  was  in  the  nature  of  a  political  com- 
promise, and  thus  the  original  Spokane  county 
was  absorbed  in  Stevens  county,  which  fell  heir 
to  all  the  territory  and,  also,  that  of  Ferry, 
Okanogan  and  a  part  of  Chelan  counties.  No- 
vember 21,  1 87 1,  Whitman  county  was  estab- 
lished by  setting  off  the  southern  portion  of  Ste- 
vens county,  and  in  1879  a  new  Spokane  county 
was  set  off  from  the  remaining  portion  of  Ste- 
vens.   The  former  then  had  a  population   of 

4,262.  It  is  not  within  the  province  of  this  his- 
tory of  Stevens,  to  trace  the  gradual  subdi- 
visions of  Ferry,  Okanogan  and  Chelan  coun- 
ties, which  subjects  will  be  treated  in  their 
proper  places.  We  must  now  revent  to  the  ear- 
lier years  of  settlement,  and  lead  up  from  the 
original  trade  in  peltries  to  political  recognition 
and  the  privilege  of  the  elective  franchise  under 
purely  American  government. 

Tlie  county  whose  history  we  are  now  to 
consider  was  named  in  honor  of  Isaac  Ingalls 
Stevens,  first  territorial  governor  of  Washing- 
ton, appointed  by  President  Franklin  Pierce  in 
1853.  Yet  the  dawn  of  its  historical  interest 
opens  thirty-one  years  before  that  period,  even 
before  Marcus  Whitman,  the  Lees,  John  Day  or 
Wyeth  had  fought  their  way  across  the  conti- 
nent and  made  their  most  sanguine  promises 
to  the  United  States  government  a  certainty. 
Only  seventeen  years  after  Lewis  and  Clarke 
had  turned  their  faces  eastward  on  their  return 
trip  from  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia,  John  Mc- 
Leod  \\-as  in  charge  of  what  was  known  as  the 
"Thompson  River  district,"  superintending  the 
distribution  of  supplies  for  the  region  between 
the  Rocky  mountain's  and  the  Pacific ;  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Columbia  river  to  the  Russian 
boundary  line.  April  26,  1826,  McLeod  found 
himself  at  Spokane  Falls  whither  he  had  ar- 
rived from  the  coast,  and  he  started  for  Fort 
Edmonton,  arriving  two  months  later.  May 
17th.  During  his  progress  he  encountered  snow 
so  deep  that  he  was  compelled  to  cut  his  leath- 
ern trousers  into  strips  to  make  snowshoes.  At 
that  period  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  had 
thirty  posts,  "factories"  or  forts,  within  the  ter- 
ritory then  jointly  occupied  by  Americans  and 
Englishmen,  and  called  "Oregon."  One  of 
these  was  named  Fort  Colville,  near  Kettle 
Falls  on  the  Columbia  river.  This  was  not  the 
Fort  Colville  subsequently  established  by  the 
United  States  government  at  "Pinkney  City," 
three  miles  northeast  from  Colville,  the  present 
capital  of  Stevens  county.  Yet  considerable 
confusion   has   arisen,   even   among  otherwise 



well-informed  people  concerning  the  identity  of 
these  two  "forts."  The  older  one  was  a  Hud- 
son's Bay  Company's  trading  post;  the  other 
was  established  by  the  United  States  in  May. 
1859.  Pinkney  City  was  named  after  Major 
Pinkney  Lugebeel.  With  him  McLeod  had  a 
band  of  calves  which  he  was  transporting  from 
Fort  ■Vancouver  to  Fort  Colville,  on  the  Colum- 
bia. Some  of  these  adolescent  bovines  were 
killed  by  the  Indians  who  regarded  them  only 
in  the  light  of  so  much  "fresh  meat."  and  Mc- 
Leod and  his  force  .experienced  no  small  diffi- 
culty in  protecting  them.  The  quickness  of 
James  Douglas  saved  :\IcLeod"s  life,  when  the 
former  struck  up  a  gun  with  which  a  savage 
was  about  to  shoot  McLeod  in  the  back.  Ac- 
cording to  Bancroft,  "Through  all  these  dan- 
gers the  precious  calves  nevertheless  passed  in 
safety  to  Fort  Colville,  (at  Kettle  Falls),  where 
they  fulfilled  their  mission,  multiplying  rapid- 
ly." This  was  the  initial  introduction  of  "live 
stock"  into  Stevens  county. 

A  short  time  previous  to  this  a  Hudson's 
Bay  Company's  post,  or  "fort,"  had  been  re- 
moved from  its  location  on  Spokane  river  to 
Kettle  Falls,  and  named  Fort  Colville  in  honor 
of  the  then  governor  of  the  company.  Work's 
Journal  says  that  "the  exact  time  of  removal  is 
obscure,  but  in  July,  1826.  we  find  a  party  em- 
barking at  Fort  Vancouver  with  '72  pieces  for 
Fort  Colville,"  which  shows  that  the  establish- 
ment was  then  in  operation."  The  "History 
of  Oregon."  by  Evans,  gives  the  founding  of 
the  Kettle  Falls  Fort  Colville  as  in  1825,  while 
Anderson's  "Northwest  Coast"  places  it  in 
1826.  But  \Mlkes'  "Narrative  of  U.  S.  Ex- 
plorations" agrees  with  Evans,  claiming  1825 
as  the  date.  It  was  at  the  Kettle  Falls  Fort  Col- 
ville, a  trading  post  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Com- 
pany, that  the  accounts  of  the  other  posts  in 
eastern  Oregon  centered,  thereby  saving  a  trip 
to  Vancouver.  Other  tading  posts  were  at  this 
period  located  at  Walla  Walla,  Fort  Okanogan, 
a  stockade  above  the  mouth  of  the  Okanogan 
river:  one  nn  the  Kootenais.  one  mi  Lake  Pend 

d'Oreille  and  one  on  the  Flathead  river.  Of 
these,  however.  Fort  Colville  was  considered 
the  most  important,  situated  one  hundred  miles 
northeast  of  Fort  Okanogan,  in  the  midst  of  a 
good  agricultural  country,  and  with  a  fine  cli- 
mate, good  fishing  and  other  advantages.  Es- 
tablished shortly  after  the  location  of  Fort  Va.i- 
couver,  with  the  customary  allotment  of  two 
cows  and  a  bull,  it  had,  in  1834,  like  Vancouver,. 
its  lowing  herds  furnishing  beef,  butter  and 
milk.  It  had,  also,  other  stock,  including  fairly 
bred  horses,  and  a  small  grist  mill.  Many  varie- 
ties of  garden  produce  matured  in  the  climate  in 

The  zealous  fur  hunters  in  the  employment 
of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  were  the  pio- 
neers of  Stevens  county.  In  no  sense  of  the 
word  were  they  settlers.  In  habits,  character- 
istics and  pursuits  they  were  but  few  removes 
from  the  swarthy  savage  who  shared  with  them 
the  spoils  of  the  chase  and  the  trap.  As  the  bus- 
iness of  the  monopolistic  British  syndicate  in- 
creased these  voyageurs,  English,  French  on 
half-breeds,  multiplied,  as  a  natural  sequence, 
yet  for  all  their  efiforts  the  country  would  have 
remained  as  wild  and  virginal  as  it  was  the  first 
day  they  encroached  upon  the  soil.  Actual  set- 
tlement of  the  once  extensive  domain  of  Ste- 
vens county  was  given  its  initial  impetus  by 
Catholic  missionaries. 

Of  these  spiritual  pioneers  Father  De  Smet 
was  not  the  first.  In  the  fall  of  1838  F.  N.  Blan- 
chet  and  Rev.  IModest  Demers  came  into  the 
country  in  response  to  reiterated  requests  from 
the  French  Canadians,  a  large  majority  of 
whom  were  Catholics.  Many  of  them  had  in- 
termarried with  the  Indians,  and  their  rude 
"settlements"  assumed  much  of  the  barbaric 
etYect  of  actual  Indian  camps.  Fathers  Blan- 
chet  and  Demers  were  sent  out  to  these  people 
by  the  ecclesiastical  authorities  of  eastern  Can- 
ada. They  first  came  to  Fort  Colville.  and 
thence  down  the  Columbia  ri\er  on  one  of  the 
boats  belonging  to  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company. 
Subsequently  Father  Blanchet  became  the  first 



archbishop  of  Oregon.  Fort  Colville  was  revis- 
ited by  Father  Demers  in  1839.  He  was  then 
on  his  way  to  New  Caledonia.  At  this  period 
Father  De  Smet  was  pursuing  his  spiritual  avo- 
cations in  the  Flathead  country  of  Montana, 
near  what  is  now  the  town  of  Kalispell.  From 
this  point,  by  the  aid  of  Indian  couriers,  he 
opened  communication  witli  Fathers  Blanchet 
and  Demers,  and  in  1841,  he,  too,  came  to  Fort 
Colville,  having  first  laid  the  foundation  of  St. 
Mary's  Mission.  Montana.  It  does  not  appear 
that  Father  De  Smet  went  so  far  south  as  Spo- 
kane Falls.  The  primary  object  of  his  visit 
was  to  procure  seed,  and  at  that  time  the  vicin- 
ity of  Colville  was  the  only  country  agricultur- 
ally developed.  From  Colville  (Kettle  Falls), 
Father,. De  Smet  returned  to  Montana  with  a 
few  bushels  of  wheat,  oats  and  potatoes  with 
which,  it  is  said,  he  began  the  first  farming  ever 
prosecuted  in  that  territory.  To  Father  Demers 
Stevens  county  owes  much  for  his  untiring  zeal 
and  industry,  not  only  in  spiritual,  but  in  the 
practical  affairs  of  life.  He  is  more  closely 
identified  with  the  early  history  of  this  section, 
as  Father  Blanchet's  field  was  farther  south,  in 
Oregon.  In  the  "History  of  Spokane  County" 
the  Very  Reverend  Leopold  Van  Gorp,  General 
Superior  of  Indian  Missions,  Gongaza  College, 

"The  Colville  Indians,  after  meeting  with 
the  missionaries  (in  Montana),  were  accus- 
tomed to  frequently  visit  them  at  their  place 
among  the  Kalispells.  But  at  the  earnest  solic- 
itation of  their  chief,  Martin  Ilemuxsolix, 
Father  Anthony  Ravalli  went  to  visit  them  in 
1845,  ^nd  built  the  first  chapel  in  their  midst, 
on  the  hill  between  the  fishery  and  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company's  fort,  on  the  banks  of  the  Col- 
umbia, near  Kettle  Falls.  It  may  perhaps  serve 
to  relieve  my  dull  narrative  to  insert  here  a 
little  incident  which  happened  to  Father  Ravalli 
while  among  the  Colvilles.  News  was  brought 
to  him  one  day  that  an  Indian  woman  had  quar- 
reled with  her  husband,  and,  driven  to  despera- 
tion by  jealousy,  had  just  hanged  herself  with 

a  lariat  to  a  tree.  Father  Ravalli  hastened  to 
the  spot  and  cutting  asunder  the  lariat,  quickly 
freed  the  woman's  neck,  which,  upon  exami- 
nation, he  found  not  broken.  Although  the 
body  was  still  warm,  pulsation  at  the  wrists,  as 
well  as  the  heart,  had  already  ceased,  and  to 
all  appearances  life  was  extinct.  Father  Ra- 
valli stretched,  what  everybody  supposed  her  to 
be,  the  dead  woman,  upon  the  ground,  and  com- 
menced now  to  breathe  into  her  mouth,  now  to 
move  her  arrrts  up  and  down,  so  as  to  impart  ar- 
tificially to  her  lungs  the  movement  of  natural 
respiration,  and  thus  quicken  into  action  the 
spark  of  vitality  still  there,  perhaps,  only  latent 
and  dormant.  He  kept  working  in  this  manner 
for  about  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  when  all  at 
once  a  slight  change  of  color  appeared  on  the 
lips  and  face  of  the  woman.  Encouraged  by 
the  sign  he  continued,  and  soon  after  clearer 
indications  of  returning  life  became  noticable. 
A  little  while  yet  and  the  woman,  to  the  aston- 
ishment of  all.  commenced  to  breathe,  first  faint- 
ly and  at  broken  intervals,  then  more  freely  and 
more  regularly.  A  while  later  she  opened  her 
eyes,  and  from  a  seeming  corpse,  she  was  soon 
after  up  and  moving  around,  living  to  be'on  aid 
woman.  This  unusual  and  yet  simple  occur- 
rence won  to  Father  Ravalli  with  all  the  In- 
dians the  name  of  the  'Great  Medicine  Man." 

"But  in  1845  Father  Ravalli  did  no  more 
than  erect  a  little  chapel,  neither  did  he  remain 
here  for  any  length  of  time.  Other  mission- 
aries, however,  frequently  visited  the  chapel  and 
held  services  for  the  Indians.  In  1847  Father 
Devos  opened  a  mission  here,  retaining  the 
name  of  St.  Paul,  already  given  to  the  chapel. 
He  spent  several  years  among  these  Indians, 
and  while  he  had  to  labor  hard  and  endure 
many  hardships,  still  his  work  was  lightened  by 
the  great  success  that  attended  it.  as  he  con- 
verted not  only  the  greater  part  of  the  Colville 
Indians,  but  many  of  the  Sinatchsti  tribe  as 
well.  However,  in  1851,  broken  in  health  from 
his  great  exertions  among  the  Colville  Indians, 
he  was  obliged  to  go  to  the  residence  on  the 


^^'iIlamette  to  recuperate.  Another  station, 
that  of  the  Immaculate  Conception,  was  estab- 
lished at  Fort  Colville,  about  two  miles  from 
the  present  town  of  Colville.  It  was  estab- 
lished for  the  whites  and  half-breeds  in  and 
around  the  fort.  At  times  this  station,  like  that 
at  the  fishery,  had  a  resident  priest,  while  at 
other  times,  both  places  were  attended  by  Fath- 
ers from  the  other  missions.  Some  years  later 
both  these  places  were  abandoned,  as  the  fort 
was  no  longer  used  and  the  fishery  had  lost  its 
importance,  as  the  Indians  no  longer  gathered 
here  to  fish,  owing  to  the  fact  that  large  fisheries 
had  been  established  by  the  whites  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Columbia,  preventing  the  salmon  from 
making  their  way  up  the  river.  The  mission- 
aries then  established  themselves  in  the  Colville 
valley,  about  seven  and  one-half  miles  from  the 
town  of  Colville.  Here  they  opened  the  resi- 
der.ce  of  St.  Francis  Regis,  which  has  since 
grown  into  the  flourishing  mission  of  the  same 
name.  To-day  it  has  its  school  for  boys,  taught 
by  the  Jesuits,  and  a  school  for  girls,  taught  by 
the  sisters  of  Providence.  It  can  boast  of  a 
splendid  farm,  of  a  mill  and  many  modern  im- 
provements. The  mission  is  now  outside  the 
reservation,  though  it  continues  to  be  the  center 
to  which  the  adjoining  Indian  tribes  come,  espe- 
cially for  the  great  feats.  Besides  there  are 
quite  a  number  of  whites  and  half-breeds  who 
come  to  the  mission  for  their  religious  duties." 
Following  the  introduction  of  missions  and 
chapels  came  actual  settlement  of  the  county. 
At  one  period,  in  March,  1903,  there  was 
among  the  residents  of  Colville,  the  county 
seat,  considerable  speculation  concerning  the 
number  of  citizens  of  eastern  Washington  who 
had  resided  within  the  state  and  territory  fifty 
years.  It  will  be  remembered  by  all  who  ha-\-e 
followed  the  preceding  chapters  that  on  March 
2,  1853,  the  bill  forming  the  territory  of  Wash- 
ington, as  distinct  from  Oregon,  passed  the 
United  States  senate,  having  previously  run  the 
gauntlet  of  the  house  with  but  nominal  opposi- 

tion. Hence  the  interest  among  Colville  resi- 
dents, regarding  the  matter,  March  2,  1903, 
the  fiftieth  annniversary  of  the  forming  of  the 
Territory.  There  was  extended  inquiry  with 
the  result  that  it  was  at  last  reluctantly  conced- 
ed that  there  was  none  in  Stevens  county  who 
has  been  a  resident  therein  fifty  years.  This, 
however,  was  found  to  be  an  erroneous  conclu- 
sion.   As  the  Reveille  (Colville)  said: 

"Stevens  county  comes  to  the  front  with  at 
least  three  men  who  ha\e  weathered  the  stormy 
times;  who  have  made  history  for  this  part  of 
the  state  for  more  than  fifty  years,  and  they 
promise  to  live  out  a  score  or  more  years  yet. 
One  of  them  is  Andrew  Hughson,  who  lives 
on  his  farm  just  two  miles  south  of  town. 
(Colville.)  Mr.  Hughson  crossed  the  Rocky 
mountains  in  the  Crows  Nest  region  in  1851, 
and  in  November  of  that  year  established  his 
residence  at  what  was  known  as  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company's  fort,  near  ]\Iarcus.  Shortly 
before  his  arrival  Donald  McDonald,  now  a 
gray-haired  man  of  fifty-threee  years,  born  in 
Montana,  came  to  Marcus  and  still  lives  there. 
John  Inkster,  of  Valley,  is  perhaps  the  oldest 
living  settler  of  the  state.  His  residence  dates 
from  1848,  fifty-five  years  ago,  and  he  is  still 
in  good  health.  Mr.  Hughson  has  lived  forty- 
four  years  on  his  farm,  which  is  his  home,  and 
his  review  of  his  past  history  is  truly  interest- 
ing. There  are  many  here  who  date  their  resi- 
dence as  far  back  as  1855  and  i860,  but  these 
three  men  mentioned  are  the  first  settlers." 

In  this  connection  the  following  interview 
with  Mr.  F.  Wolfif,  residing  at  Colville,  is  apro- 
pos.   To  the  writer  he  said  : 

"I  came  to  Stevens  county  in  1856  from 
Montana,  where  I  had  been  employed  in  Gov- 
ernor Stevens'  party.  The  first  attempt  at  orga- 
nization of  the  county  was  made  in  1858,  but 
was  unsuccessful,  and  some  of  the  officers  who 
had  received  appointments  did  not,  at  the  time, 
know  of  the  honor  that  had  been  thrust  upon 
them.     But  in  i860  a  permanent  organization 



was  established  by  the  Territorial  legislature, 
and  officers  were  appointed  and  served  until 
the  first  election  was  held  in  that  year. 

"In  June,  1859,  George  B.  McClellan,  then 
a  captain  of  engineers  of  the  regular  army,  but 
a  few  years  afterward  the  commanding  general 
of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  accompanied  by 
two  companies  of  infantry  under  Captains  Fra- 
zer  and  Archer,  left  The  Dalles,  Oregon,  on  a 
trip  through  this  northern  country.  They  came 
up  through  the  Okanogan  country  and  were  on 
duty  at  the  boundary  line  between  the  United 
States  and  the  British  possessions,  which  was 
then  in  dispute.  For  some  reason  which  I 
never  learned  they  did  not  long  remain  here, 
but  returned  to  the  post  at  The  Dalles.  While 
in  the  north  country  they  were  engaged  in 
marking"  the  boundary  line  between  the  two 
countries.  This  was  done  by  cutting  a  wide 
swath  through  the  timber.  Where  there  was 
no  timber  they  built  mounds  and  piled  up  em- 
bankments. While  the  swaths  through  the 
timber  which  they  cut  have  partly  grown  up 
to  timber  again,  the  boundary  line  can  be  easily 
noticed  to  this  day.  A  coincidence  of  this  trip 
is  found  in  the  fact  that  all  three  of  these  offi- 
cers but  a  short  time  afterward  became  gen- 
erals in  the  War  of  the  Rebellion — McClellan 
on  the  union  side  and  Frazer  and  Archer  in 
the  Confederate  Army. 

"In  the  fall  of  1862  the  regular  troops  sta- 
tioned at  Fort  Colville  (Pinkney  City,  not  Ket- 
tle Falls),  were  called  east  to  take  part  in  the 
War  of  the  Rebellion.  To  take  their  places  two 
companies  of  volunteers  were  recruited  at  San 
Francisco  and  came  to  the  post  at  Fort  Colville. 
These  companies  were  in  command  of  Major 
Curtis.  These  companies  were  recruited  mostly 
from  convicts  from  California,  who  were  thus 
offered  pardon  on  condition  that  ihey  enlist. 
Major  Curtis  did  not  remain  long,  his  place  be- 
ing taken  by  Major  Rumelles.  These  troops 
were  on  duty  here  until  after  the  war,  when 
regular  troops  again  took  charge  of  the  fort." 

Fort  Colville,  at  Pinknev  Citv.  three  miles 

northeast  of  Colville,  in  contradistinction  to  the 
Hudson's  Bay  Company's  "Fort"  Colville,  near 
Kettle  Falls,  was  established  in  June,  1859,  by 
the  government  of  the  United  States.  It  was 
built  for  the  protection  of  widely  separated 
groups  of  American  settlers.  There  had  been 
a  large  overflow  of  population  on  opening  of 
the  transmontane  country,  east  of  the  Cascades, 
in  1858.  Reputed  gold  discoveries  on  the  Col- 
umbia, Malheur  and  other  streams  accounts  for 
this  sudden  hegira.  Gold  was  also  discovered 
on  the  Wenatchee  river,  in  the  latitude  of  the 
Snoqualimich  Pass,  and  near  Colville.  Some 
of  the  earliest  settlers  in  Stevens  county  were 
e.x-miners  who  found  both  soil  and  climate  fa- 
vorable and  concluded  to  establish  homes  in 
this  locality.  Again,  the  completion  of  a  mili- 
tar)'  road  between  Forts  Benton,  in  Montana, 
and  Walla  Walla,  in  Washington,  attracted 
quite  a  number  from  the  valley  of  the  Bitter 
Root,  which  at  that  period  was  a  portion  of  the 
vast  area  known  as  Spokane  county.  Military 
officers,  soldiers,  freighters  became  gold  seek- 
ers, and  they  flocked  in  from  the  Fraser  River 
country,  their  stories  adding  materially  to  the 
stock  of  information  in  possession  of  mining 
prospectors.  The  writer  has  seen  a  letter  writ- 
ten by  Lieutenant  John  Mullan,  who  had 
charge  of  the  construction  of  the  military  road, 
in  which  he  says  he  discovered  valuable  ore 
showings  along  his  route,  but  was  afraid  to 
divulge  the  same  through  fear  of  desertions 
among  his  rather  small  force  of  road  builders. 
Few  are  the  biographies  of  Washington  pio- 
neers that  do  not  contain  episodes  of  mining 
exploitations,  of  greater  or  less  range,  in  the 
careers  of  the  subjects.  Companies  were  orga- 
nized in  Portland,  and  from  that  city  capitalists 
sent  out  "grub-staked"  prospectors  by  the  hun- 
dreds. The  quality  of  the  gold  in  this  vicinity 
was  coarse,  equal  in  coin  to  seventeen  or  eigh- 
teen dollars,  and  superior  to  the  gold  of  the 
Similkameen.  In  February,  1859,  a  party  led 
by  J.  N.  Bell,  of  The  Dalles,  set  out  for  Colville. 
This  contingent,  together  with  fifty  others  who 


had  wintered  at  that  point,  were  among  the  first 
in  the  new  "diggings."  In  March  the  floating 
population  of  the  Walla  Walla  valley  swarmed 
up  into  this  vicinity,  while  others  came  from 
far  off  Yreka,  California.  A  wagon  road  was 
opened  between  the  Similkameen  and  Priest 
Rapids.  Parties  came  in  from  the  Willamette 
in  small  boats,  and  the  steamer  Colonel  Wright 
brought  up  sixty  tons  of  freight.  It  was  still 
early  spring  when  these  "stampeders"  arrived, 
and  much  of  the  placer  ground  was  under 
water.  Those  who  could  work  could  not  pay 
expenses.  Some  returned  westward;  others 
pushed  on  to  Quesnell  river,  and  others,  more 
fortunate,  discovered  gold  on  Rock  Creek,  one 
of  the  headwaters  of  the  Kettle  River,  and  on 
the  Pend  d'Oreille.  Suddenly  it  was  discov- 
ered that  the  most  productive  mines,  those  on 
Rock  Creek  and  the  Similkameen,  were  in  Brit- 
ish territory,  north  of  the  49th  parallel.  A  tax 
of  $100  was  levied  on  American  traders  who 
wished  to  sell  goods  to  the  miners,  and  in  i86r 
there  were  20,000  of  them,  mostly  Americans, 
in  British  Columbia.  Later  discoveries  of  gold 
at  Pierce  City  and  Oro  Fino  attracted  the  atten- 
tion of  the  Colville  miners,  and  their  number, 
from  that  period,  i860,  dwindled  materially. 

Of  the  Fraser  River  stampede  the  States- 
man-Index, (Colville),  of  October  8,  1897, 

"This  Fraser  River  excitement,  while  it  ter- 
minated like  most  'rushes'  in  disaster,  or  ill- 
luck  to  the  many,  had  its  influence  on  Stevens 
county.  In  the  autumn  of  1859  about  forty 
prospectors,  full  of  the  strength  of  youth  and  a 
determination  to  get  a  share  of  the  wealth  that 
was  free  to  men  of  pluck,  were  making  their 
way  through  the  Colville  valley  well  equipped 
for  an  undertaking  that  might  have  made  less 
experienced  men  falter.  Arrived  thus  far  on 
the  trip  they  began  to  meet  miners  who  told  of 
their  own  folly  and  fruitless  errand  to  Fraser 
river.  As  the  days  passed  other  men  were 
spoken  who  had.  practically,  the  same  tale  to 
tell.     This  settled  it  with  our  party  of  prospec- 

tors; the  meadow  lands  of  the  Colville  valley 
seemed  likely  to  yield  greater  returns  in  gold 
than  would  the  gold  fields  of  the  north,  and  ac- 
cordingly they  decided  to  go  no  farther,  but 
returned  and  settled  here.  These  men  formed 
the  nucleus  of  civilization  in  Stevens  county. 
Some  are  still  among  our  most  honored  citi- 
zens; others  have  passed  over  the  great  divide 
into  the  vale  beyond.  But  each  had  his  part  in 
the  early  history  of  Stevens  county." 

The  honor  of  being  the  oldest  settled  por- 
tion of  the  state  of  Washington,  east  of  the 
Cascades  cannot  justly  be  denied  Stevens  coun- 
ty. This  distinction,  however,  cannot  be  ac- 
corded "Fort"  Colville,  of  the  Kettle  Falls  loca- 
tion, nor  the  later  Fort  Colville,  of  Pinkney 
City.  At  Meyers  Falls,  on  the  Colville  river, 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  erected  a  grist 
mill  in  1816,  only  eleven  years  after  Lewis  and 
Clarke  had  completed  their  memorable  expedi- 
tion. The  old  burrs  of  this  mill  are  yet  on  the 
ground.  Agents  of  the  company,  however, 
were  in  this  vicinity  as  early  as  1809,  but  mere- 
ly for  the  purpose  of  purchasing  furs  of  the 
Indians,  and  making  no  attempt  at  settlement. 
Whether  this  original  mill  was  torn  down  or 
destroyed  by  fire  is  not  definitely  known,  but 
another  milll  was  crested  on  the  same  spot, 
which  was  standing  in  1865-6.  At  this  period 
L.  W.  Meyers,  for  whom  the  falls  were  named, 
a  Canadian  and  the  pioneer  of  Stevens  county, 
took  a  lease  upon  the  building  pending  a  settle- 
ment of  the  old  company  with  the  United  States 
government  for  relinquishment  of  their 
lands.  Mr.  Meyers  afterward  secured  posses- 
sion of  the  water  power,  a  fall  of  135  feet  in  a 
distance  of  three-eigths  of  a  mile,  and  one  of 
the  most  valuable  water  powers  in  eastern 
Washington.  The  roof  of  this  mill  was  cov- 
ered with  cedar  bark  and  although  far  from 
being  supplied  with  modern  milling  appliances 
its  product  was  eaten  with  keen  relish  for  many 
years.  New  buildings  were  erected  in  inSya. 
Mr.  Meyers,  being  in  a  reminiscent  mood  in 
August.  1899,  wrote  as  follows: 



"One  would  scarcely  believe  in  passing 
through  the  Colville  valley  that  its  quiet  soli- 
tude had  once  been  rudely  shaken  by  war's 
alarm.  On  the  site  of  the  town  many,  many 
moons  ago  there  was  a  terrible  fight  between 
the  Spokane  and  Colville  Indians.  The  story 
goes  that  for  three  days  the  battle  raged,  first 
the  victory  seeming  to  perch  upon  the  banners 
of  the  Spokanes,  and  then  the  terrific  onslaught 
of  the  Colvilles,  who  were  defending  their 
homes,  would  turn  the  tide  of  battle,  and  finally 
the  Spokanes  were  driven  from  the  field.  In 
this  terrific  battle  the  casualties  were  two  In- 
dians wounded,  who  were  artistically  decorated 
with  arrows  in  various  parts  of  the  anatomy. 
In  this  battle  there  were  2,000  warriors  en- 
gaged. This  skirmish  is  not  recorded  in  any 
history  of  Stevens  county,  but  it  is  well  authen- 
ticated. So  it  would  seem  that  the  quiet  of  Col- 
ville valley  has  not  escaped  war." 

In  tracing  the  history  of  Stevens  county  it 
again  becomes  necessary  to  revert  to  the  period 
when  it  enjoyed  a  commonwealth  existence 
imder  the  name  of  Spokane  county.  The  first 
meeting  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners 
was  held  May  8,  i860.  The  records  show  that 
all  members  of  the  board  and  the  auditor,  R. 
H.  Rogers,  were  present.  It  will  be  remem- 
bered that  the  bill  providing  for  the  formation 
of  Spokane  county  named  one  Douglas  as 
county  auditor,  and  R.  H.  Rogers  as  treasurer. 
It  appears  that  a  change,  or  transposition  of 
these  officers  was  made  whereby  Mr.  Rogers 
assumed  the  duties  of  auditor  and  Mr.  Doug- 
las became  treasurer.  At  this  initial  meeting 
the  board  established  an  election  precinct  at 
Pinkney  City,  the  place  where  the  county  com- 
missioners first  met,  and  which  was  supposed  at 
the  time  to  be  the  county  seat.  Of  this  elec- 
tion precinct  Charles  Miller  and  Cyrus  Hall 
were  appointed  inspectors,  E.  Averill  and  C. 
L.  Thomas,  judges,  and  Henry  Lafleur,  clerk. 
An  election  precinct  was  also  established  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Pend  d'Oreille  river,  of  which 
John  Bolonge  and  James  Smith  were  appointed 

inspectors,  and  Richard  Frye,  Rich  and  Rouse, 
judges  and  clerk.  Notices  of  election  were 
ordered  posted,  and  Joseph  L.  Houck  was 
named  as  a  road  supervisor.  This  is  all  that 
appears  of  record  at  the  first  meeting  of  the 
Spokane  county  commissioners,  and  the  pro- 
ceedings were  signed  by  R.  H.  Rogers  as  clerk 
of  the  board. 

On  August  4,  i860,  another  meeting  was 
held  which  adjourned  to  meet  on  the  8th  inst. 
There  appears  to  have  been  an  election  previous 
to  this  meeting,  but  there  is  no  record  of  it  other 
than  is  shown  in  the  board  proceedings.  The 
meeting  is  dated  Pinkney  City,  August  8,  i860, 
and  shows  that  there  were  present  I.  W.  Sea- 
man, James  Hayes  and  George  Taylor,  as  com- 
missioners, and  Taylor  was  elected  chairman  of 
the  board.  The  following  officials,  supposed  to 
have  been  elected  at  the  interregnum  election, 
presented  their  bonds  which  were  accepted :  R. 
H.  Douglass,  treasurer;  Cyrus  Hall,  justice  of 
the  peace ;  John  Gunn,  assessor.  The  board  es- 
tablished grocery  licenses  (properly  saloon  li- 
censes) at  $200  per  annum,  and  for  billiard 
tables  and  bowling  alleys,  when  conducted  in 
connection  with  the  "groceries"  at  $30  per 
annum.  By  application  licenses  were  then 
granted  to  Messrs.  Chamberlain  &  Walker, 
Seaman  &  Company,  James  Hayes,  and  Bige- 
low  &  Lynch  to  retail  ardent  spirits  in  Pinkney 
City;  also  license  was  granted  to  Bigelow  & 
Lynch  to  keep  a  billiard  saloon.  The  record  is 
signed  I.  W.  Seaman,  chairman. 

At  the  following  meeting  of  November  6, 
i860,  George  Taylor  appears  as  chairman  and 
J.  R.  Bates,  clerk.  The  principal  business 
transacted  was  the  granting  of  licenses  as  fol- 
lows: John  Nelson,  P.  Stergenacker  &  Com- 
pany and  R.  H.  Rogers  to  retail  ardent  spirits 
in  Pinkney  City  for  six  months :  J.  W.  Crow 
and  Wheelock  &  Company  to  conduct  the  same 
business  near  old  Fort  Colville,  for  six  months, 
and  to  Seaman  &  Company  to  keep  a  bowling 
alley  in  Pinkney  City  for  six  months.  The  fol- 
lowing day  the  commissioners  proceeded  to  bal- 



lot  for  their  respective  terms  of  office.  George 
Taylor  drew  the  one-year  term,  James  Hayes 
two  years,  and  I.  W.  Seaman  three  years. 

At  the  following  meeting  of  the  board, 
December  8,  i860.  Commissioner  James  Hayes 
reported  to  his  colleagues  on  the  board  that 
Messrs.  Allen  &  Juet  had  been  guilty  of  retail- 
ing liquors  without  passing  through  the  for- 
mality of  securing  a  license.  L.  Hilbord  ap- 
peared as  a  witness,  and  having  been  duly 
sworn  testified  that  he  had  been  in  the  establish- 
ment of  the  parties  complained  of,  and  drank 
liquor ;  the  last  time  being  on  the  day  on  which 
he  testified  before  the  board.  He  added  that  the 
house  was  quite  disorderly  owing  to  the  many 
men  within  who  were  drinking  and  carousing. 
Allen  &  Juet  at  that  period  resided  in  the  lower 
part  of  Pinkney  City.  No  action  appears  to 
have  been  taken  in  regard  to  this  matter.  A 
license  was  granted  to  Joseph  Ladoux  to  con- 
duct a  ferry  on  the  Columbia  river,  opposite 
the  mouth  of  Kettle  river,  for  the  term  of  one 
year.  The  rates  of  ferryage  prescribed  were: 
Pack  animal,  $1.25;  man  and  horse,  $2;  loose 
animals,  $1  each;  footman,  75  cents;  freight, 
per  ton,  $5.  Thomas  Ferrill  was  recommended 
to  the  board  for  constable  of  Pinkney  precinct, 
and  appointed  as  such. 

December  15,  i860,  the  county  commis- 
sioners assembled  at  Pinkney  City  and  pro- 
ceeded to  locate  the  first  county  road,  after  they 
had  appointed  B.  F.  Coppage  as  road  super- 
visor. It  is  described  as  follows :  Commencing 
at  the  ferry  on  the  Columbia  river  opposite  the 
mouth  of  Kettle  river ;  running  thence  to  Peter 
Gurrie's,  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  in  as  near  a 
straight  line  as  practicable;  thence  following 
the  present  wagon  road,  as  near  as  convenient, 
to  Pinkney  City ;  thence  following  the  govern- 
ment road  to  the  bridge  at  "old  Pears,"  leaving 
the  present  wagon  road  at,  or  near,  the  bridge, 
and  following  an  old  Indian  trail  bearing  to  the 
right  and  intersecting  the  old  road  running  up 
the  valley  near  George  Muce's  claim;  running 
up  the  old  road  as  near  as  practicable  to  where 

the  old  pack  trail  leaves  the  wagon  road  to  cross 
Mill  river ;  turning  to  the  right ;  following  said 
pack-trail,  or  as  near  to  it  as  convenient  to 
strangers;  running  from  thence  along  the  pack- 
trail  to  the  Spokane. 

A  branch  road,  located  at  the  same  meeting 
is  described  thus :  "Leaving  the  county  road 
near  Louise  Matt's  house,  down  the  side  of  his 
field  to  the  southeast  corner  of  his  fence ;  thence 
running  through  the  swamp  to  old  Marcus' 
house;  thence  down  the  lane  from  Marcus'; 
running  below  Alexander  Muriejoe's  field; 
thence  along  the  old  road  to  George  Taylor's ; 
thence  up  the  side  hill,  leaving  the  old  road  to 
the  right,  to  F.  Muriejoe's;  thence  following  up 
the  old  road,  intersecting  the  county  road  where 
it  comes  dovra  the  hill  near  George  Muce's 

At  the  same  meeting,  on  application  by  peti- 
tion of  the  citizens  of  Pinkney  City,  the  com- 
missioners appropriated  $100  for  the  construc- 
tion of  a  public  well  in  Pinkney  City,  to  be  paid 
on  completion  of  the  well.  The  board  appointed 
James  Hayes  to  superintend  the  digging  of 
this  public  improvement. 

April  10,  1861,  it  appears  that  James  Hayes 
had  left  the  county  and  the  commissioners  ap- 
pointed in  his  place  Robert  Bruce  to  ser^-e  as 
county   commissioner   until   the  next   general 
election.     The  board,  also,  purchased  of  C.  R. 
Allen,  for  $500,  a  house  and  lot  to  serve  as  a 
court  house.    The  following  day  T.  J.  Demerce 
was  appointed  assessor  for  Spokane  county,  in 
place  of  John  Gunn  who,  it  appears,  had  been 
elected  but  failed  to  qualify,     I,  W.   Seaman 
tendered  his  resignation  as  commissioner,  and 
the  same  was  accepted.    At  the  meeting  of  Maj'' 
6,  W.  D.  Bigelow  was  appointed  commissioner 
j  to  succeed  Mr.  Seamon.    For  county  purposes 
!  a  tax  of  four  mills  on  the  dollar  was  levied.  The 
,  board  then  proceeded  to  divide  the  county  into 
election  precincts,  as  follows  :  Precinct  No.  i — 
Pinkney    City,    including   all   that   portion   of 
Spokane  county  east  of  a  line  running  due 
I  north  and  south  from  the  west  side  of  F.  Mar- 



cus'  claim,  "and  that  the  place  of  voting  shall 
be  Pinkney  City,  at  the  court  house."  Precinct 
No.  2 — Kettle  Falls  precinct:  All  that  portion 
of  Spokane  county  west  of  the  west  boundary 
of  Precinct  No.  i.  The  judges  of  the  next 
election  shall  be,  for  Precinct  No.  i,  as  follows  : 
T.  J.  Demerce,  Thos.  Stranger  and  Thomas 
Ferrill.  For  Precinct  No.  2,  Wheelock,  Don- 
ald McLoud  and  J.  W.  Crow.  The  board  di- 
vided the  county  into  road  districts  as  follows : 
Road  district  No.  i — All  that  portion  of  Spo- 
kane county  lying  north  of  a  line  running  east 
and  west  through  the  government  brick-yard. 
Road  district  No.  2 — All  that  portion  01 
Spokane  county  lying  south  of  said  division 
line.  John  Duplissis  was  appointed  super- 
visor of  road  district  No.  i,  and  Charles  Mont- 
gomery of  No.  2. 

July  8,  1 86 1,  a  general  election  was  held, 
but  the  result  was  not  made  a  matter  of  official 
record.  July  18,  1861,  two  of  the  new  board 
of  county  commissioners  met,  L.  Richardson 
and  Thomas  Stranger,  and  adjourned  to  meet 
July  20,  at  which  time  we  find  the  two  commis- 
sioners mentioned  in  session  with  J.  R.  Bates, 
as  clerk.  Richardson  drew  the  one  year,  and 
Stranger  the  two  year,  term. 

At  the  meeting  of  November  21,  1861,  R. 
H.  Rogers  presented  a  bill  for  $128.92  for  fees 
as  deputy  treasurer,  which  was  accepted  and 
ordered  paid.  The  books  of  R.  H.  Rogers  were 
examined  and  found  correct.  Then  the  board 
declared  the  office  of  county  treasurer  vacant, 
owing  to  a  defalcation  of  $565.50,  county 
money,  and  requested  R.  H.  Rogers  to  serve  as 
county  treasurer,  which  he  did.  No  other 
meeting  of  the  commissioners  appears  to  have 
been  held  until  May  5,  1862,  when  voting  pre- 
cinct No.  3  was  established,  comprising  all  that 
portion  of  precinct  No.  i  lying  south  of  a  line 

running  east  and  west,  one  mile  south  of 

Hubbard's  house,  to  be  known  as  the  Spokane 
precinct;  the  election  to  be  held  at  some  con- 
venient place  at  the  mouth  of  the  Spokane  river. 
Julv  24  we  find  John  U.  Hofstetter  and  Robert 

Bruce  taking  the  oath  of  office  as  county  com- 
missioners, Bruce  being  selected  as  chairman. 
The  following  day  the  late  treasurer,  R.  H. 
Douglas,  appeared  before  the  board  for  final 
settlement.  He  presented  order  No.  2,  which 
had  appeared  on  the  treasurer's  books  as  hav- 
ing been  returned  while  the  treasurer's  books 
were  in  the  hands  of  R.  H.  Rogers,  deputy 
treasurer,  and  paid  twice,  through  a  mistake. 
Douglas  was  credited  with  the  amount  of  the 
order,  $21.50,  and  he  then  presented  an  order 
approved  by  the  district  judge  for  services  as 
grand  juror,  for  $59.60,  with  which  additional 
amount  he  was  credited.  In  the  final  settlement 
with  Douglas  there  was  found  to  be  a  balance 
of  $394.12  due  from  him  to  the  county,  for 
which  sum  the  commissioners  made  a  formal 
demand,  through  the  new  treasurer,  as  follows : 

R.  H.  Douglas, 

Sir: — In  behalf  of  the  county  I  demand  of  you  the 
sum  of  $394.12,  the  balance  due  from  you  to  county  as 
per  treasurer's  and  auditor's  books.  By  order  of  the 
Board  of  County  Commissioners. 

J.  R.  BATES,  Treasurer. 
Pinkney   City,  W.  T.,  July  2S,  1862. 

The  treasurer  was  instructed  by  the  board 
that  no  interest  should  be  charged  Mr.  Douglas 
should  he  make  settlement  with  the  county, 
which  he  did,  August  2,  1862. 

In  the  year  i860  the  first  election  was  held 
in  the  original  Spokane,  afterward  Stevens, 
count)-.  County  officers  were  chosen,  but  for 
some  reason  a  representative  to  the  Territorial 
legislature  was  not  selected.  Concerning  a 
tragical  event  connected  with  this  matter  Mr. 
F.  Wolff  says : 

"Desiring  to  have  a  representative  some  of 
the  settlers  got  together  and  named  Mr.  H.  W. 
Watson,  (who  was  commonly  called  Judge 
Watson)  for  our  representative.  We  made  up 
a  purse  to  pay  his  expenses,  and  late  in  the  fall 
of  i860  Mr.  Watson,  who  was  a  carpenter  in 
the  government's  employ,  started  out  on  a 
cayuse  for  Olympia.  The  irregularity  of  his 
selection  as  representative  restrained  him  from 



serving  in  this  capacity,  but  he  was  given  a  po- 
sition as  door-keeper  in  the  lower  house,  which 
position  he  retained  during  the  session.  In 
the  spring  of  1861  Judge  Watson  started  on  his 
return  trip  to  Pinkney  City.  Weeks  passed, 
but  the  judge  failed  to  put  in  an  appearance. 
At  that  period  I  was  sheriff  of  the  county,  and 
becoming  alarmed  at  the  non-appearance  of 
Judge  Watson  I  wrote  to  parties  at  Walla 
Walla  in  regard  to  his  whereabouts.  I  received 
word  that  he  had  left  Walla  Walla  several 
weeks  before  on  his  return  home. 

"I  then  suspected  foul  play.  Accompanied 
by  my  deputy.  George  \Vaet,  and  my  inter- 
preter, Thomas  Stranger,  I  set  out  on  the  trail 
to  the  south  country.  As  I  went  along  the 
trail  I  made  inquiries,  and  from  some  French 
settlers  I  learned  that  Indians  in  the  neighbor- 
hood had  a  horse  which  they  believed  to  be 
Watson's.  At  a  place  where  Chewelah  is  now 
situated  I  found  Watson's  horse  and  saddle  in 
possession  of  the  Indians  as  the  Frenchmen  had 
told  me.  These  natives  said  that  they  had  won 
the  horse  and  saddle  from  a  Spokane  Indian  by 
gambling,  and  gave  me  a  description  of  him. 
We  then  proceeded  to  the  camp  of  the 
Spokanes,  a  short  distance  this  side  of  Spokane 
Falls,  but  were  unable  to  find  the  Indian  for 
whom  we  were  looking.  We  saw  ihe  chief, 
however,  and  laid  the  matter  before  him.  From 
our  description  of  the  suspected  man  the  chief 
recognized  one  of  his  subjects  whom  he  had, 
before,  suspected  of  crime.  He  said  the  man  in 
question  was  keeping  company  with  a  young 
girl  of  the  tribe,  and  had  made  her  a  present  of 
a  piece  of  chain,  and  that  he  had  refused  to 
state  where  he  had  secured  it.  I  interviewed 
the  girl  and  saw  the  piece  of  chain,  which  I  at 
once  recognized  as  having  been  Watson's.  I 
again  laid  the  matter  before  the  chief,  and  he 
called  the  suspected  man  up  before  us.  At  first 
the  Indian  denied  knowledge  of  everything,  but 
finally  owned  up  that  he  had  murdered  Watson 
for  his  watch  and  chain  .and  pony.  He  said 
that  he  had  thrown  the  rest  of  the  chain  and 

the  watch  into  the  brush  along  the  Spokane 
river,  and  after  a  short  search  we  found  them. 

"This  was  in  May,  1861.  Accompanied  by 
one  of  the  chiefs  of  the  tribe  and  a  number  of 
braves,  we  started  on  the  return  trip  to  Pink- 
ney City  with  the  self-confessed  murderer.  At 
a  point  between  what  is  now  Springdale  and 
Walker's  Prairie,  the  culprit  pointed  out  the 
spot  where  the  murder  had  been  committed. 
We  had  no  trouble  in  finding  the  body  of  Judge 
Watson,  which  was  in  a  bad  state  of  decomposi- 
tion. We  dug  a  grave,  buried  our  friend  and 
marked  the  spot  with  a  slab.  Then  we  left 
the  Indians  and  pushed  on  with  our  prisoner. 
I  well  remember  our  arrival  home.  It  was 
about  five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  and  we  im- 
mediately gave  the  prisoner  a  preliminary  hear- 
ing before  Judge  Hall,  who  was  then  justice  of 
the  peace.  The  whole  settlement  was  present 
at  the  trial.  The  Indian  admitted  the  crime, 
and  was  bound  over  to  the  higher  court,  which 
in  those  days  convened  only  once  a  year.  As- 
sisted by  the  deputies  I  was  about  to  take  the 
prisoner  to  jail,  when  we  were  seized  by  the 
crowd  who  had  gathered  to  witness  the  trial. 
While  a  few  of  them  held  us  the  remainder 
took  our  prisoner  and  hanged  him  at  Hof- 
stetter's  gate,  opposite  the  court  house,  in  what 
was  then  Pinkney  City,  near  old  Fort  Colville. 

"Watson  was  between  fifty  and  fifty-five 
years  old,  and  came  here  from  Massachusetts. 
Although  we  made  inquiry  we  were  unable  to 
learn  anything  of  his  past  history,  nor  were 
there  any  papers  in  his  possession  which  gave 
any  information  of  relatives." 

While  Colville,  or  more  properly  Fort  Col- 
ville. was  recognized  as  the  capital  of  Spokane 
county,  under  the  old  regime,  Pinkney  City  was 
the  county  seat  de  facto.  All  proceedings  of 
the  county  commissioners  were  dated  at  Pink- 
ne}''  City.  The  Territorial  act  of  January  17. 
i860,  located  the  county  seat  "temporarily  on 
the  land  claim  of  Dr.  Bates."  Subsequent  acts 
of  the  Territorial  assembly  made  mention  of 
"Colville"  as  the  countv  seat,  and  thus  it  be- 



came  recognized  throughout  the  judicial  dis- 
trict. But  there  was  no  "Colville"  in  existence. 
In  view  of  this  fact  Mr.  John  U.  Hofstetter 
and  others,  in  1880,  platted  a  townsite  three 
miles  southwest  of  Pinkney  City,  named  it  Col- 
ville, and  thus  it  became  the  county  seat,  ac- 
cording to  the  recognition  of  certain  Territorial 
acts,  abolishing  Spokane,  and  organizing  Stev- 
ens county.  The  county  records  were  brought 
to  Colville  from  Pinkney  City,  and  since  that 
time  the  former  place  has  remained  the  capital. 

The  first  term  of  the  district,  later  called  the 
superior  court,  was  held  in  Pinkney  City  in 
June,  1862.  .Hon.  J.  J.  McGilvra,  now  a  resi- 
dent of  Seattle,  was  at  that  period  United 
States  district  attorney,  and  in  company  with 
Judge  Oliphant,  Salucius  Garfielde,  Shell 
Fargo  and  Charles  Allen,  he  left  the  Walla 
Walla  military  post  and  started  for  Pinkney 
City  to  hold  court.  The  equipage  of  the  party 
comprised  a  pair  of  ponies,  a  wagon  and  two 
riding  mules.  The  only  residents,  aside  from 
nomadic  Indians,  along  the  two  hundred  and 
ten  miles  were  one  ferryman  at  the  crossing  of 
the  Snake  river,  and  another  at  the  Spokane 
crossing,  eighteen  miles  below  the  present  east- 
ern metropolis  of  Washington,  Spokane. 

Two  small  fly  tents  which  the  judicial  party 
carried  along  with  them,  and  traveling  commis- 
sary stores,  furnished  forth  hotel  accommoda- 
tions along  the  entire  route.  To  a  limited  ex- 
tent Garfielde  understood  the  mysteries  of  the 
cuisine,  and  he  was  chosen  cook,  supplied  only 
with  the  meagre  culinary  utensils  of  a  frying 
pan  and  coffee  pot.  Garfielde  broiled  bacon  on 
sharpened  sticks  before  the  fire  and  baked  bread 
in  the  frying  pan.  Buffalo  chips  were  em- 
ployed for  fuel,  and  the  coffee  was  settled  with 
cold  water.  It  is  the  published  testimony  of 
Mr.  McGilvra  that  the  "bread,  bacon  and  coffee 
on  that  trip  had  a  relish  that  has  seldom  been 
the  good  fortune  of  the  writer  to  enjoy."  At 
that  period  the  regular  garrison  of  Fort  Col- 
ville, mentioned  elsewhere,  was  en  route  for 
the  seat  of  war  in  the  south,  its  place  having 

l;een  supplied  by  two  companies  of  volunteers 
recruited  from  the  California,  Oregon  and 
Washington  penitentiaries.  The  party  met 
these  troops  at  Medical  Lake.  Mr.  McGilvra 
says  that  the  officers  had  with  them  some  good 
commissary  whiskey,  and  the  judicial  party 
were  invited  to  partake  of  the  same,  which  they 
did,  "unanimously."  The  teamster  of  the  out- 
fit. Shell  Fargo,  managed  to  imbibe  rather 
more  than  his  just  proportion  of  the  whiskey, 
and  soon  after  parting  with  the  soldiers  he  up- 
set the  wagon,  depositing  two  of  his  passengers. 
Judge  Oliphant  and  Salucius  Garefielde  on  the 
ground.  It  is  stoutly  maintained  by  Fargo  that 
Garfielde,  who  was  smoking  at  the  time,  never 
lost  his  hold  of  the  pipe,  nor  missed  a  puff  dur- 
ing the  whole  catastrophe.  The  case  was  other- 
wise with  Judge  Oliphant;  although  not  seri- 
ously injured  he  was  badly  shaken  up  and  his 
nerves  considerably  unstrung. 

The  military  post  at  Fort  Colville  furnished 
quarters  for  the  "court."  The  pro  tern  clerk  of 
court,  appointed  by  Judge  Oliphant.  was  Park 
Winnans,  and  on  the  spur  of  the  moment  the 
sheriff  of  Spokane  county  summoned  grand 
and  petit  juries.  The  impromptu  "term"  com- 
menced. The  fact  that  any  court  at  all  was  to 
be  held  had  not  been  extensively  advertised, 
and  in  consequence  of  this  oversight  there  was 
not  a  case  on  the  docket,  in  short,  there  was  no 
calendar  in  which  to  enter  a  case.  So  the 
community  good-naturedly  began  to  manufac- 
ture cases.  It  is  a  well-known  fact  in  legal 
practice  that  a  community  of  lawyers  will  al- 
ways brew  business ;  that  it  takes  two  lawyers 
to  impart  an  impetus  to  litigation  in  any  place ; 
that  where  there  an  abundance  of  legal  advice 
there  will,  invariably,  be  found  clients  to  pay 
for  the  same.  Thus  it  was  at  Pinkney  City. 
It  appeared  to  be  the  disposition  of  the  people 
to  make  the  best  showing  possible — as  litiga- 
tion was  a  rarity,  in  short,  a  luxury — and  so 
encourage  other  visitations  of  the  "court." 
The  grand  jury  immediately  "got  busy"  and 
proceeded   to   indict   everyone  suspected   of  a 



crime  and,  it  might  be  said,  almost 
every  one  capable  of  committing  a  crime 
against  the  peace  and  dignity  of  the 
Territory  of  Washington.  So  anxious  were 
the  people  to  keep  the  wheels  of  justice  moving 
that  they  came  freely  into  court,  waived  pro- 
cess of  service,  made  up  their  issues  on  the 
spot,  and  jumped  head  foremost  into  trial. 
The  grist  of  this  judicial  mill  was  the  settling 
of  a  number  of  civil  cases,  several  convictions 
under  the  criminal  law,  three  divorces,  and  the 
accumulation  by  McGilvra  and  Gariielde  of 
$750  apiece.  Shell  Fargo  carried  off  his  re- 
ward in  the  shape  of  an  appointment  as  United 
States  marshal. 

During  this  initial  term  of  court  the  party 
v^isited  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company's  "Fort" 
Colville,  fifteen  miles  north,  then  in  charge  of 
Angus  McDonald.  At  this  period  the  principal 
fisheries  of  the  Columbia  river  were  at  this 
point,  and  here  the  Indians  came  to  lay  in  their 
season's  supply  of  salmon.  At  the  time  of  the 
visit  of  this  party  several  acres  of  ground  were 
occupied  in  drying  out  the  fish. 

The  reader  must  not  jump  to  the  hasty  con- 
clusion that  this  primitive  method  of  conducting 
law  courts  was  stii  genesis  in  the  various  states 
of  the  union.  Far  from  it.  There  was  good 
faith  shown  in  every  legal  procedure  in  Spo- 
kane county,  and  force  of  circumstances  alone 
prevented  a  more  elaborate  and  technical  pro- 
cess of  executing  the  law  of  the  land.  Over 
in  Montana,  at  the  same  period,  law  had  been 
abandoned,  or  rather  never  inaugurated.  The 
vigilance  committee  reigned  supreme,  and  no 
less  than  fifty-five  desperadoes,  outlaws  and 
"road  agents"  were  lynched  under  the  rude 
semblance  of  law  instituted  by  the  Vigilantes. 
So  far  as  jurisprudence  was  concerned  the  set- 
tlers of  Spokane  county  kept  themselves  within 
the  Territorial  statutes  to  the  fullest  extent 
compatible  with  the  spirit  of  the  times,  the 
long  intervals  between  terms  of  court  and  the 
vast  distances  between  the  municipal  and  coun- 
ty jurisdictions.     The  majesty  of  the  white 

man's  law,  as  will  be  seen  from  Sheriff  Wolff's 
account  of  his  capture  of  the  murderer  of  Judge 
Watson,  appears  to  have  been  recognized  by 
the  Indians,  more  especially  by  the  Spokanes. 
Accompanied  by  one  deputy  and  an  inter- 
preter, Wolff  went  down  into  the  midst  of  that 
tribe,  and  brought  the  prisoner  to  punishment, 
if  not  to  strict  legal  justice.  The  Indian  mur- 
derer had  confessed;  the  next  term  of  court 
was  a  long  ways  off;  expense  to  the  county 
could  be  saved  by  summary  proceedings,  and 
the  Indian  was  lynched.  But  consider  the 
thousands  of  whites  and  negroes  who  have 
suffered  from  this  kind  of  lawlessness  since  that 
time  in  various  portions  of  the  United  States, 
surrounded  by  all  the  adjuncts  necessary  for 
swift  retribution  at  the  hands  of  legally  con- 
stituted authorities!  We  make  no  plea  in  be- 
half of  lynch  law,  but  the  surrounding  circum- 
stances should  be  given  due  weight  by  the  can- 
did and  impartial  reader.  The  fact  that  this 
Indian  murderer  was  so  readily  given  up  to 
Sheriff  Wolff  by  the  chief  and  other  members 
of  the  tribe  of  Spokanes,  naturally  awakens 
comment.  For  this  credit  must  be  given  to  the 
methods  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company.  It 
had  inculcated  in  the  simple  minds  of  these  sav- 
age Indian  tribes  a  wholesome  respect  for  the 
white  man's  law.     Dr.  McLaughlin  says ; 

"A  strict  discipline  was  imposed  upon  the 
officers  and  servants  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Com- 
pany. The  officer  in  charge  of  a  post  or  party 
was  alone  authorized  to  deal  with  the  natives. 
Interference  with  their  women  f  the  so  frequent 
cause  of  trouble  between  the  Indians  and  the 
whites)  was  stictly  forbidden  and  rigorously 
punished.  Spirituous  liquor,  that  curse  alike 
to  civilized  and  savage,  was  never  taken  into 
the  Indian  country,  save  the  one  gallon  of  brandy 
and  two  gallons  of  wine  annually  furnished 
each  post  for  medicinal  purposes.  By  a  judi- 
cious system  of  penalties  and  rewards  the  In- 
dians were  taught  to  speak  the  truth  and  re- 
spect their  promises.  Theft  or  murder  was 
never  suffered  to  go  unpunished.     Tribes  as 



well  as  individuals  were  stimulated  to  industry 
and  good  behavior  by  suitable  presents  and 
distinctions.  If  a  theft  or  murder  was  com- 
mitted the  tribe  to  which  the  offender  belonged 
was  held  responsible  and  required  to  deliver 
him  up  for  punishment.  If  the  tribe  hesitated 
or  delayed,  trade  was  withdrawn  until  the 
thief  w-as  surrendered.  If  the  tribe  refused  to 
give  up  a  murderer,  war  at  whatever  cost  was 
waged  until  full  satisfaction  was  obtained." 

The  question  of  roads  was  one  of  the  most 
important  which  came  before  the  board  of 
county  commissioners  of  Spokane  county  in 
these  early  days.  Reference  to  local  laws  of 
1861-2  shows  that  J-  R-  Bates,  who  was  a 
member  of  the  Territorial  assembly,  was  au- 
thorized to  construct  a  bridge  across  the  Spo- 
kane river,  at  the  crossing  of  the  road  from 
Walla  Walla  to  Colville.  The  following  were 
also  appointed  as  ferry-keepers  :  D.  W.  Litchen- 
thaler  and  John  C.  Smith,  across  Snake,  op- 
posite Powder  river ;  to  Green  White  and  C.  R. 
Driggs,  across  Snake,  at  the  mouth  of  Grand 
Ronde  river;  to  John  Messenger  and  Walter 
H.  Manley,  across  Salmon  river  on  the  Nez 
Perce  trail  to  Fort  Boise.  Rates  were  generally 
fifty  cents  for  individual  foot  passengers,  loose 
cattle  fifty  cents  a  head;  two-horse  wagons 
$2.50;  four-horse  wagons  $3.50;  six-horse 
wagons  $4.50;  horse  and  buggy  $2.25;  pack 
animals  seventy-five  cents.  To  the  writer  ex- 
Sheriff  Francis  Wolff  said : 

"In  the  spring  of  1853  a  party  of  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty  men  under  the  command  of 
Lieutenant  Saxon  started  out  from  The  Dalles, 
and  of  this  party  I  was  a  member.  We  were  to 
join  forces  with  Governor  Stevens,  who  was 
then  in  Montana  with  his  surveying  party.  In 
the  fall  of  that  year  we  met  Governor  Stevens' 
party  at  Benton,  Montana.  Then  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1853  the  whole  party  crossed  the  Rocky 
Mountains  and  went  into  camp  at  Missoula. 
The  first  wagon  was  brought  over  in  the  winter 
of  1854  by  Captain  John  Mullan. 

"At    Missoula    a    consultation    was    held. 

[  Governor  Stevens  was  anxious  to  get  to  the 
capital  of  the  new  Territory  to  enter  upon  his 
duties  as  governor,  but  he  did  not  want  to  give 
up  his  surveying  project.  Provisions  were 
running  low,  and  to  leave  a  great  number  of 
his  force  behind  was  out  of  the  question. 
Stevens  called  for  volunteers  to  remain  be- 
hind and  proceed  with  the  survey  to  Puget 
Sound,  while  the  main  body  proceeded  directly 
to  Olympia.  Captain  John  Mullan,  to  whom, 
the  greatest  credit  is  due  for  the  surveying  of 
the  route,  was  given  command  of  these  volun- 
teers. Those  who  responded  and  formed  the 
company  were  Captain  John  Mullan,  James 
Doty,  Tom  Adams,  Fred  Burr,  C.  Williams, 
John  Farnsworth,  William  Simpson,  Richard 
Osgood,  Henry  Pearson,  George  Simpson, 
Tom  Osgood,  F.  M.  Ruby,  Corporal  Richard 
Rose,  W.  Gates,  Albert  Sohon,  I.  Thuhill,  E. 
Williamson,  Francis  Wolff.  For  fourteen 
months  this  party  conducted  the  surveying  op- 
erations and  suffered  untold  hardships,  finally 
arriving  at  Fort  Owens  in  the  Bitter  Root 
valley  and  going  into  camp  at  Camp  Stevens, 
one  and  one-half  miles  north  of  Fort  Owens." 
To  Mr.  Wolff  undoubtedly  belongs  the  dis- 
tinction of  having  brought  the  first  wagons  to 
the  Colville  country.  In  1856  he  came  from 
The  Dalles,  Oregon,  bringing  with  him  three 
wagons  and  a  number  of  horses.  In  those 
days  there  were  no  roads — only  a  trail — and 
considerable  difficulty  was  experienced  by  Mr. 
Wolff  in  getting  the  wagons  here  safely.  At 
the  Snake  and  Spokane  rivers  the  crossing  was 
made  by  lashing  two  Indian  canoes  together 
and  placing  a  wagon  on  them.  The  horses,  of 
course,  swam  across  the  streams.  In  1877  Mr. 
Wolff  made  a  trip  to  Walla  Walla.  In  passing 
through  the  country  south  of  here,  he  says,  he 
found  it  in  a  very  unsettled  condition,  and 
while  on  this  trip  he  witnessed  a  stampede  to 
Walla  Walla  from  what  are  now  the  counties 
of  Lincoln  and  Douglas,  on  account  of  an  In- 
dian scare.  He  says  the  fears  of  the  stampeders 
were  unfounded,  and  the  excitement  due  to  the 



fact  that  most  of  the  settlers  were  new  arrivals 
from  the  east  and  totally  unacquainted  with 
conditions.  A  few  cattle  had  been  killed  by 
the  Indians  in  the  "coulee  country, '  but  so  far 
as  he  could  learn  these  were  the  only  depreda- 
tions committed.  Many  sections  of  the  Big 
Bend  country  were  depopulated  by  this  mad 
stampede  to  Walla  Walla. 

At  the  time  of  the  present  writing  there 
have  been  three  legal  executions  in  Stevens 
county.  In  1872  an  Indian  named  Standist 
Law  was  hanged  in  Pinkney  City  for  the  mur- 
der of  a  miner,  across  the  Columbia  river.  His 
apprehension  was  brought  about  through  in- 
formation furnished  by  some  of  his  putative 
friends.  In  1879  ^"  Indian  named  Andrew 
was  executed  for  the  murder  of  George 
Reemer,  a  farmer.  living  at  Garrison  Flat,  only 
sixty  or  seventy  yards  from  the  military  post. 
In  1 88 1  one  Michael,  an  Indian,  murdered  a 
man  named  Shaffer,  who  conducted  a  grocery 
store  in  Pinkney  City,  the  same  place  where 
Reemer  was  killed.  For  this  crime  he  paid  the 
penalty  on  the  gallows. 

The  subject  of  roads  has  always  been  an 
important  one  with  the  commissioners  of  Stev- 
ens county,  and  it  is  but  just  to  say  that  within 
the  present  boundaries  of  the  county  there  are 
as  good  roads  as  can  be  found  anywhere  in  the 
state.  At  the  meeting  of  the  board  July  10, 
1865,  the  report  of  C.  H.  Montgomery,  road 
supervisor,  was  read  and  ordered  filed.  The 
report  contained  many  wholesome  recommen- 
dations, and  the  following  action  was  taken 
by  the  commissioners  on  the  dififerent  roads  of 
the  county : 

"That  the  road  from  Pinkney  City  to  the 
Spokane  vWer  stand  as  recorded  in  the  road 
book,  June  2.  1864,  and  the  old  military  road 
to  be  kept  in  passable  repair  until  the  super- 
visor shall  locate  the  route  from  Francis 
Uback's  but  from  that  point  to  Walker's  prairie, 
shall  be  located  and  opened  by  him,  so  soon  as 
he  can  do  so,  Joseph  P.  Null.  J.  J.  Murphy,  C. 
H.  ]\Iontgomery,  to  go  with  him  and  view  the 

portion  of  the  road  from  Francis  Uback's  to 
the  old  government  pack  bridge,  on  both  sides 
of  the  valley ;  the  viewers  to  report  to  the  audi- 
tor and  their  decision  to  be  final,  and  on  being 
recorded  by  the  auditor  shall  be  the  county 

Action  was  deferred  on  the  Little  Dalles 
wagon  road,  but  the  commissioners  decided 
that  should  it  become  necessary  they  would  call 
an  extra  session  to  pass  upon  it.  It  was  de- 
cided at  this  meeting  that  the  trail  to  the  Pend 
d'Oreille  river  should  be  cut,  and  that  the  road 
supervisor  should  be  authorized  to  advertise  for 
proposals  for  cutting  the  same,  the  contract  to 
be  let  to  the  lowest  bidder,  with  a  proviso  that 
no  bid  shall  exceed  $500  for  the  entire  distance. 
The  same  course  was  ordered  to  be  pursued 
with  the  Pack  Creek  as  with  the  Pend  d'Oreille 
trail.  On  November  28,  1865,  C.  H.  Mont- 
gomery was  ordered  to  make  a  new  road  lead- 
ing from  the  "Bruce  place"  to  the  Little  Dalles, 
and  he  was  authorized  to  enter  into  contract  for 
the  construction  of  the  same  at  any  sum  not 
exceeding  $2,000.  At  the  same  session  a  peti- 
tion was  drawn  addressed  to  the  representative 
from  Stevens  county  asking  him  to  oppose  all 
appropriations  for  toll  roads  in  the  county,  as 
the  people  were  fully  able  to  make  all  necessary 
roads  in  this  section. 

April  16,  1866,  the  commissioners  organ- 
ized the  following  road  districts  : 

No.  I — From  old  Fort  Colville  to  Marcus 
Openheimer's  up  'the  valley  on  both  sides  of 
the  river ;  G.  B.  Wannacott.  Supervisor. 

No.  2 — From  Marcus  Openheimer's  to  Jo- 
seph Roberts'  house,  at  Stranger's  bridge,  on 
both  sides  of  the  river:  John  Genick.  super- 

No.  3 — From  Joseph  Roberts'  to  Spokane 
river,  on  both  sides  of  the  river :  Magnus  Flett. 

No.  4 — From     Pinkney     City    to     Little 
Dalles;  Robert  Bruce,  supervisor.     Three  new 
election  precincts  were  also  created,  at  Pinkney 
City,  Little  Dalles  and  Old  Fort  Colville.     On 



June  28,  1866,  the  board  enacted  that  road 
district  No.  3  should  extend  from  the  house  of 
Joseph  Roberts  (including  his  house)  to  Snake 
river,  and  across  the  White  Bluffs,  and  the 
super\asor  was  empowered  to  appoint  some 
suitable  person  in  any  part  of  the  district  to 
oversee  the  labor  thereon.  August  13,  1866,  a 
road  was  ordered  built  from  Solomon  Pelter's 
house  through  White  Mud  valley  to  "H.  La- 
fleur's  grocery  stand." 

Concerning  the  finances  of  Stevens  county 
in  these  early  days  the  following  will  prove  of 
interest :  At  the  meeting  of  the  commissioners 
of  June  16,  1863,  J.  R.  Bates,  treasurer,  came 
before  the  board  for  the  purpose  of  settlement. 
He  presented  a  statement  of  his  various  ac- 
counts for  1862.  showing  that  he  had  received 
$2,587.58,  and  that  he  had  expended:  County 
orders  redeemed,  $1,881.98;  interest  fees  to  R. 
H.  Douglas,  $8.12;  school  fund  of  1861,  cash 
in  hands  of  treasurer,  $277.02 ;  school  fund  of 
1862,  cash  in  hands  of  treasurer,  $122.26; 
Territorial  tax  of  1861,  $116.01;  Territorial 
tax  of  1862,  $56.22;  war  tax  of  1862,  $50; 
cash  on  hand  $0.79;  county  order,  fees 
for  recording  and  disbursing  $85.18;  total 

May  4,  1863,  the  commissioners  ordered 
that  the  value  of  grain  in  Stevens  county  should 
be  assessed  as  follows:  Wheat,  $1.50  per 
bushel;  oats,  barley  and  potatoes,  $1  :  flour,  $8 
per  hundred  pounds.  The  taxes  levied  for 
county  purposes  were  four  mills  on  the  dollar. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  commissioners  of 
November  20,  1863,  the  auditor  was  instructed 
to  write  Dr.  Toby,  representing  the  county  in 
the  Territorial  assembly,  to  secure  the  immedi- 
ate passage  of  a  bill  taxing  Chinamen,  the  tax 
to  be  $1.50  per  month,  or  $4.50  per  quarter, 
the  tax  to  be  collected  by  the  sheriff,  that  officer 
to  be  allowed  20  per  cent  of  such  collections, 
and  the  treasurer  and  auditor  their  usual  fees, 
as  in  the  case  of  other  public  moneys.  A  reso- 
lution was  also  passed  to  the  effect  "that  Stev- 

ens county  be  annexed  to  this,  the  citizens  hav- 
ing failed  to  organize."  In  the  commissioners' 
proceedings  of  January  23,  1864,  the  county  is 
referred  to  as  Spokane.  At  the  succeeding 
meeting,  May  2,  1864,  it  is  called  Stevens 

January  23,  1864,  the  jail  specifications 
were  taken  up  and  examined,  following  which 
the  new  jail  was  inspected  and  found  to  have 
been  erected  according  to  contract,  upon  which 
it  was  formally  accepted.  At  this  meeting  the 
jail  building  was  discussed  at  length,  the  com- 
missioners finally  ordering  the  county  auditor 
to  settle  with  the  contractor,  George  M.  Daven- 
dorf,  and  to  pay  him  the  balance  of  the  con- 
tract price,  $700,  in  county  orders,  the  same  to 
draw  interest  from  date.  The  auditor  was, 
also,  instructed  to  return  to  Mr.  Davendorf  the 
money  deposited  by  him  as  security  for  per- 
formance of  the  jail  contract.  At  the  meeting 
of  March  i,  1864,  the  office  of  sheriff,  L.  T. 
Marshall,  incumbent,  was  declared  vacant,  as 
Mr.  Marshall  had  been  absent  from  the  Terri- 
tory for  over  nine  months,  and  was  delinquent 
in  the  amount  of  $95.  Suit  was  ordered  to  be 
commenced  against  his  bondsmen,  and  H.  P. 
Steward  was  appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy  in 
the  office  of  sheriff,  until  the  next  general 
election.  On  May  4,  of  the  same  year,  the 
commissioners  instructed  the  county  treasurer 
to  pay  county  orders  in  nothing  but  green- 
backs. February  12,  1865,  F.  W.  Perkins  was 
appointed  county  auditor  in  place  of  Park 
Winans,  the  latter  having  forfeited  his  right 
to  appoint  a  deputy  by  an  absence  from  the 
county  of  over  six  months.  Therefore  the 
office  was  declared  vacant  and  filled  by  the 
selection  of  Mr.  Perkins,  May  8,  the  same  year, 
the  board  passed  a  resolution  to  the  effect 
that  the  auditorship  had  been  forfeited  by  Mr. 
Winans,  not  through  loss  of  residence,  but 
owing  to  his  continued  absence. 

following  is  the  financial  statement  of  the 
county  of  Stevens,  February  12,  1865  : 



Total    amount    of    money    received   since    November    2, 

1863,  to  November  24,    1864 $  9,8/4  02 

Amount  disbursed: 

Delinquent   tax   list    1864 $  1,402  cw 

County  orders  redeemed 3,781  99 

Territorial  orders  by  Judge  Oliphant 38000 

County   court    161  00 

School  superintendent's  salary 25  00 

Sent  to  Olympia 138  00 

Delinquent  tax  list,  1863,  not  received 

Borrowed  by  county   from   school  fund,  paid 

Davendorf    600  00 

Treasurer's   fees    248  42 

Sheriff's  per  cent,   Chinese 3  77 

Police  tax   765  00 

Interest  on  County  orders 7  37 

Amount  in  treasurer's  hands : 

Territorial    94626 

Amount   county   orders    redeemed    since    No- 
vember      956  88 

School  funds  on   hand 21320 

Roads  and  poll  tax ! 149  00 

$  9,877  89 

From  the  assessment  rolls  of  May,  1865, 
we  find  that  the  price  of  grain  was  fixed  as 
follows:  Wheat,  $1.75;  oats,  75  cents;  barley, 
$1.25;  potatoes,  $1.50.  Yet  about  one  year 
later,  in  June,  1866,  wheat  was  taxed  at  $3  a 
bushel,  oats  $1.50,  and  potatoes  $1.50.  In 
1865  the  tax  apportionment  was  eight  mills  on 
the  dollar;  Territorial  tax  four  mills;  school 
two  mills;  road  ten  mills;  road  poll  tax  $5,  and 
$3  a  day  allowed  for  road  labor.  In  1866  the 
Territorial  assessment  was  three  mills;  school 
three  mills  and  county  eight  mills.  The  road 
property  tax  was  twenty  cents  on  $100;  poll 
tax  two  day's  work  for  $4  each  man. 

February  5,  1867,  agitation  began  for  the 
purchase  of  a  court  house,  a  price  of  $500  bejng 
fixed  for  the  same,  and  Sherifif  George  Young 
was  appointed  to  negotiate  the  deal.  February 
23  a  deed  was  given  to  C.  H.  Montgomery  and 
approved.  The  purchase  of  the  Douglas  house 
was  suggested,  and  it  was  resolved  to  secure 
this  building  provided  it  could  be  bought  for 
$500  in  coin,  or  $666.66  in  greenbacks.  April 
12  a  deed  for  this  property  was  given 
to  R.  H.  Douglas  and  accepted,  and 
$666.66    paid    in    legal    tender    notes.    April 

12.  1867,  the  commissioners  took  up  the 
question  of  building  another  road  "from  where 
the  Cottonwood  creek  crosses  the  Walla  Walla 
road  to  intersect  with  the  Mullan  road,  at  or 
near.  Antonio  Plant's,  and  it  was  enacted  that 
the  supervisors  of  different  districts  be  re- 
quested to  call  out  such  men  as  have  signed  the 
road  petition  to  work  on  said  road  on  or  before 
the  first  day  of  October,  1867,  and  also  that 
there  shall  be  a  new  bridge  built  on  Fool's 
Prairie,  and  also  such  other  work  as  shall  be 
deemed  necessary  for  a  good  road  between 
Grame's  and  Cottonwood  creek."  On  May  4 
the  commissioners  ordered  that  the  road  from 
Cottonwood  creek  to  Spokane  bridge  be  a 
county  road.  May  4,  1868,  it  was  ordered  that 
the  Territorial  fund  then  in  the  treasun,'  be 
turned  over  into  the  county  fund  from  time  to 
time  until  the  Territorial  warrant  for  $841.64 
be  satisfied.  May  2,  1869,  a  new  voting  pre- 
cinct was  established  at  Vogh's  ferry,  on  the 
Pend  d'Oreille  river.  June  28,  1869,  the  com- 
missioners found  that  the  county  was  in  debt 
by  outstanding  orders  $3,369.84,  from  which, 
deducting  $1,390.32  due  from  the  Territory  to 
the  county,  left  an  indebtedness  of  $1,979.52, 
which,  together  with  the  indebtedness  of  the 
county  to  the  school  fund  of  $1,400,  left  a  total 
liability  of  $3,379.52.  In  the  fall  of  1869  the 
commissioners  appeared  to  have  considerable 
difficulty  in  collecting  licenses  for  the  sale  of 
intoxicating  liquors,  and  there  were  frequent 
appearances  of  notices  like  the  following: 

"Ordered  that  all  persons  selling  liquors  by 
retail  be  notified  to  pay  all  arrears  of  license 
due  and  all  persons  selling  without  license  to 
take  out  license." 

November  i,  1869.  on  petition  of  George 
Wait  and  others,  it  was  ordered  that  the  county 
road  from  Colville  to  Walla  Walla  be  changed 
so  as  to  run  on  the  west  side  of  Colville  valley. 
May  4,  1870.  a  new  election  precinct  was  estab- 
lished at  Union  Flat,  at  the  house  of  H.  Mur- 
ton.  June  22.  1870.  it  was  found  that  the 
countv    was    indebted   bv   outstandine:  orders 



$7,234.86.  Deducting  the  amount  of  county 
funds  on  hand  as  shown  by  the  auditor's  books, 
$1,430,  remaining  in  the  treasury,  the  actual 
indebtedness  was  $5,804.86. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  commissioners  held 
May  6,  1872,  in  order  that  all  persons  in  the 
county  entitled  to  the  elective  franchise  might 
be  afforded  an  opportunity  of  exercising  it  at 
the  approaching  election  the  board  proceeded  to 
organize  the  following  election  precincts  and  to 
appoint  ofificers  thereof  for  the  election  of  June 
3.  1872. 

Che-we-lah  Election  Precinct — Boundaries  : 
north  by  a  line  running  east  and  west  three 
miles  south  of  the  Twelve  Mile  House;  east  by 
Little  Spokane;  south  by  main  Spokane;  west 
by  Columbia  river.  Place  of  voting,  school 

Pine  Grove  Election  Precinct — Boundaries  : 
North  by  Hangman's  creek  and  Spokane  river 
to  Monaghan's  bridge;  west  by  Walla  Walla 
and  Colville  road  to  where  said  road  crosses 
Crab  creek ;  south  by  a  line  running  easterly  to 
the  house  of  A.  Himes,  including  Mr.  Himes 
and  Mr.  Wells  in  said  precinct,  thence  north- 
easterly by  Monroes  to  Hangman's  creek  where 
said  creek  crosses  the  line  between  Idaho  and 
Washington.  Place  of  voting,  store  of  Mon- 

Pine  Creek  Precinct — Boundaries  :  South 
by  Whitman  county;  west  by  Colville  and 
Walla  Walla  road ;  north  by  Pine  Grove  pre- 
cinct :  east  by  Idaho.  Voting  place,  the  house 
•of  T.  F.  Favorite. 

Spokane  Bridge  Precinct  —  Boundaries  : 
South  and  west  by  Hangman's  creek,  Spokane 
and  Little  Spokane;  north  by  Pend  d'  Oreille 
river:  east  by  Idaho.  Voting  place,  A.  C.  Ken- 
dal's store. 

Crab  Creek  Precinct — Boundaries  :  North 
by  Spokane  river;  east  by  Colville  and  Walla 
Walla  road ;  South  by  Whitman  county ;  west 
by  Columbia  river.  Place  of  voting,  house  of 
H.  L.  White. 

The  reader  will   remember  that  Whitman 

county  was  established  November  21,  1871,  by 
setting  ofi  a  certain  portion  of  territory  from 
Stevens  count}-.  It  appears  that  this  act  left 
Whitman  county  in  debt  to  Stevens  county, 
and  on  November  25,  1872,  the  commissioners 
of  Stevens  county  proceeded  to  consider  this 
matter  of  indebtedness.  It  was  shown  that  cer- 
tain provisions  of  the  law  organizing  Whitman 
county  in  respect  to  the  issue  of  orders  covering 
its  proportion  of  the  liabilities  of  Stevens 
county  had  not  been  complied  with,  and  the 
auditor  was  directed  to  transmit  the  following 
letter  to  the  auditor  of  Whitman  county : 

Fort  Colville,  Nov.  25,   1872 
Auditor  of  Whitman  County. 

Sir  : — At  a  special  session  of  the  board  of  com- 
missioners held  this  day,  I  am  directed  to  call  the  at- 
tention of  the  commissioners  and  auditor  of  Whitman 
to  the  following  extract  from  the  act  of  the  Territorial 
legislature  organizing  your  county,  approved  November 
29,  1871: 

"The  said  Whitman  county  shall  issue  county  orders 
in  favor  of  Stevens  county  for  that  amount.  And  the 
county  auditor  of  Whitman  county  shall  transmit  to 
the  county  auditor  of  Stevens  county  before  the  first 
day  of  July,  A.  D.,  1872,  the  amount  of  county  orders 
that  shall  fall  due,  Whitman  county  to  issue  in  favor  of 
Stevens   county." 

Pursuant  to  the  above  I  am  instructed  to  demand 
of  the  board  of  commissioners  and  auditor  of  Whitman 
county  an  immediate  compliance  therewith  and  to  ask 
that  the  order,  or  orders  in  question  be  dated  as  pro- 
vided in  the  act  referred  to,  and  also  be  properly  en- 
dorsed so  that  interest  may  accrue  thereon. 

As  a  matter  of  convenience  in  respect  to  the  re- 
demption of  the  issues  in  favor  of  this  county,  I  beg 
to  suggest  that  the  amount  be  covered  by  orders  of  the 
denomination  of  $100.  Please  transmit  by  registered 
letter.  You  have  a  certified  statement  of  the  amount 
of  our  regular  and  supplementary  assessment,  but  take 
the  aggregate  of  your  taxable  property  as  published  in 
the  Olympia  papers.  Please  send  your  supplementary 
roll.     Please  acknowledge  receipt. 

It  appears  that  the  above  letter  did  not  pro- 
duce the  desired  results,  for  we  find  that  on 
May  5,  1873,  the  commissioners  of  Stevens 
county  ordered  the  auditor  to  forward  the  nec- 
essary papers  to  the  prosecuting  attorney  au- 
thorizing him  to  commence  suit  against  Whit- 
man county,  and  to  procure  such  help  as  he  may 
deem  necessar}'  to  secure  judgment  against  the 



delinquent  county.  During  the  following  year 
it  appears  little  satisfaction  was  secured,  con- 
cerning this  financial  matter,  for  at  a  board 
meeting  ]May  24,  1874,  the  Stevens  county 
commissioners  ordered  the  auditor  to  take  legal 
advice  in  relation  to  the  Whitman  county  order, 
"and  ask  if  we  cannot  get  the  money  and  refuse 
the  order."  However,  it  was  decided  that  the 
the  auditor  deposit  the  Whitman  county  order, 
which,  it  seems,  had  been  paid  in  bulk  sum,  re- 
gardless of  the  request  of  Stevens  county  to  cut 
it  into  amounts  of  $100  each,  with  the  treas- 
urer, subject  to  the  order  of  the  Stevens  county 
commissioners.  September  23,  of  the  same 
year,  it  was  ordered  that  the  "county  auditor 
turn  over  to  Mr.  I.  H.  Wells  the  county  order 
now  deposited  with  the  county  treasurer  and 
known  as  the  Whitman  county  order,  amount- 
ing to  $1,342.56,  taking  a  receipt  for  said  order 
and  the  amount  thereof  from  Mr.  Wells,  and 
that  Mr.  Wells  present  said  order  to  the  county 
treasurer  of  Whitman  county  for  payment  of 
principal  and  interest,  and  in  case  there  are  not 
sufficient  funds  to  pay  said  order,  or  any  part 
thereof,  then  to  split  said  order,  principal  and 
interest,  into  smaller  orders  of  the  denomina- 
tion of  $100  each ;  Mr.  Wells  then  to  deposit  at 
his  earliest  opportunity  the  amount  or  order  re- 
ceived for  said  order  with  the  treasurer  of 
Stevens  county,  taking  a  receipt  for  the  same, 
to  be  subject  to  the  order  of  the  treasurer  of 
Stevens  county." 

January  5,  1875,  Mr.  Wells  presented  the 
order  to  the  treasurer  of  Whitman  county,  but 
it  was  not  paid  for  lack  of  funds.  Neither 
would  the  treasurer  split  it  up  into  smaller 
orders,  although  Mr.  Wells  requested  him  to 
do  so.  Finally  this  celebrated  order  was 
brought  back  and  deposited  once  more  with  the 
treasurer  of  Stevens  county.  January  9,  1875, 
the  Whitman  county  order  was  sold  to  Henry 
Wellington  for  $1,700  (in  Stevens  county  or- 
ders). It  was  dated  May  18,  1874,  and  was 
for  $1,342.50,  interest  amounting  to  $316.04. 
Thus  Stevens  countv  cleared  $41.46. 

It  becomes  necessary  to  revert  to  May  7, 
1872,  when  we  find  that  pusuant  to  an  act  of 
the  Territorial  legislature  it  became  incumbent 
upon  the  commissioners  of  Walla  Walla.  Whit- 
man and  Stevens  counties,  to  appoint  each  a 
commissioner  to  view  and  locate  a  Territorial 
road  from  Walla  Walla  to  Colville,  and  on -the 
part  of  Stevens  county  J.  R.  Courtnay  was  se- 
lected as  commissioner.  j\Ir.  Courtnay  met 
with  the  other  commissioners,  assisted  in  the 
survey  of  this  road  and  was  paid  for  his  serv- 
ices $310.50.  Concerning  the  subject  of  road 
building  Mr.  John  Ricky  says : 

"At  this  time  the  several  counties  put  con- 
siderable work  on  this  road,  fixing  up  the  old 
military  road  and  building  a  part  of  it  anew, 
until  a  first-class  road  was  established  as  a  Ter- 
ritorial road." 

May  7,  1874,  the  commissioners  established 
the  Four  Lake  Election  Precinct,  embracing  all 
the  territory  between  Willow  Springs,  Rock 
creek,  north  and  south,  and  the  Colville  and 
Walla  Walla  road ;  Lake  creek,  east  and  west. 
The  voting  place  was  at  the  residence  of  C. 
Murphy.  September  22,  the  same  year,  Spo- 
kane Falls  Election  Precinct  was  established, 
bounded  as  follows:  Commencing  at  the 
mouth  of  Hangman's  creek,  thence  up  the  creek 
ten  miles;  thence  east  ten  miles;  thence  north 
ten  miles  (more  or  less)  to  Spokane  river; 
thence  west  down  Spokane  river  to  the  place 
first  named.  Polls  were  established  at  the  store  of 
Mathema  &  Company.  The  following  day  the 
commissioners  abolished  the  election  precinct 
of  Pine  Creek,  "there  not  being  sufficient  vot- 
ers, and  ordered  that  said  precinct  be  included 
in  Pine  Grove  Precinct,  and  that  the  auditor 
notify  Mr.  Favorite  of  this  order." 

May  5,  1875,  a  complication  arose  concern- 
ing the  office  of  county  auditor.  From  the  pro- 
ceedings of  that  date  we  find  that  the  county 
commissioners  ordered  that  the  resignation  of 
J.  R.  Kinsley,  as  auditor  be  spread  on  the  min- 
utes, of  which  resignation  the  following  is  a 
copy : 



"CoLVLLE,  W.  T.,  March  i8,  1875. 
"To  the  Honorable  Board  of  Commissioners  of 

Stevens  County,  W.  T. 

"Gentlemen  :  I  herewith  tender  my  resigna- 
tion as  auditor  of  Stevens  county,  W.  T.,  to 
take  effect  at  the  regular  May  meeting. 

"(Signed)  J.  R.  Kinsey." 

It  appears  that  Mr.  Kinsley  reconsidered  his 
action  in  resigning,  for  at  the  meeting  of  May 
6,  the  letter  appended  herewith  appears  spread 
upon  the  records : 

"CoLviLLE,  May  3,  1875. 
"To  the  Honorable  Board  of  Commissioners. 

"Gentlemen  :  I  do  hereby  give  notice  that  I 
respectfully  withdraw  my  resignation  placed  in 
your  hands,  dated  March  18,  1875,  ^s  county 
auditor.     Respectfully, 

"(Signed)         John  R.  Kinsley, 

"County  Auditor." 

A  majority  of  the  board  refused  to  accept 
this  withdrawal,  the  vote  standing,  L.  W.  My- 
ers and  D.  T.  Percival,  opposed  to  acceptance; 
J.  Lamona  in  favor  of  it.  The  same  majority 
accepted  the  resignation  of  Mr.  Kinsley,  and  it 
was  ordered  that  the  office  of  county  auditor  be 
declared  vacant.  To  this  action  Mr.  Kinsley 
presented  a  written  protest  as  follows: 

"Fort  Colville,  W.  T.,  May  6,  1875. 
"Gentlemen  of  the  Board  of  Commissioners : 

"I,  John   R.   Kinsley,  auditor  of   Stevens 

county,  protest  against  the  action  of  the  board 
of  county  commissioners  in  declaring  the  office 
of  county  auditor  vacant,  as  arbitrary  and  con- 
trary to  law,  and  I  refuse  to  surrender  the 
"(Signed)  John  R.  Kinsley. 

"County  Auditor." 

Through  the  action  of  Percival  and  Myers 
S.  F.  Sherwood  was  appointed  auditor  of 
Stevens  county.  Commissioner  Lamona  pro- 
testing against  such  appointment  "unless  Mr. 
Kinsley  be  removed  by  due  course  of  law;  in 
that  event  he  would  sustain  Mr.  Sherwood." 

But  Messrs.  Percival  and  Myers  continued 
the  work,  and  approved  the  bond  of  Mr.  Sher- 
wood, for  $3,000,  with  Max  Weil  and  Henry 
Wellington  as  sureties.  Mr.  Kinsley  was  then 
ordered  to  turn  over  all  books  and  papers  be- 
longing to  the  office  of  auditor  to  S.  F.  Sher- 
wood, and  to  this  proposition  Mr.  Kinsley 
promptly  refused.  Mr.  Sherwood  was  then  re- 
quested to  take  immediate  possession  of  the 
office,  and  to  remove  the  lock  from  the  door  of 
the  office  and  place  thereon  a  new  one.  Sheriff 
John  U.  Hofstetter  was  also  ordered  to  secure 
a  new  lock  for  the  court  house,  and  although 
Commissioner  Lamona  strongly  protested 
against  this  forcible  possession  of  the  office,  the 
majority  carried  the  day,  and  Mr.  Sherwood 
continued  to  hold  the  fort. 



From  the  original  Stevens  county  there 
have  been  sliced  the  important  political  di- 
visions of  Spokane,  Whitman,  Adams,  Frank- 
lin, Lincoln,  Douglas,  Ferry,  Okanogan  and  a 
portion  of  Chelan  counties.  Yet  in  1871  in  all 
that  vast  territory,  under  the  jurisdiction  of 
Colville,  as  the  countv  seat,  there  was  a  voting 

population  of  less  than  three  hundred,  and  a 
total  population,  exclusive  of  Indians,  of  less 
than  one  thousand.  The  most  populous  por- 
tion of  the  district,  at  the  period  named,  was 
the  Colville  valley.  A  list  of  the  various  farms, 
ranches,  "sites"  or  residences  of  the  white  in- 
habitants, prepared  for  the  information  of  the 



government  shows  them  to  have  been  ninety- 
one  in  number.  From  a  copy  of  this  hst  we  are 
enabled  to  give  the  names  of  eighty-eight  of 
these  pioneers  of  Stevens  county.  Many  of 
them  are  still  residents,  even  within  its  present 
boundaries ;  some  have  removed  to  other  locali- 
ties, or  been  set  off  by  county  subdivision;  a 
large  number  have  passed  to  the  Great  Beyond. 
The  names  are :  Harry  Young,  L.  D.  Ferguson, 
Joseph  Gangraw,  Hilburn,  I.  R.  Kings- 
ley,  Bergean,  George  Waitt,  Francis  Hu- 
bert, George  Frazer,  Henry  Brown,  John  Ink- 
ster,  Andrew  Mowatt,  —  Kemp,  Peter  Abram- 
son,  George  Flett,  Joseph  Morrell,  Reid  Mont- 
gomery. John  Garrack,  Patrick  McKenzie, 
Thomas  Brown,  Fred  Keiling,  George  IMcRea, 
Donald    McCloud,    Louis    Morrigean,    Nobra 

Dupuis.   Mechan,    Magnes   Flett,   

Mechel.  John  Stranger,  H.  Wellington,  Joseph 
Roberts,  John  Hauser,  Con  Rickart,  Mrs. 
Fratzer.  Narcise  Finley.  Louis  Perras,  M. 
L'Fleur,  Francis  Wolff.  James  Kitt,  Louis 
Matthews.  Jacob  Buske.  Alex.  Gendron,  Solo- 
mon Pelton.  Mrs.  McDougall.  Frank  Johann, 

John  Wynne,  Pierre,  Moses  Dupee,  An- 

toine  Paradis,  \\'.  Hall.  L.  W.  Meyers,  Peter 
Grupee,  John  Probell.  John  Jarvir,  Fred  Sher- 
\vood,  Jacob  Gillett,  Robert  Bruce,  Thomas 
Stranger,  Thomas  Stranger,  Jr.,  George 
Heron.  Mrs.  G.  W.  Jacobs,  M.  Oppenheimer. 
R.  H.  Douglas.  Thomas  Haller,  Mrs.  Cham- 
pagne. Robert  McKay.  Joseph  Lapray,  Mat- 
thew Hayden,  Joseph  Laurient,  John  Lezott, 
Leopold  DeRudder,  Andrew  Hughson,  F. 
Boesch.  John  U.   Hofstetter,  Joseph  Martin, 

Louis  Peone,  Charette,  I.  Merchant,  C. 

H.  Montgomery,  Ambrose  Tindall.  Donald 
McDonald.  Marcus  Oppenheimer,  John 
Rickey.  George  Reimer,  John  Cluxton,  Albert 
Dunlap,  George  W.  Harvey. 

At  this  period  Pinkney  City  was  the  me- 
tropolis of  northeastern  Washington.  Here 
the  board  of  county  commissioners  adminis- 
tered the  affairs  of  a  territory  larger  than  that 
of  anv  other  similar  ImcIv  on  the  Northwest 

Coast.  They  established  election  precincts  con- 
taining hundreds  of  square  miles;  large  sums 
were  appropriated,  necessarily,  to  reimburse 
those  who  brought  in  the  election  returns,  and 
they  were  sometimes  weeks  on  the  road,  while 
results  remained  in  doubt;  some  of  the  school 
districts  embraced  territory  from  which  coun- 
ties were  subsequently  carved ;  the  city  of 
Spokane  was  yet  to  develop  from  the  shadows 
of  the  future. 

The  range  of  Indian  superintendence  was 
on  a  scale  equally  extensive.  Over  eight  differ- 
ent tribes,  prior  to  April  9.  1872,  the  Colville 
Indian  Agency  had  nominal  control.  These 
trilies,  including  the  Colville,  Spokane,  Okano- 
gan, San  Poil,  Kalispell,  Methow,  Nespelim, 
and  Lake  Chelan  bands,  numbered  over  three 
thousand  persons.  We  say  nominal  control, 
for  although  some  of  these  Indians  declined  to 
recognize  the  authority  of  the  United  States, 
they  were  in  the  main  peaceably  disposed. 
By  executive  order  a  reservation  was  set  apart 
for  them  April  9,  1872.  This  included  the  Col- 
ville valley,  and  the  act  met  with  the  warm  ap- 
proval of  the  Indians.  Not  so  with  the  white 
settlers  and  pioneers.  Sixty  of  the  latter  filed  an 
immediate  protest.  July  2  an  order  was  issued 
by  President  Grant  confining  the  reservation 
to  the  country  bounded  on  the  east  and  south 
by  the  Columbia,  west  by  the  Okanogan  and 
north  by  British  Columbia.  This  order  was 
ratified  by  the  first  session  of  the  forty-third 
congress  and  was  followed  by  a  counter  protest 
by  Indians  and  agents.  This,  however,  was 
without  effect,  as  the  order  was  not  "changed, 
but  the  Colville  Indians  entered  upon  a  sort  of 
joint-occupancy  with  the  whites  in  the  valley, 
and  here  the  Jesuits  assumed  charge  of  their 
spiritual  welfare,  bestowing  upon  them  the 
same  care  and  attention  which  they  had  ex- 
hibited in  other  localities  since  1842.  This 
reservation  was  extended  in  April,  1879,  by  a 
grant  on  the  west  side  of  the  Okanogan  to 
the  Cascade  range.  The  reservation  then  in- 
cluded all  the  country  in  eastern  Washington 



west  of  the  Columbia  and  north  of  48  degrees 
30  minutes,  comprising  some  four  thousand 
square  miles. 

The  reader  will  have  noticed  that  in  these 
early  days,  and  prior  to  1880,  the  names  of  the 
putative  capital  of  Stevens  county  appear  to 
have  been  interchangable.  Sometimes  the  pro- 
ceedings of  the  county  commissioners  are  dated 
Colville,  Fort  Cojlville,  and  again,  Pinkney 
City.  April  26,  1876,  the  county  seat  question 
was  brought  up  at  a  meeting  on  that  day  of  the 
commissioners,  and  a  majority  of  the  board 
concurred  in  the  following : 

"That  it  is  the  opinion  of  a  majority  of  the 
board  of  county  commissioners  that  the  act  of 
1875,  being  an  amendment  to  the  act  of  1863, 
an  act  repealed  by  the  act  of  1864,  'permanently 
locating  the  county  seat  at  Colville,'  and  conse- 
quently null  and  void,  that  the  amendment  of 

1875  must  be  of  necessity  also  null  and  void, 
and  in  consequence  the  act  of  1864  still  remains 
in  full  force  and  effect,  Meyers  and  Lamona 
concurring;  Mr.  Percival  protesting  against 
the  action  of  the  majority  of  the  board." 

In  1876  the  Okanogan  Election  Precinct 
was  formed  by  the  commissioners,  and  one  year 
later  the  Hangman's  Creek  Precinct,  in  the 
southeast  corner  of  the  county,  was  established. 
August  10,  1877,  the  commissioners  in  settling 
with  the  sheriff  were  informed  that  he  had  been 
unable  to  collect  the  taxes  due  for  the  year 

1876  owing  to  unsettled  conditions  resulting 
from  recent  Indian  outbreaks.  The  sheriff  was 
therefore  given  until  the  succeeding  November 
meeting  of  the  board  to  collect  the  taxes.  Two 
new  election  precincts  were  organized  in  1878; 
one,  the  Spring  Valley  Precinct,  and  another, 
the  Moses  Precinct,  which  appears  to  have  in- 
cluded the  greater  part  of  Lincoln  and  Douglas 
counties,  as  now  organized.  It  is  described  on 
the  commissioners'  record  as  follows : 

"In  the  southwest  corner  of  Stevens  county, 
with  the  following  boundaries  :  Commencing  on 
the  Whitman  county  line,  at  the  Columbia 
river:  thence  up  said  ri\'er  to  Spokane  river; 

thence  in  a  southerly  direction  by  way  of  Min- 
eral Springs,  near  Crab  Creek,  ,  to  Whitman 
county  line ;  thence  west  on  said  line  to  place  of 
beginning."  Refeience  to  a  map  of  Washing- 
ton will  conclusively  show  that  it  cost  time,  as 
well  as  money,  to  exercise  the  elective  franchise 
in  those  days.  In  1884  the  Columbia,  Sequaha, 
Spring  Valley  Election  Precincts,  and  Okano- 
gan District  were  organized,  thus  considerably 
reducing  the  size,  not  only  of  Moses,  but  other 
election  precincts. 

August  10,  1878,  an  order  was  made  by 
the  commissioners  providing  that  the  receiving 
officers  of  Stevens  county  be  instructed  to  not 
receive  gold  dust  in  payment  of  any  indebted- 
ness to  the  county  at  a  value  greater  than  the 
following  rates:  Amalgam  dust,  Rock  Creek, 
Salmon  River,  $14;'  "49"  Creek,  Pend  d' 
Oreille,  $16,  and  Kootenai,  $17  per  ounce. 

The  amputation  from  Stevens  of  the  terri- 
tory comprising  Whitman  county  did  not  create 
any  undue  excitement  in  the  vicinity  of  Col- 
ville. This,  however,  was  not  the  case  in  the 
subsequent  segregation  of  Spokane  county. 
There  was  most  emphatic  protest  from  nearly 
all  the  citizens  in  the  remaining  portion  of 
Stevens  county,  particularly  from  those  resid- 
ing in  the  northeastern  district.  At  a  meet- 
ing of  the  board  of  commissioners,  November 
6,  1879,  the  following  resolution  was  con- 
curred in  unanimously: 

"Whereas,  Our  representative,  D.  F.  Per- 
cival, has  introduced  and  caused  to  be  passed  a 
bill  for  the  division  of  Stevens  county,  without 
the  approval  of  a  large  majority  of  his  consti- 
tuents ; 

"Resolved,  That  we  consider  his  act  sec- 
tional and  in  opposition  to  the  wishes  of  the 
citizens  of  this  county  and  very  unjust." 

Of  this  action  Mr.  John  Rickey,  one  of  the 
oldest  and  most  influential  pioneers  says : 

"At  the  time  Spokane  was  cut  off  from 
Stevens  county.  Mr.  Percival.  of  Cheney,  was 
our  representative  in  the  Washington  Terri- 
torial  legislature.     The  people  of  the  present 


county  of  Stevens  did  not  desire  a  division  of 
the  county  at  this  time,  but  it  was  generally 
understood  that  when  the  division  was  made 
the  northern  boundary  of  Spokane  county  was 
to  be  the  Spokane  river.  Mr.  Percival  was 
elected  by  votes  from  this  part  of  the  county 
with  this  understanding,  but  when  he  reached 
Olympia  he  immediately  introduced,  and  se- 
cured the  passage  of  a  bill  creating  the  county 
of  Spokane  with  its  present  boundaries." 

Mr.  Rickey  adds  the  following  reminis- 
cence of  this  eventful  year : 

"I  remember  one  very  exciting  incident  in 
the  history  of  the  'Old  Town.'  It  was  in  the 
year  1879  that  the  old  log  jail  burned,  and  for  a 
short  time  there  was  as  much  excitement  as 
would  be  occasioned  by  an  Indian  outbreak.  In 
fact  the  fire  was  caused  by  an  Indian  outbreak 
— an  Indian  breaking  out  of  the  old  jail. 
'Apache  Joe"  was  the  Indian's  name,  and  he 
was  serving  a  sentence  for  arson,  having  set 
fire  to  some  hay.  The  Indian  dug  his  way  out 
of  the  jail,  but  before  taking  his  liberty  he  set 
fire  to  the  building.  I  was  attending  court  at 
the  time  and  was  sleeping  that  night  in  the 
court  house,  when  I  was  awakened  by  the 
most  unearthly  cries  I  ever  heard,  apparently 
coming  from  the  jail.  When  I  got  my  clothes 
on  and  rushed  out  the  jail  building  was  a  mass 
of  flames  and  the  cries  were  coming  from  a 
prisoner  named  Thomas,  who  was  serving  a 
thirty  days'  sentence  for  petit  larceny,  and  who 
was  now  locked  up  in  one  of  the  cells  of  the 
burning  building.  Several  persons  had  arrived 
on  the  scene  by  this  time,  and  by  using  the 
trunk  of  a  tree  which  was  handy,  for  a  batter- 
ing ram,  we  burst  open  the  door  of  the  jail  and 
rescued  the  terrified  prisoner.  Thomas'  clothes 
had  caught  fire,  but  after  extinguishing  the 
flames  he  was  found  to  be  not  much  the  worse 
for  his  experience." 

The  Territorial  legislature  of  1883  had  en- 
acted a  law  making  the  "town  of  Colville  the 
county  seat  of  Stevens  county."  At  this  period 
the  records  of  tlie  commissioners  showed  no 

town  of  Colville  in  existence,  that  is  no  legally 
filed  plat  of  such  a  town  and,  accordingly,  May 
20,  1883,  there  was  filed  for  record  by  J.  W. 
Still  a  plat  of  the  present  capital  of  Stevens 
county,  February  28,  1883,  the  town  had  been 
dedicated  by  W.  F.  Hooker  and  Mary  J. 
Hooker,  his  wife,  from  land  owned  by  John  U. 
Hofstetter  and  John  Wynne.  May  2,  1881,  at 
Pinkney  City,  bids  for  the  erection  of  a  new 
jail  had  been  submitted  by  the  commissioners, 
the  contract  being  awarded  to  R.  H.  Douglas 
on  his,  lowest,  bid  of  $1,200.  For  the  purpose 
of  providing  this  structure  a  tax  of  ten  mills  on 
the  dollar  was  levied,  and  the  same  year  the 
new  jail  was  completed  at  Pinkney  City. 

Thus  there  was  a  new  county  seat,  named 
Colville,  but  the  county  business  was  transacted 
at  Pinkney  City;  there  the  jail  was  located  and 
there  the  county  records  were  kept  until  1883. 
December  28,  of  that  year  the  commissioners 
convened  in  special  session  to  consider  the  prop- 
osition of  removing  the  records  to  the  legalized 
county  seat.  The  full  board,  comprising 
George  Waitte,  Adam  Boyd  and  John  U.  Hof- 
stetter were  present,  together  with  Fred  Keil- 
ing,  sheriff,  and  H.  H.  Oliver,  clerk.  In  the 
matter  of  removing  the  county  records  it  was 
ordered  that,   in  compliance  with  the  law  of 

1883,  they  be  taken  to  Colville  by  January  i, 

1884.  The  privilege  of  removing  the  jail  to 
the  new  town  free  of  cost  to  the  taxpayers  of 
the  county,  was  extended  to  the  proprietors  of 
the  new  town  of  Colville,  with  a  proviso  that 
they  donate  a  block  of  land  for  the  purposes  of 
county  buildings.  At  Colville  an  office  for  the 
transaction  of  the  business  of  the  county  audi- 
tor was  furnished  by  John  U.  Hofstetter  at  a 
monthly  rental  of  $9,  and  one  room  for  the 
joint  occupancy  of  court  and  sheriff  at  the 
same  rental.  Until  the  succeeding  February 
meeting  Mr.  Hofstetter  undertook  to  furnish 
the  county  treasurer  an  office  free  of  charge. 
At  the  commissioners  meeting  of  February  26, 
1884,  the  question  of  the  location  of  the  jail  in 
the  new  town  was  considered.     It  was  finallv 


agreed  among  the  commissioners  that  if  Mr. 
John  Wynne  would  donate  five  lots  in  Block 
No.  lo,  town  of  Colville,  the  jail  and  other 
county  buildings  should  be  located  thereon; 
otherwise  the  buildings  to  be  placed  on  lots  be- 
longing to  Mr.  Hofstetter  in  Block  No.  14.  It 
appears  that  satisfactory  arrangements  could 
not  be  concluded  with  Mr.  Wynne,  for  on  De- 
cember 31,  1884,  we  find  that  a  deed  was  pre- 
sented to  the  county  of  Stevens  by  W.  F. 
Hooker,  andi  Mary  J.  Hooker,  of  Spokane 
county,  for  "Block  No.  14,  in  the  town  of 
Colville."  No  county  buildings  were  com- 
pleted, however,  at  the  time  of  the  commis- 
sioners' meeting  of  February  2,  1885,  for  the 
board  met  on  that  date  in  various  private  resi- 
dences. John  U.  Hofstetter  moved  the  jail 
from  Pinkney  City  free  of  charge  to  the  county. 

January  3,  1885,  the  report  of  a  committee 
appointed  to  examine  the  financial  condition  of 
the  county  was  submitted  to  the  commission- 
ers showing  the  total  indebtedness  to  have  been 
reduced  to  $1,471.60.  This  committee  con- 
sisted of  S.  Douglas  and  William  Moore. 
Measures  were  then  taken  to  dispose  of  the  old 
court  house  at  Pinkney  City.  At  the  commis- 
sioners' meeting  of  February  3,  1885,  it  was 
ordered  that  "the  sheriff,  after  taking  what 
lumber  he  needs  for  offices  in  the  jail,  post  no- 
tice and  sell  at  public  auction  to  the  highest  bid- 
der, on  four  or  six  months'  time,  on  good  en- 
dorsed notes,  the  court  house  in  the  old  town  of 
Colville."  This  sale  was  approved  by  the  com- 
missioners May  8,  1885. 

March  6,  1886,  a  special  meeting  of  the 
commissioners  of  Stevens  county  was  held  at 
the  request  of  Jacob  Stitzel,  chairman  of  a 
committee  appointed  to  promote  the  erection  of 
a  new  court  house.  Nothing  appears  to  have 
"been  done  at  this  meeting,  but  on  August  12,  the 
commissioners  decided  to  submit  at  the  next 
general  election,  a  proposition  to  vote  to  levy  a 
special  tax  for  the  purpose  of  building  a  suit- 
able court  house  at  an  estimated  cost  of  $3,500. 
But  at  a  subsequent  meeting  held  November 

II,  the  board  decided  to  purchase  an  edifice 
known  as  the  "Oppenheimer  building,"  for 
court  house  purposes  and  it  was  deeded  to  the 
county  by  E.  Oppenheimer  and  H.  K.  Hansen 
for  the  sum  of  $1,900.  including  two  lots.  D. 
J.  Yeargain  also  secured  the  contract  for  mak- 
ing improvements  to  the  value  of  $243  on  the 
building,  and  here  the  county  records  were 
moved  in  February,  1887. 

In  1886  the  various  election  precincts  of 
the  county,  with  their  voting  places,  were  as 
follows:  Calispel,  residence  of  William  Miller; 
Metaline,  residence  of  Alex.  McLean;  Little 
Dalles,  store  of  Peter  Ellensohn;  Toads 
Schoolar,  residence  of  Alex.  Thorp;  Salmon 
River,  residence  of  D.  J.  McGilvery;  Okano- 
gan, residence  of  G.  Reynolds ;  Old  Dominion, 
house  known  as  Old  Dominion  mining  office; 
Camas  Prairie,  (the  precinct  known  as 
Sequaha)  was  changed  to  Camas  Prairie; 
Thetis;  Walker's  Prairie  and  Clugston  Creek. 

March  13,  1888,  the  commissioners  leased 
the  building  and  vault  then  employed  for  court 
house  purposes,  from  T.  D.  Boyer,  for  a  term 
of  five  years  at  a  yearly  rental  of  $1,000.  Mr. 
Boyer  in  consideration  of  this  contract  exe- 
cuted a  bond  in  the  sum  of  $6,000  conditioned 
that  at  the  expiration  of  the  lease,  and  upon 
payment  of  rent,  he  would  make  over  to  the 
county  a  deed  of  this  property. 

September  10,  1891,  it  was  shown  that  the 
outstanding  warrants  of  Stevens  county 
amounted  to  $53,785.16,  and  that  there  were  on 
hand  no  available  funds  with  which  to  redeem 
them.  At  the  .preceding  assessment  the  tax- 
able property  in  the  county,  as  shown  by  the 
rolls,  amounted  to  $2,510,019.  It  was  deemed 
expedient  by  the  commissioners  to  issue  a  call 
for  a  special  election,  October  13,  to  vote  upon 
a  proposition  to  issue  $60,000  in  county  bonds. 
Meanwhile  the  supreme  court  of  the  State  of 
Washington,  which  had  been  admitted  into  the 
union  in  1889,  had  rendered  an  opinion  afifect- 
ing  the  validity  of  the  issuance  of  the  bonds 
proposed  by  the  commissioners  at  their  meet- 



ing  of  September  lo.  In  consequence  of  this 
adverse  decision  the  following  was  spread  upon 
the  records  of  the  county : 

"It  is  ordered  that  any  and  all  orders  here- 
tofore made  relative  to  the  issuance  of  said 
bonds,  and  notice  of  an  election  therefor,  be 
and  the  same  are  hereby,  revoked  and  vacated." 

Then  the  board  advertised  to  sell  bonds  to 
the  amount  of  $35,000,  or  not  to  exceed  one 
and  one-half  per  cent  of  the  assessed  value  of 
the  county,  and  on  September  25  they  ordered 
to  be  issued  thirty-five  funding  bonds  of  Stev- 
ens county  for  the  sum  of  $1,000  each,  dating 
December  i.  1891,  and  maturing  December  i, 
191 1,  at  six  per  cent,  interest.  The  money 
realized  from  the  sale  of  these  bonds  was  to  be 
employed  exclusively  in  liquidating  the  long- 
est outstanding  warrants,  these  warrants  dat- 
ing back  to  November  5,  1885,  the  principal 
and  interest  of  which  aggregated  $33,644.47. 

Almost  synchronal  with  the  admission  of 
Washington  into  the  union  began  the  agita- 
tion for  a  railroad  within  the  present  limits  of 
Stevens  county.  The  rapidity  with  which  the 
project  gained  headway,  and  the  celerity  with 
which  the  greatly  desired  railway  development 
of  the  county  was  pushed  to  completion  is  ener- 
getically described  by  Mr.  Randall  H.  Kemp, 
of  Spokane,  in  the  Colville  Miner  of  date  Sep- 
tember 12,  1890: 

A  year  ago  last  February,  when  D.  C.  Corbin.  .A..  A. 
Newbury  and  James  Monaghan  returned  (to  Spokane) 
from  a  trip  of  nearly  three  hundred  miles,  made  on 
runners,  whereby  they  looked  out  the  proposed  route  of 
the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  Railway,  the  foundation 
was  commenced  on  which  one  of  the  most  important 
business  enterprises  beneficial  to  Spokane  Falls  and  a 
vast  area  of  country  was  reared.  A  person  does  not 
have  to  be  an  old  timer  to  remember  the  alacrity  with 
which  the  people  of  this  progressive  city  accepted  Mr. 
Corbin's  request  for  a  bonus  of  $100,000  which  should 
be  guaranteed  before  he  commenced  the  construction  of 
the  road. 

The  board  of  trade  took  an  active  interest  in  the 
matter;  the  banker  left  his  counting  room,  the  editor 
his  chair,  and  the  merchant  his  ledger;  the  entire  popu- 
lation of  the  city  appeared  to  consider  themselves  a 
committee,  and  before  they  scarcely  paused  to  take 
breath    this    sum    was   pledged    and    D,    C.    Corbin,    the 

railroad  magnate  of  the  northwest,  was  actively  engaged 
in  the  construction  of  this  line  which  is  rapidly  becom- 
ing a  great  artery  of  commerce.  Like  all  successful 
business  men  possessing  that  rare  faculty  called  genius, 
he  selected  a  staff  of  aides  and  assistants  from  the  best 
material  to  be  found,  and  from  its  inception  up  to  the 
present,  the  carrying  out  of  this  coUossal  scheme  has 
moved  with  the  precision  of  a  well-regulated  clock. 

It  appears  almost  incredible  that  such  a  perfect 
road  as  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  could  be  equipped 
in  such  a  short  time,  and  the  benefit  that  it  has  been  to 
the  Colville  and  upper  Columbia  country,  and  this  city 
(Spokane)  as  well,  can  scarcely  be  realized.  The  days 
of  the  lumbering  stage  coach,  the  heavy  freight  wagon 
and  the  slow  cayuse  method  of  traveling  are  numbered 
among  the  things  that  were,  and  another  rich  section 
of  the  great  northwest  has  received  the  benefits  of  one 
of  the  great  equalizers,  a  modern  railway. 

The  forthcoming  opening  of  the  World's 
Fair  at  Chicago,  in  1893,  created  considerable 
patriotic  interest  in  Stevens  county,  and  it  was 
almost  universal  opinion  that  the  mineralized 
deposits  within  her  boundaries  should  be  suit- 
ably represented  at  the  great  international  ex- 
position. May  6,  1892,  an  appropriation  of 
$1,200  was  made  for  the  purpose  of  enabling 
George  Pfunder  to  transfer  various  specimens 
of  ores  from  the  different  mines  of  the  county 
to  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  depots. 

The  initial  agitation  for  removal  of  the 
county  seat  from  Colville  was  in  1892.  At  the 
commissioners'  meeting  of  August  20,  a  peti- 
tion was  presented  for  removal  of  the  capital 
of  Stevens  county  from  Colville  to  Chewelah, 
the  question  to  be  submitted  at  the  next  general 
election.  October  6  a  petition  signed  by  one 
hundred  and  twenty-four  voters  was  filed  with 
the  board  praying  for  removal  of  the  county 
seat  to  Kettle  Falls,  the  question  to  be  passed 
upon  at  the  same  election.  .  This  latter  petition 
was  opposed  by  Commissioner  A.  T.  Williams, 
who  advanced  the  cogent  reasons  that  election 
notices,  including  the  Chewelah  proposition 
were  already  posted  and  that  in  his  opinion  the 
petition  did  not  carry  the  requisite  number  of 
signatures.  Throughout  the  day  the  matter 
was  debated  with  no  little  animation  by  the 
commissioners,  and  on  the  7th,  the  day  fol- 
lowing, a  coup  was  sprung  by  a  combination  of 



Colville  and  Springdale  people,  in  the  shape  of 
a  petition  signed  by  fifty-one  voters  praying  for 
removal  of  the  county  seat  to  Springdale.  Con- 
cerning this  critical  moment  in  county  affairs 
Mr.  John  Rickey  says : 

"After  Chewelah  and  Kettle  Falls  entered 
the  race  for  the  county  seat  Colville,  fearing 
that  the  necessary  three-fifths  votes  might  be 
secured  in  favor  of  Chewelah,  induced  the  town 
of  Springdale  to  enter  the  race  and  thus  draw 
votes  from  the  southern  portion  of  the  county 
which  otherwise  might  go  to  Chewelah.  The 
people  of  Springdale  were  loyal  to  Colville  and 
promptly  entered  the  race." 

Consistency  demanded  of  Commissioner 
Williams  that  he,  also,  oppose  the  Springdale 
petition,  although  it  is  quite  probable  that  he 
saw  and  sympathized  with  the  strategic  move- 
ment in  behalf  of  Colville.  He  was,  however, 
outvoted  in  the  board,  and  November  8  the 
general  election  was  held  with  the  following 
result : 

For  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  from  its  present 

location   at    Colville   to    Chewelah 330 

Against   Chewelah    .> 3SI 

For   Kettle    Falls.  . .' 599 

Against    Kettle    Falls 352 

For    Springdale    14 

Against   Springdale    345 

At  a  subsequent  meeting  of  the  Commis- 
sioners November  15,  C.  K.  Simpson  and  E. 
W.  Weston,  a  majority  of  the  board,  assumed 
the  position  that  Kettle  Falls  had  won  the 
county  seat  at  the  polls.  To  this  Commissioner 
Williams  dissented.  Simpson  and  Weston 
urged  that  Kettle  Falls  had  received  a  three- 
fifths  vote  as  between  that  town  and  Colville; 
Williams  insisted  that  a  three-fifths  vote  of  the 
entire  poll  was  required.  Kettle  Falls  was  de- 
clared the  county  seat  and  preparations  were 
made  to  remove  the  records.  Then  John  Rickey 
and  Harry  Young,  in  behalf  of  Colville,  began 
suit  against  the  county  commissioners  to  set 
aside  their  decision,  and  they  secured  from  the 
superior  court  a  restraining  order  of  which  the 
following  in  a  syllabus : 

It  is  ordered  that  the  above  named  defendants  do 
absolutely  refrain  from  in  any  manner  removing  or  at- 
tempting to  remove  any  of  the  public  records,  public 
books  and  appurtenances  of  said  county  from  the  present 
county  seat  to  the  city  of  Kettle  Falls  in  said  county, 
or  elsewhere,  and  to  absolutely  refrain  from  establish- 
ing or  attempting  to  establish  the  county  seat  of  said 
county  of  Stevens  at  the  said  city  of  Kettle  Falls,  or 
elsewhere,  and  to  refrain  froin  moving  or  attempting  to 
remove  said  county  seat  and  all  papers,  books,  records, 
offices  and  files  from  the  city  of  Colville,  in  said  county, 
to  the  said  city  of  Kettle  Falls,  or  elsewhere,  or  in  tak- 
ing any  steps  or  making  any  contracts  in  furtherance 
thereof,  or  from  doing  any  of  the  matters  or  things 
contemplated  of  in  plaintiffs'  complaint,  until  the  further 
order  of  the  court ;  and  that  they  show  cause  before  this 
court,  at  the  hour  of  10  o'clock  a.  m.,  on  the  25th 
day  of  November,  1892,  why  this  order  should  not  be 
continued  until  the  final  hearing  of  this  cause. 

This  order  was  signed  by  R.  B.  Blake, 
judge.  The  hearing  of  Colville's  motion  to 
make  the  restraining  order  permanent  against 
the  commissioners  was  heard  December  2, 
1892,  by  Judge  Blake,  and  was  by  him  sus- 
tained. The  city  of  Colville  was  represented 
by  T.  C.  Griffitts;  Kettle  Falls  by  Post  & 
Avery.  The  complaint  filed  with  the  restrain- 
ing order  set  forth  the  facts  of  the  election  and 
the  grounds  upon  which  the  order  was  based. 
One  of  these  was  that  the  petition  upon  which 
Kettle  Falls  entered  the  race  in  no  particular 
complied  with  the  law,  and  setting  forth  further 
that  Chewelah  was  the  only  legal  contestant 
for  the  county  seat.  The  case  was  carried  to 
the  supreme  court  of  the  state.  Here  it  re- 
mained until  March  29,  1894,  when  the  court 
handed  down  a  decision,  brief  as  could  be  de- 
sired, stating  that  the  whole  proceedings  were 
a  nullity  from  their  very  inception.  The  no- 
tices were  irregular  and  the  county  commis- 
sioners had  not  the  right  to  submit  the  Kettle 
Falls  proposition  upon  the  showing  presented. 

December  19,  1892,  the  census  returns  of 
Stevens  county  returned  a  population  of  5,543- 
Under  provision  of  the  state  law  it  was  then 
declared  by  the  commissioners  to  be  a  county 
of  the  twentieth  class,  and  salaries  of  officials 
were  raised  accordingly. 

Mondav  evening.   May   10,    1893,  Colville 



Valley  was  visited  by  the  most  disastrous 
flood  ever  experienced  in  its  recorded  history. 
Its  main  force  was  spent  near  the  station  of 
Sherwood,  on  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern 
Railroad,  ten  miles  south  of  Colville.  It  is 
estimated  by  residents  in  the  neighborhood  of 
this  sudden  inundation  that  had  a  city  the  size 
of  Johnstown,  Pennsylvania,  been  situated  in 
the  path  of  this  destructive  element  the  result- 
ant loss  of  life  and  property  would  have  been 
little  less  than  that  of  the  unfortunate  town  in 
the  Keystone  State.  The  circumstances  were 
remarkably  similar.  A  short  time  prior  to  this 
flood  in  the  Colville  Valley  an  earth-avalanche 
from  the  north  side  of  Iron  Mountain  had 
fallen  into  the  canyon  at  a  point  four  miles  east 
of  the  Colville  river,  forming  a  dam  across  the 
ravine  nearly  one  hundred  feet  high.  Along 
the  bottom  of  this  ravine  flowed  the  waters  of 
a  small  creek,  and  thus  arrested  by  the  natural 
dam  formed  by  the  landslide,  they  soon  as- 
sumed the  magnitude  of  a  mighty  lake,  nearly 
ninety  feet  in  depth.  The  consequent  heavy 
pressure  against  the  dam  caused  a  sudden  break 
of  the  imprisoned  waters,  and  what  was  once  a 
peaceful,  rippling  brook,  became  an  irrisistible 
torrent  that  swept  all  before  it,  covering  the 
surrounding  country  with  four  feet  of  mud, 
and  debris,  destroying  the  crops  of  many  farms 
and  sweeping  away  the  homes,  fences,  and  out- 
buildings of  the  inhabitants.  Huge  boulders 
were  rolled  along  by  the  on-rush  of  waters, 
snapping  large  trees  like  pipe-stems  in  their 
furious  race  down  the  ravine.  Thomas  J.  Pat- 
ton,  a  well-known  and  industrious  farmer  who 
lived  on  the  beautiful  spread  of  prairie  that 
widens  out  at  the  lower  end  of  the  canyon  to  a 
width  of  a  mile  and  a  half,  escaped  with  his 
family,  but  was  compelled  to  witness  the  com- 
plete destruction  of  his  spring's  crop. 

At  seven  o'clock  in  the  evening  parties  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  disaster  heard  a  distant 
rumbling  which  was  not  thunder,  but  might 
be  a  seismic  disturbance.  At  first  the  direction 
from  which  the  detonations  proceeded  was  not 

located,  but  as  they  became  more  distinct  and 
at  frequent  intervals  the  awful  truth  burst  upon 
them  that  an  avalanche  of  timbers,  rocks,  debris 
and  turbid  water  was  pouring  down  upon  the 
pretty  pastor  valley.  Scarcely  had  the  family 
of  Mr.  Patton  reached  safety  on  the  side  of  a 
hill  when  a  wall  of  water  forty  feet  in  height 
poured  past  them,  breaking  from  the  timber  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  above  their  house,  and  spread- 
ing over  the  prairie  farms  to  a  depth  of  four 
feet.  The  track  of  the  Spokane  Falls  &  North- 
ern Railroad  was  covered  with  mud  for  the  dis- 
tance of  several  hundred  feet,  trains  being  com- 
pelled to  transfer  passengers  the  following  day 
across  the  break  with  teams.  It  was  a  disaster 
that  would  have  proved  far  more  appaling  had 
the  county  at  the  time  been  more  thickly 

At  a  special  election  held  July  6,  1893. 
bonds  to  the  amount  of  $65,000  were  voted  for 
the  purpose  of  liquidating  current  expenses  of 
the  county,  the  necessary  three-fifths  of  the  vot- 
ing population  concurring  in  the  proposition. 
The  State  of  Washington  became  a  purchaser 
of  $20,000  of  these  bonds ;  the  remainder  were 
sold  to  Roberts  Brothers. 

The  heavy  hand  of  financial  disaster  and  the 
"hard  times"  of  1893  fell  upon  the  residents  of 
Stevens  county,  but  this  temporary  depression 
did  not  more  seriously  afifect  them  than  it  did 
those  in  other  localities  throughout  the  country. 
Officially  the  county,  through  the  careful  ad- 
ministration of  Treasurer  Frank  B.  Goetter, 
escaped  a  loss  of  $15,000,  deposited  in  the  Citi- 
zens National  Bank  of  Spokane.  Reviewing 
the  financial  condition  of  the  county  with  some 
attention  Mr.  Goetter  came  to  a  conclusion. 
June  I,  that  he  would  no  longer  entrust  the 
funds  in  his  charge  to  a  foreign  corporation, 
and  he  transferred  his  account  to  the  Bank  of 
Colville  which  had  guaranteed  him  against 
loss.  Within  a  few  days  the  suspension  of  the 
Citizens  National  Bank  of  Spokane  was  an- 

The  following  resume  of  damage  causetl  by 



a  wind  storm  of  June  3,  1894,  published  in  the 
Colville  Index  of  the  7th  is  of  interest : 

Last  Sunday  afternoon  about  3  o'clock  a  storm  of 
wind,  rain  thunder  and  lightning  swept  from  south 
to  north  over  the  entire  surface  of  the  county,  laying 
waste  great  forests  of  timber,  destroying  fences,  trun- 
ing  over  houses  and  doing  damage  in  many  other  ways. 
In  Colville  the  storm  was  not  so  severe  as  in  other 
places.  Signs  were  blown  down,  trees  uprooted  in  some 
portions  of  the  city,  but  the  only  damage  to  buildings 
worth  speaking  of  was  the  dislodgment  of  the  front  of 
William  Prindle's  blacksmith  shop. 

At  Kettle  Falls  much  damage  was  wrought  by 
destruction  of  buildings.  The  large  two-story  building 
of  W.  R.  Noteware  was  severed  in  twain,  the  upper 
story  being  swept  away.  The  Curry  block  was  smashed 
by  a  falling  tree,  and  the  hardware  store  building  of 
J.  P.  Fogh  was  injured  very  materially.  The  roof  was 
lifted  from  the  Kettle  Falls  sash  and  door  factory,  and 
a  barn  of  Louis  Blue  was  completely   demolished. 

In  the  neighborhood  of  Daisy  and  Harvey  the  force 
of  the  storm  was  terrific.  No  loss  of  life  is  reported, 
but  there  was  much  property  rendered  worthless.  Fay 
Ledgerwood  had  one  horse  killed ;  H.  L.  Childs  sus- 
tained the  loss  of  three  cows ;  Dr.  Weston  had  two  cows 
killed  and  a  number  crippled ;  Mr.  Tipton  had  three 
cows  crippled  and  Fritz  Bowren's  barn  was  blown  over. 
With  relation  to  the  storm  at  Daisy  our  correspondent 
tells  us :  "This  section  of  the  country  is  in  a  deplorable 
condition.  The  roads  are  almost  impassable.  The  best 
of  the  timber  is  destroyed,  the  majority  of  the  trees 
being  broken  off  about  half  way  up  the  tree,  making  them 
useless  except  for  fuel.  The  mails  have  to  be  carried  on 
horseback,  and  the  fact  is  the  whole  Columbia  river 
valley  has  the  appearance  of  having  been  visited  by  a 
Kansas    cyclone." 

In  Echo  Valley  the  roads  are  in  a  terrible  state, 
and  the  authorities  are  exerting  every  effort  to  get  them 
cleared  of  obstructions  as  soon  as  possible.  From  Addy 
our  correspondent  writes  that  much  damage  was  done 
to  small  buildings,  fencing  and  roads.  No  one  has  been 
reported  injured,  but  a  horse  was  found  in  a  mud-hole 
with  a  tree  across  its  prostrate  anatomy,  but  was  nnt 

At  Chewelah  the  storm  struck  with  all  the  fury  of 
a  cyclone.  The  fine  forest  of  timber  in  Jenkin's  ad- 
dition was  literally  mowed  to  the  ground  like  grass. 
A  number  of  houses  were  moved  bodily  several  inches 
from  their  foundations,  fences  were  strewn  in  all  direc- 
tions and  many  horses  killed.  The  big  tent  in  which  the 
Free  Methodists  were  holding  services  at  the  time  was 
blown  down,  and  the  throng  of  people  who  had  gathered 
there  had  narrow  escapes  from  death  by  trees  falling. 
The  G.  A.  R.  hall  was  laid  in  ruins  and  is  a  total  loss. 
On  Monday  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  train  was 
delayed  over  an  hour  in  the  timber  a  short  distance 
north   of   town,   owing   to   the   great    numlier   of    fallen 

trees  on  the  track.  The  telegraph  wires  were  broken 
in  several  places  and  communication  was  cut  off  in  all 

News  of  the  storm  comes  from  many  other  places, 
but  the  same  results  in  a  much  lighter  degree  are  re- 
ported. It  was  undoubtedly  the  most  disastrous  storm 
that  has  yet  visited  this  portion  of  the  northwest. 

The  year  1894  will  be  memorable  for  a 
flood  of  vast  proportions  swelling  the  Columbia 
river  far  above  the  danger  point.  Nothing  like 
it  had  been  known  before  in  the  history  of  east- 
ern Washingtoh  since  its  settlement  by  whites. 
At  the  Cascades  the  stage  of  water  is  said  to 
have  been  about  the  same  as  at  the  great  flood 
of  1862,  but  this  statement  is  not  supported  by 
evidence  in  the  vicinities  of  Kettle  Falls,  Mar- 
cus and  other  places.  At  Boundary  City  the 
waters  flowed  and  lashed  themselves  furiously 
around  the  city  limits  and  at  Northport  the 
menacing  element  stood  over  a  foot  deep  on  the 
floor  of  the  railway  station.  Many  residents 
removed  to  the  suburbs,  on  higher  ground. 
The  fine  residence  of  Mr.  Bishop  was  sur- 
rounded by  water  to  its  eaves.  The  house  ot 
Hugo  Moser,  with  all  its  furniture  was  swept 
away  down  the  river,  together  with  about  sev- 
enty cords  of  wood.  The  sawmill  and  sheds  of 
the  Northport  Lumber  Company  were  greatly 
damaged  and  much  of  the  lumber  carried  away 
and  irretrievably  lost. 

Railroad  bridges  were  washed  away  at  the 
mouth  of  Onion  creek  and  a  large  portion  of 
the  trackage  temporarily  ruined.  At  the  Little 
Dalles  Peter  Ellensohn's  warehouse  was  com- 
pletely ruined.  Two  miles  of  track  were 
washed  out  at  Seven  Devils,  and  at  Marcus  the 
building  occupied  by  Feldman  &  Company,  as 
well  as  other  stores  and  warehouses,  stood  in  a 
depth  of  two  feet  of  water.  Repairs  on  the 
Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railway  cost  $250,- 
000.  As  the  banks  on  the  reservation  side  of 
the  river  are  low  the  loss  to  the  Indians  was 
considerable,  although  no  pecuniary  estimate 
of  this  was  ever  made. 

In  Stevens  county  the  year  1894  witnessed 
a  gratifying  rebound  from  the  disastrous  "hard 



times."  The  privileges  of  a  cash  market  for 
the  various  products  of  the  county  were  better 
than  ever  before  known.  The  British  Colum- 
bia mining  regions  became  an  unvarying  source 
of  profit  to  the  agricultural  producers  of  the 
northern  portion  of  the  county.  All  varieties 
of  products  were  in  constant  demand,  and  it  is 
a  gratifying  fact  that  the  demand  constantly  in- 
creased as  the  years  went  by.  And  this,  too,  in 
the  face  of  a  heavy  Canadian  tariff  levied  upon 
goods  of  all  descriptions.  But  it  is  a  cash  mar- 
ket, and  the  close  contiguity  of  this  section  of 
the  county  to  the  Canadian  mineral  fields 
greatly  favors  this  section. 

Agitation  for  a  telephone  service  in  the 
county  dates  from  January,  1895.  The  pro- 
moter of  this  enterprise  was  W.  B.  Aris,  of 
Kettle  Falls.  He  procured  the  passage  of  a 
resolution  by  the  county  commissioners  grant- 
ing him  a  franchise  to  construct  and  maintain 
a  system  of  telephone  lines  along  the  public 
highways  of  Stevens  county,  including  all  the 
principal  train  centers.  February  4  the  Inter- 
national Telegraph  and  Telephone  Company 
was  organized  and  articles  of  compact  for- 
warded to  the  secretary  of  state,  at  Olympia. 
Incorporators  and  trustees  were  W.  B.  Aris, 
F.  W.  Sherman,  and  J-  H.  Young.  The  capi- 
tal stock  was  fixed  at  $25,000,  divided  into 
shares  of  $10  each.  Headquarter  offices  were 
located  at  Colville.  February  i  the  organiza- 
tion was  made  permanent  with  W.  B.  Aris,  of 
Kettle  Falls,  president,  J.  Harry  Young,  of 
Colville,  vice-president,  S.  W.  Washburn  and 
F.  W.  Sherman,  of  Kettle  Falls,  secretary  and 
general  manager,  respectively.  The  same  year 
the  company  was  taken  over  by  the  Pacific 
States  Telegraph  and  Telephone  Company, 
which  now  controls  the  same,  reaching  all  the 
principal  points  in  the  county. 

During  the  spring  of  1895  considerable 
complaint  was  heard  on  all  sides  concerning 
alleged  injustice  being  done  the  Indians  by  set- 
tlers in  the  Calispell  Valley,  and  other  portions 
of  the  county.     It  was  claimed  by  a  number  of 

newspaper  correspondents  that  white  settlers 
were  appropriating  Indian  lands.  On  May  4, 
of  that  year  a  correspondent  at  Usk  forwarded 
the  following  item  to  the  Colville  Index : 

"Three  Indians  held  up  three  white  men 
while  hauling  fence  posts  to  fence  their  ranch 
on  the  east  side  of  the  Fend  d'Oreille  river. 
The  case  is  this:  Twenty -three  Indians  claim 
fifty  square  miles  on  that  side  of  the  river. 
When  the  Indians  could  not  stop  the  boys  from 
fencing  their  ranch,  one  renegade  Indian 
named  Sam  took  an  iron  bar  from  beneath  his 
blanket,  then  all  three  rushed  upon  the  boys. 
One  was  lucky  enough  to  have  a  six-shooter, 
so  he  was  able  to  stave  them  off.  The  Indians 
then  started  home  for  their  guns  and  said  that 
they  would  kill  every  one  of  them.  The  boys 
soon  saw  them  coming  with  their  guns  and 
they  had  to  take  to  the  woods  for  protection. 
It  is  about  time  something  is  done  with  these 
'government  pets,'  either  removed  or  placed 
on  other  ranches  so  that  other  settlers  can  have 
some  peace.  It  was  only  last  summer  that  they 
stole  everything  that  they  could  lay  their  hands 
on  while  the  settlers  were  trying  to  save  their 
little  all  from  the  floods,  and  at  that  time  a 
petition  with  over  one  hundred  and  fifty  signers 
was  handed  to  Hon.  John  L.  Wilson  to  have 
the  'pets'  removed.  We  suppose  when  the 
settlers  are  all  robbed  or  murdered  the  govern- 
ment will  then  be  ready  to  settle  with  the  In- 

Possibly  it  was  this  article,  but  perhaps 
more  ample  testimony  that  induced  Mr.  Robert 
Fountain  to  publish  the  following  explanatory 
statement  of  existing  conditions  at  that  period : 

Seven  years  ago  this  vallej-  (Calispell)  was  un- 
settled and  almost  unknown,  the  first  settlers  being  com- 
pelled to  hew  a  road  through  dense  forests,  find  in- 
gress through  rough  and  rocky  canyons  and  deep 
swamps.  It  was  due  to  their  invincible  grit  and  enter- 
prise that  the  valley  has  reached  its  present  state  of 
cultivation  and  prosperity.  It  was  supposed  by  the  first 
settlers  that  we  were  outside  of  the  railroad  limit,  but 
the  government  survey  made  three  years  ago  disclosed 
a  contrary  condition,  as  many  who  had  located  here 
found     themselves     on     railroad     land.       Many     hardy 



pioneers  who  had  located  homesteads  and  pre-emptions, 
thinking  they  had  secured  a  home,  and  made  valuable 
improvements,  on  ascertaining  that  their  land  was  em- 
braced in  the  Northern  Pacific  forty-mile  limit,  became 
discouraged  and  abandoned  their  homes.  Others  re- 
mained, hoping  to  purchase  when  the  land  came  into 
market.  They  had  become  attached  to  the  country  and 
had  great  confidence  in  its  future.  Such  is  a  fair  state- 
ment of  the  conditions  of  the  white  settlers.  Now  as  to 
the  Indians. 

Though  they  are  generally  known  as  Calispels,  out- 
side of  a  few  descendants  of  old  Petoll,  who  died  four 
years  ago,  there  is  not  one  of  them  who  could  be  called 
a  Calispel.  They  are  composed  of  Spokanes,  Nez  Perces, 
and  Flatheads,  and  with  two  exceptions  they  claim  land 
on  the  east  side  of  the  Pend  d'Oreille  river.  Not  one 
of  them  has  ever  made  an  attempt  to  secure  their  land 
by  filing  since  it  was  open  for  entry  last  May,  and  it 
would  be  hard  to  determine  by  what  right  they  claim 
it.  Some  are  on  railroad  and  others  on  government 
land,  and  when  one  dies  a  stranger  soon  appears  and 
takes  his  place.  A  large  number  of  these  Indians,  un- 
doubtedly, belong  on  some  reservation,  for  they  make 
regular  trips  for  supplies.  The  worst  feature  of  it  is 
that  this  land  is  made  a  rendezvous  for  the  worst  ele- 
ment of  outside  Indians  who  collect  here  in  large  num- 
bers during  the  summer  season,  passing  their  time  in 
gambling,  horse-racing  and  drinking,  to  the  demorali- 
zation of  the  resident  Indians  and  to  the  terror  of  white 
settlers.  Through  the  winter  they  exist  in  a  state  of 
semi-starvation,  very  few  among  them  doing  work  of 
any  kind. 

The  government  has  been  petitioned  to  have  them 
removed  to  some  reservation  and  placed  among  the 
better  class  of  their  people.  It  was  with  this  hope  that 
a  number  of  settlers  who  had  been  left  without  a  home 
settled  on  that  side  of  the  river.  So  long  as  matters  re- 
main in  the  present  condition  troubles  will  occur,  and 
when  the  railroad  lands  come  into  market  trouble  of  a 
more  serious  nature  will  happen.  It  would  be  greatly 
to  the  benefit  of  the  Indians  if  they  were  removed,  for 
there  is  no  hope  of  their  advancement  so  long  as  they 
are  here.  They  are  a  burden  to  the  country  and  an 
agent  who  would  look  to  their  interest  would  take  them 
away.  The  Indians  themeselves  would  profit  by  the 
change  and  a  frightful  incubus  would  be  removed  from 
this    beautiful    valley. 

During  the  fall  of  1896  another  abortive 
attempt  was  made  to  remove  the  capital  of 
Stevens  county  from  Colville.  This  scheme  was 
on  a  most  elaborate  and  magnificent  scale.  It 
included  the  complete  organization  of  a  new 
town  to  be  called  Stevens,  located  near  Kettle 
Falls,  which  Phoenix  like  citv  was  to  embrace 

both  Kettle  Falls  and  Marcus  as  suburbs,  the 
erection  of  a  $10,000  court  house,  and  the  es- 
tablishment of  a  smelter  and  water  power  to 
supply  nearly  the  whole  county.  This  plan  was 
under  the  auspices  of  "The  Stevens  County 
Land  &  Improvement  Company,"  capitalized 
for  $500,000,  and  officered  by  Colonel  I.  N. 
Peyton,  Former  Senator  George  Turner,  Colo- 
nel W.  W.  D.  Turner,  Chris  McDonald,  of 
Rossland,  Custom  Collector  Martin  J.  Malony, 
of  Northport,  Mark  P.  Shaffer,  of  Springdale 
and  Eber  C.  Smith.  The  latter  was  to  be  gen- 
eral manager  of  the  company.  A  weekly  news- 
paper, "The  Stevens  Standard,"  was  started  in 
furtherance  of  the  project.  The  town  of 
Stevens  was  platted  and  it  was  the  announced 
purpose  of  the  company  to  adopt  a  liberal  policy 
toward  all  persons  who  might  decide  to  locate 
there,  not  only  by  the  donation  of  lots  but  by 
making  the  prices  for  real  estate  and  water 
power  reasonable.  But  on  October  9,  1896,  the 
county  commissioners  decided  in  the  matter  of 
Mark  P.  Shaffer,  and  others,  petitioning  for  a 
submission  of  the  proposition  of  removal  to  the 
people,  that  the  petition  had  not  been  filed  in 
time  for  the  county  auditor  to  give  the  required 
statutory  notice  to  the  electors  of  the  county, 
and  accordingly  dismissed  the  petition.  Only 
one  building  in  the  proposed  new  town  of 
Stevens  was  erected.  Some  of  the  original 
projectors,  however,  still  own  a  portion  of  the 
land.  "The  Standard,"  which  published  only 
a  few  issues,  was  printed  in  Kettle  Falls.  Thus 
passed  into  history  the  last  effort  to  remove  the 
capital  of  Stevens  county. 

During  the  same  year  an  area  of  country 
comprising  about  twelve  square  miles  of  terri- 
tory, including  the  Flat  Creek  country,  on  the 
Indian  reservation,  was  the  scene  of  a  most  dis- 
astrous forest  fire.  The  locality  was  heavily 
timbered  and  the  loss  in  valuable  forestry  was 
great.  So  dense  and  threatening  were  the 
flames  that  a  number  of  miners,  the  Ledger- 
wood  Brothers.  Frank  Goodwin,  E.  D.  Miner 



and  others,  were  driven  to  places  of  safety, 
many  losing  heavily  in  buildings,  camp  supplies 
and  implements. 

The  following  spring,  1897,  the  Colville 
river  broke  from  its  banks  and  created  consid- 
erable havoc  among  the  settlers  along  the  lower 
levels  of  the  valley. 

In  the  fall  of  this  year  a  new  county  court 
house  appeared  a  desideratum  devoutly  to  be 
wished.  Accordingly  a  meeting  was  held  at 
Colville,  Saturday  evening,  October  9,  for  the 
furtherance  of  the  plan.  The  following  com- 
mittee of  representative  business  men  was  ap- 
pointed, and  the  project  was  in  full  swing: 
Jacob  Stitsel,  C.  W.  Winter,  Fred  Hoss,  H.  G. 
Kirkpatrick,  E.  M.  Denny,  C.  R.  McMillan  and 
John  Hofstetter.  Subscribers  to  the  stock  of 
the  new  enterprise  were  : 

Fred  Hoss,  $200;  J.  M.  Stevens,  $100;  F. 
Barman,  $250;  Jacob  Stitzel,  $100;  John  B. 
Slater,  $100;  R.  E.  Lee,  $100;  Frank  B.  Goet- 
ter,  $125;  J.  P.  Hessel,  $75;  G.  M.  Welty, 
$100;  Frank  Habein,  $50;  JuHus  Pohle,  $50; 
Louis  Perras,  $50;  V.  Lemery,  $50;  C.  A. 
Mantz,  $50;  Thomas  Aspend,  $40;  Charles 
Lutt,  $50;  W.  D.  Allen,  $50;  H.  G.  Kirk- 
patrick, $50;  P.  H.  Graham,  $10;  C.  R. 
McMillan,  $50;  Mrs.  L.  Flugel,  $50;  Mrs.  J. 
M.  Mohney,  $100;  Swan  Nelson,  $10;  J.  U. 
Hofstetter,  $150;  L.  Rusch,  $60;  R.  M. 
Thomas,  $20;  George  Thomas,  $120;  Henry 
Oakes,  $100;  George  Theis,  $50;  Edward  Gib- 
son, $25 ;  H.  W.  Sacher,  $25 ;  W.  Schmalzer, 
$15;  J.  G.  O.  Mayer,  $50;  E.  J.  Layton,  $25; 
Paul  Battrich,  $15;  John  Hoist,  $25;  J.  D. 
Burris,  $15;  Frank  Rutter,  $25;  John  Rickey, 
$50 ;  James  Fee,  $25  ;  Gardner  &  Baker  $25. 

With  this  nucleus  for  a  fund  for  the  pro- 
posed new  edifice  ground  was  broken  Tuesday, 
November  2,  1897,  and  work  was  pushed  as 
rapidly  as  possible.  It  was  evident  that  the 
people  were  in  earnest  and  contributions  to  the 
fund  continued  to  come  in.  Permission  to  build 
the  structure  and  turn  it  over  to  the  county  for 
official   purposes   only   was   secured    from  the 

commissioners,  the  building  to  be  erected  on 
block  14,  in  the  town  of  Colville,  to  be  a  two- 
story  building,  of  brick,  in  size  40x80  feet.  The 
building  was  destined,  however,  to  be  turned 
over  to  the  county  before  completion.  August 
18,  1898,  the  following  proposition  was  made 
by  the  projectors  and  promoters  of  the  plan : 

"The  undersigned,  citizens  of  Colville  and 
committee  on  court  house  building,  would  re- 
spectfully submit  the  following :  That  the  citi- 
zens of  Colville  and  vicinity  have  contributed  :n 
cash,  subscriptions,  material  and  labor  sufficient 
to  erect  a  court  house  for  Stevens  county  on 
block  14,  original  town  of  Colville,  the  title 
of  said  block  being  vested  in  said  county;  we 
would  further  represent  that  we  have  a  suffic- 
ient amount  of  means  to  enclose  said  building 
and  that  the  roof  will  be  complete;  that  we 
are  not  in  a  position  to  finish  it  at  the  present 
time ;  that  we  estimate  the  cost  of  finishing  the 
building  according  to  plans  and  specifications, 
including  plastering,  painting,  and  windows 
and  work  necessary,  at  about  $1,600;  that 
knowing  the  great  need  of  a  building  for  court 
house  purposes,  we  are  now  ready  to  turn  over 
the  same  to  your  honorable  body,  for  Stevens 
county,  aiming  to  place  on  the  roof,  as  stated, 
by  a  proper  effort;  that  the  building  can  be 
completed  within  the  next  sixty  days  or  sooner ; 
that  we  have  lath  sufficient  for  the  building  and 
$100  paid  toward  the  flooring;  that  all  bills 
contracted  by  said  committee  for  material  and 
labor  will  be  paid  in  full,  except  the  bill  for 
windows  and  doors  that  have  not  yet  been  de- 
livered; and  that  all  subscriptions  remaining 
unpaid  after  all  payments  of  indebtedness  con- 
tracted by  said  committee  will  be  turned  over  to 
the  county. 

"C.  W.  Winter. 
"(Signed)  "Fred  Hoss. 

"Jacob  Stitzel." 


This  proposition  was  accepted  by  the 
county,  John  U.  Hofstetter,  C.  W.  Winter, 
Fred  Hoss,  H.  G.  Kirkpatrick  and  Jacob  Stitzel 



named  as  a  committee  to  take  charge  of  the 
completion  of  the  work,  and  the  same  season 
the  court  house,  a  handsome  edifice  in  the  cen- 
tral portion  of  the  town  of  Colville,  was  occu- 
pied by  the  county  officials. 

In  this  connection  it  is  well  to  indulge  in  a 
ret  jspective  glance  at  the  old  town  of  Pinkney 
City,  the  original  county  seat.  For  maiay  years 
the  town  of  Colville  had  been  in  possession  of 
the  c  pital.  An  item  from  the  Statesman- 
Index,  of  date  October  8,  1897,  puts  in  a  short 
space  the  obituary  of  Pinkney  City  : 

"The  residence  of  Adam  Arnold  was  totally 
destroyed  by  fire  at  about  ten  o'clock  to-day. 
Only  a  portion  of  the  household  goods  were 
saved.  This  is  the  last  of  the  historic  'Old 
Town,'  the  little  burg  near  old  Fort  Colville, 
Mr.  Arnold's  house  being  the  last  habitable 
building  there." 

It  will  have  been  observed  in  the  perusal 
of  this  and  the  preceding  chapter,  devoted  to 
the  material  progress  of  Stevens  county  since 
its  earliest  days,  that  such  progress  has  in- 
creased in  a  most  gratifying  ratio  each  succes- 
sive j^ear.  There  has  been  no  backward  step. 
Monetary  depression  in  1893-4  was  not 
greater,  and  the  recovery  more  sudden,  than 
in  many  other  of  her  sister  counties  in  the 
state.  Great  natural  resources  and  immediate 
proximity  to  what  might  be  termed  the  local 
markets  of  the  Canadian  mineral  fields  have 
largely  contributed  to  these  conditions.  The 
subject  of  current  events  has  been  treated  with 
rather  close  attention  to  chronology,  but  the 
object  in  so  doing  was,  mainly,  to  avoid  any 
confusion  of  dates  in  the  mind  of  the  reader. 
Nothing  so  embarrasses  the  student  of  history 
as  an  abrupt  relapse  to  former  incidents  which 
might,  with  ordinary  care  and  foresight,  have 
been  carried  along  in  their  proper  chronological 
order.  The  same  increasing  ratio  of  advance- 
ment and  prosperity  will  be  noticed  in  the  suc- 
cessive chapters  and  the  wonderful  improve- 
ment in  a  large  variety  of  industries  will  be 
treated  as  fairly  and  candidly  as  careful  re- 

search  and  painstaking  verification  can  accom- 

The  humane  and  judicious  care  of  the  poor 
of  any  community  should  invariably  appeal  to 
all  county  and  municipal  officials.  Until  the 
spring  of  1899  no  suitable  provision  had  been 
made  by  the  Stevens  county  commissioners  in 
the  way  of  a  poor  farm :  the  exclusive  property 
of  the  county.  These  unfortunates  had  in  no- 
wise been  neglected  so  far  as  their  personal 
comfort  was  concerned.  But  as  yet  land  for 
poor  farm  purposes  had  not  been  secured.  In 
April  the  commissioners  purchased  160  acres 
of  land  three  miles  northeast  of  Colville.  The 
price  paid  was  $1,800.  It  is  bench  land,  well 
watered  and  adapted  to  the  growth  of  vari- 
ous grains,  fruits  and  vegetables.  W.  A.  Harb- 
ison, of  Clugston,  was  employed  as  superin- 
tendent who,  assisted  by  Mrs.  Harbison,  re- 
ceived a  salary  of  $700  per  annum.  Buildings 
were  subsequently  erected  and  the  greater  por- 
tion of  the  land  placed  under  cultivation.  In 
the  fall  of  1899  the  treasury  of  the  county  was 
increased  by  the  payment,  from  Ferry  county, 
of  $16,872,  being  her  share  of  joint  indebted- 
ness at  the  period  of  the  formation  of  Ferry, 
that  territory  having  been  the  last  to  be  am- 
putated from  the  once  magnificent  domain  of 
Stevens  county.  The  summer  of  1900  was 
made  notable  by  a  succession  of  forest  fires 
throughout  the  Colville  valley  and  in  other 
sections.  From  these  the  vicinity  of  Spring- 
dale  suffered  to  a  greater  extent,  perhaps,  than 
other  localities.  The  Chewelah  district,  also, 
lost  heavily.  The  origin  of  these  fires  was  at- 
tributed to  the  carelessness  of  campers  and 
sparks  from  railroad  engines.  Fortunately  the 
advent  of  welcome  rainfalls  contributed  to  the 
subjugation  of  these  devastating  flames. 

The  statutes  of  the  state  classifying  coun- 
ties according  to  population  provide  that  a 
county  having  a  population  of  10,000  and  less 
than  12,000  shall  be  known  as  a  county  of  the 
fifteenth  class.  To  such  a  station  had  Stevens 
county   attained    in    December.    1900,    having 


been  raised  by  the  census  from  the  nineteenth 
class.  The  same  law  provides  that  salaries  of 
county  ofificers  shall  be  increased  accordingly, 
and  they  were  fixed  as  follows  :  Auditor,  $145° ! 
Clerk,  $1350;  Treasurer,  $1450;  Sheriff, 
$1450;  Attorney,  $1300;  School  Superinten- 
dent, $1100. 

The  census  of  1900.  by  precincts,  accorded 
Stevens  county  the  following  population : 

Bossburg,  including  Bossburg  village 
(247)  471;  Boundary,  74;  Calispell,  219; 
Chewelah,  614;  Clayton,  189;  Clugston,  295; 
Columbia,  297;  Colville,  including  Colville 
town,  (594)  1 160;  Daisy,  295;  Deep  Creek, 
65;  Diamond  Lake,  125;  Fertile  Valley,  117; 
Flat  Creek,  52;  Forest  Center,  74;  Harvey, 
185;  lone,  9;  Kettle  Falls,  including  Kettle 
Falls  town,  (297)  404:  Lake  Creek,  131  ;  Lit- 
tle Dalles,  63;  Loon  Lake,  280;  McLaughlin, 
227;  Marcus,  219;  Metaline,  12;  Meyers  Falls, 
370;  Mt.  Corbin,  120;  Newport,  453;  North- 
port,  including  Northport  city,  (787)  845  ;  Old 
Dominion,  11;  Riverside,  217;  Rock  Cut,  39; 
Springdale,  267 :  Spring  Valley,  809 ;  Stensger, 
395;  Theris,  356;  Walker's  Prairie,  94;  White 
Lake,  330;  Williams  Valley,  71:  Spokane  In- 
dian Reservation,  589;  Total,  10,543. 

The  initiatory  efforts  in  the  way  of  a 
county  fair  association  were  made  in  May, 
1902.  With  the  many  and  varied  industries  in 
this  county  and  the  recognized  enterprise  of 
her  residents,  it  is  a  matter  of  surprise  that  the 
project  so  long  lay  dormant.  The  unqualified 
success  of  the  fair  held  during  the  closing  days 
of  Septemter,  1903.  addressed  by  Governor 
Henry  McBride,  accentuate  the  truth  of  this 
proposition.  But  the  original  "fair  meeting" 
which  imparted  an  impetus  to  these  agricul- 
tural, stock  and  industrial  expositions  was  held 
at  Colville  in  May,  1902.  Jacob  Stitzel  was 
made  temporary  chairman  and  W.  H.  Sparks 
secretary.  To  incorporate  the  association  and 
act  as  trustees  until  a  permanent  organization 
could  lie  effected  Messrs.  Oakes,  Knapp  and 
Teeple  were  named  as  a  committee.    It  was  tlie 

sense  of  this  meeting,  subsequently  carried  into 
execution,  to  incorporate  the  association  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $20,000,  with  shares  at  $2 
each.  The  organization  was  named  the  "Stev- 
ens County  Producers  Association,"  and  the 
trustees  were  authorized  to  receive  bids  from 
the  different  towns  in  the  county  for  the  place 
of  holding  the  fair.  Thus  the  matter  remained 
until  August  9,  when  it  was  decided  to  hold  the 
initial  exposition  at  Meyers  Falls,  September 
26,  27,"  28,  which  was  accordingly  done,  and 
the  first  annual  fair  of  the  Stevens  County  Pro- 
ducers Association  passed  into  history.  Ex- 
hibits of  every  description  were  above  the  aver- 
age in  quality,  the  fruit  display  being  especially 
fine.  Throughout  the  three  days'  continuation 
of  the  fair  the  attendance  was  fully  up  to  the 
expectations  of  the  most  sanguine. 

In  August  of  this  year,  1902,  one  of  the 
most  important  industries  of  the  county  met 
with  a  great  disaster.  The  story  is  graphically 
told  in  the  columns  of  the  Stevens  County 
Reveille : 

.-^s  a  result  of  fire  which  suddenly  engulfed  the  big 
saw  and  planing  mill  of  the  Winslow  Lumber  Manu- 
facturing Company,  situated  three  miles  south  of  Col- 
ville, last  Tuesday,  August  12,  all  that  is  left  of  the 
largest  lumbering  plant  in  eastern  Washington  is  a  pile 
of  smouldering  ruins — a  chaos  of  iron  and  steel  ma- 
chinery warped  beyond  repair. 

The  origin  of  the  fire  is  not  known,  but  it  is  be- 
lieved to  have  been  due  to  spontaneous  combustion.  The 
mill  had  been  shut  down  for  the  noon  hour  and  the  men 
had  had  scarcely  time  to  comfortably  seat  themselves 
at  dinner  when  the  alarm  of  fire  was  sounded.  The 
employees  are  thoroughly  organized  into  a  very  efficient 
fire  department,  but  before  they  could  reach  their  posts 
the  flames  had  enveloped  the  entire  machinery  building. 
Access  to  the  engine  room  was  cut  oflf  and  pumps  dis- 
abled, leaving  the  men  helpless  to  combat  the  terrible 
heat.  The  sun  was  intensely  hot,  and  it  seemed  im- 
possible to  stay  the  tide  of  impending  conflagration. 
Less  than  cwo  hundred  feet  away,  piled  over  acres  of 
ground  to  the  westward  was  nearly  three  million  feet 
of  lumber.  The  men  rushed  into  a  veritable  firery  furn- 
ace, without  water  and  other  protection,  and  by  sheer 
force  and  determination  tore  away  the  broad  wooden 
tramways  of  lumber  upon  the  yards.  Within  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  feet  of  the  burning  mills  stood  the  dry 
kiln  which  was,  also,  saved  from  destruction.  There  is 
no  telephonic  communication  between  the  mill  and  Col- 



ville,  and  the  first  known  of  the  fire  were  reports  brought 
in  by  passengers  on  the  northbound  train.  Immediately 
€very  available  conveyance  hurriedly  carried  people  from 
the  city  to  the  scene  of  the  fire,  but  help  from  this 
source  came  too  late.  Within  twenty  minutes  from  the 
time  of  the  first  alarm  of  fire  the  building  was  in  ruins. 
The  mill  is  owned  by  the  Winslow  Lumber  Manu- 
facturing Company,  a  corporation  capitalized  at  $50,000, 
and  was  built  about  two  years  ago  at  a  cost  of  $25,000. 
It  had  a  capacity  of  75,000  feet  of  lumber  per  diem. 
Insurance  on  the  machinery  is  said  to  have  been  less 
than  25  per  cent,  of  the  cost,  but  a  larger  portion 
covered  the  lumber  in  the  yards  which  was  uninjured. 

This  mill  was  subsequently  rebuilt. 

Since  the  admission  of  Washington  as  a 
state  the  subject  of  a  Pioneers  organization  in 
Stevens  county  has  been  agitated  throughout 
the  successive  years,  but  without  result.  As 
there  were  no  annual  county  fairs  there  were, 
consequently,  no  meetings  of  any  great  number 
of  the  earliest  settlers  at  one  time  and  at  one 
place.  Concerted  action  could  not  be  taken.  At 
the  fair  at  Meyers  Falls,  unquestionably,  the 
subject  was  rejuvenated,  and  this  is  the  testi- 
mony of  a  number  of  the  oldest  residents  of  the 
county.  Enthusiasm  begets  enthusiasm,  and 
the  attrition  of  a  number  of  the  more  prominent 
pioneers  of  the  county  awakened  an  interest 
that  finally  found  expression   in  practical  re- 

sults. On  Wednesday,  September  30,  1903, 
the  pioneers  of  Stevens  county  assembled  at 
the  fair  grounds  in  Colville  and  organized  the 
"Stevens  County  Pioneer  Society."  Jacob  Stit- 
zel  was  selected  chairman  of  the  meeting  and 
S.  F.  Sherwood,  secretary.  A  temporary  or- 
ganization was  formed  and  a  committee  ap- 
pointed to  draft  a  constitution  and  by-laws  to 
be  submitted  at  a  later  date,  when  the  organiza- 
tion should  be  made  permanent.  It  was  de- 
cided that  all  persons  were  eligible  to  member- 
ship who  were  residents  of  Washington  at  the 
time  of  its  admission  to  statehood  and  who 
were  at  present  residents  of  Stevens  county. 
The  committee  on  constitution  and  by-laws 
selected  were  C.  H.  Montgomery,  Chewelah; 
Fay  Ledgerwood,  Columbia  River;  Mrs.  C.  B, 
Ide,  Colville;  John  Rickey,  Colville:  Mrs.  Ida 
Fedder,  Meyers  Falls;  G.  W.  Harvey,  Harvey; 
John  Keough,  White  Lake;  John  B.  Slater, 

At  a  subsequent  meeting  the  organiza- 
tion was  made  permanent,  and  the  county  now 
has  a  society  which  will  contribute  greatly  to 
the  preservation  of  historical  data  of  this  most 
fertile  and  productive  succession  of  valleys. 



It  is  to  the  Stevens  county  of  to-day,  and  to 
the  resources  lying  within  its  modern  limits, 
that  we  wish  to  direct  the  attention  of  the 
reader.  The  mutations  of  time  and  the  exi- 
gencies of  various  periods  have  gradually  re- 
duced her  original  territory,  at  one  time  em- 
bracing many  of  the  principal  counties  of  east- 
ern ^^'ashington,  to  a  present  area  of  3.945 

square  miles,  or  2,524,800  acres.  Yet  within 
this  area,  still  generous  and  expansive,  will  be 
found  a  greater  variety  of  natural  resources 
than  will  be  exploited  in  any  other  county 
division  west  of  the  Mississippi  river,  if  not  in 
tlie  United  States.  To  recapitulate  them  here 
would  prove  a  work  of  supererogation  for 
nearlv  all  of  them  are  treated  elsewhere  in  their 


proper  order  and  in  volume  commensurate  with 
their  importance. 

Stevens  county  occupies  tlie  extreme  nortli- 
eastern  portion  of  the  state.  The  average  width 
from  east  to  west  is  about  fifty-live  miles.  The 
extreme  length  north  and  south  is  about  eighty 
miles.  This  includes  the  Spokane  Indian  reser- 
Vcition.  Topographically  the  county  is  moun- 
tainous, divided  into  three  distinct  sections,  or 
more  properly  valleys,  separated  by  low  moun- 
tain ranges,  the  general  trend  of  which  is  north 
and  south.  These  three  districts  are  known  as 
the  Calispell  country,  to  the  eastward ;  the  Col- 
ville  valley,  the  central  portion  of  the  county, 
and  the  Columbia  river  country,  lying  west  of 
the  Huckleberry  mountains  and  forming,  with 
the  Columbia  river,  the  division  between  Stev- 
ens and  Ferry  counties.  The  average  altitude 
of  the  county  is  about  nineteen  hundred  feet, 
Loon  Lake  being  the  highest,  2,440  feet,  and 
Northport  the  lowest  with  an  altitude  of  1,350 
feet.  Springdale  has  an  altitude  of  2,100,  and 
Colville  of  1,602  feet. 

It  is  not  from  abstract  facts  and  figures  that 
an  adequate  idea  of  the  superlative  attractive- 
ness of  Stevens  county  can  be  obtained.  The 
natural  scenery  lying  along  the  three  principal 
valleys  mentioned  will  amply  reward  the  busi- 
ness visitor  or  pleasure  tourist.  And  it  must 
be  seen,  traversed  and  investigated  to  be  duly 
ajipreciated.  It  is  not  alone  the  scenery  or  the 
buuntiful  productiveness  of  this  region  that 
will  attract  attention,  but  the  eye  of  the  ex- 
pectant settler  will  readily  grasp  the  full  sig- 
nificance of  its  accessibility  to  the  best  local 
markets  in  the  west.  To  the  north  and  north- 
west are  the  great  mining  districts  which  are 
today  attracting  the  attention  of  the  entire 
union,  from  the  Atlantic  seaboard,  from  the 
Gulf  coast  and  from  the  Pacific.  Innumerable 
supplies  for  these  Canadian  camps  must,  per- 
force, pass  through  Stevens  county,  and  it  at 
once  Ijecomes  evident  to  the  traveler  in  this 
favored  locality  that  the  farmer  can  find  himself 
in  no  more  substantial  location. 

Extending  through  the  county,  longitudi- 
nally, is  the  beautiful  Colville  valley,  historic 
ground  of  eastern  W'ashington.  It  is  from 
three  to  five  miles  in  width.  Although  its 
principal  industries  are  confined  to  grain,  fruit, 
hay  and  stock  raising,  it  contains  a  number  of 
valuable  mines  and  the  richest  marble  quarries 
in  the  world.  Along  the  Columbia  river,  to 
the  west,  in  a  valley  varying  from  three  to  fif- 
teen miles  in  width,  is  found  a  profusion  of  the 
finest  orchard  products  known  to  the  west ;  it  is 
the  glorious  horticultural  domain  of  eastern 
Washington.  Over  in  the  eastern  portion  of 
the  county,  in  the  Pend  d'Oreille  valley,  lies 
a  country  famous  for  its  production  of  fine 
stock  and  enormous  crops  of  hay.  It  is  also, 
emphatically,  the  dairy  region  of  the  county. 
Here  are  some  of  the  finest  natural  meadows 
in  the  state. 

But  the  agricultural  lands  of  this  county  are. 
by  no  means,  confined  to  these  three  principal 
valleys.  Many  of  the  smaller  streams  and  can- 
yons which  lead  upward  into  the  higher  alti- 
tudes broaden  into  expansive  bench  lands  and 
some  of  the  choicest  stock,  fruit  and  agricul- 
tural locations  are  to  be  found  among  them. 
Along  the  Pend  d'Oreille  river  lie  extensive 
bench  lands  whose  possibilities,  appreciated  by 
the  speculative  mind,  gladden  the  eye  of  the 
prospective  settler.  .\t  present  the  larger  por- 
tions of  these  locations  are  covered  with  val- 
uable timber.  Once  cleared  they  become  amongf 
the  most  productive  lands  in  the  country.  The 
timber  is  abundant  and  of  excellent  commercial 
varieties,  such  as  yellow  pine,  the  prevailing" 
growth,  fir,  tamarack  and  cedar.  To  the  mind 
of  the  practical  lumberman  these  facts  will 
appeal  with  great  weight.  From  the  experience 
of  the  past  he  can  reason  of  the  future;  he 
knows  the  rapidly  increasing  limitations  of 
forest  reserves  and  the  steadily  advancing  price 
at  which  timber  lands  are  held.  The  diurnal, 
and  in  busy  seasons  the  nocturnal  whirr  of 
hundreds  of  saw  mills  are  heard  throughout  the 
county.     Yet  these  great  machines  are  but  the 


pathfinders  for  advancing  tides  of  agricultural 
immigrants  who  will  soon  follow  with  the 
seeder,  the  harrow  and  the  header.  For  several 
years  past  these  suggestions  have  been  amply 
and  practically  illustrated  by  established  facts. 
As  an  old  agricultural  district  in  eastern  Wash- 
ington, Stevens  ranks  next  to  Walla  Walla 
county.  It  is  no  theoretical  question  that  lies 
before  the  pioneers  of  this  section.  Behind 
them  are  years  of  actual  demonstration. 

The  excellence  of  its  roads  and  highways  is 
a  predominating  feature  of  this  county.  In  this 
there  has  been  wonderful  advancement  since 
the  days  when  Lieutenant  Mullan  was  labori- 
ously cutting  a  military  road  between  Forts 
Walla  Walla  and  Benton,  in  1858.  Probably 
there  is  not  one  man  in  Stevens  county  who  ever 
sat  in  a  "good  roads"  convention.  And  yet, 
considered  as  purely  public  highways  for  com- 
mercial purposes  the  roads  here  are  unsurpassed 
by  those  of  any  other  section.  Money  has 
been  expended  upon  them  lavishly,  and  the  in- 
terest taken  in  such  enterprises  has  been  keen 
and  earnest.  The  taxpayers  have  been  far- 
sighted  and  financially  acute  to  such  advan- 
tages. The  question  of  transportation  has  ever 
been  a  live  one  with  the  people,  and  serious. 
And  wherever  the  cost  of  hauling  a  ton  of 
produce  to  the  railway  station  for  the  purpose 
of  delivering  it  F.  O.  B.  could  be  reduced  it  has 
been  done,  and  done  cheerfully.  It  is  the  testi- 
mony of  Francis  Wolfif,  one  of  the  earliest  of 
Stevens  county  pioneers,  who  came  across  the 
Rocky  Mountains  in  1853,  with  Governor 
Stevens,  that  in  those  days  when  the  people 
Avanted  a  road  they  haggled  not  with  county 
commissioners  but  forthwith  proceeded  to 
shoulder  their  axes  and  make  it.  Such  is  the 
predominating  spirit  to  this  day.  And  on  every 
hand,  east,  west,  north  and  south,  it  is  exempli- 
fied in  excellent  public  highways  to  a  gratifying 

Along  these  roads,  where  one  can  enjoy  the 
pleasantest  drives  imaginable,  a  most  satisfying 
idea  of  the  manifold  beauties  of  Stevens  county 

can  be  obtained.  It  is  not  from  car  windows 
that  the  actualities  and  possibilities  of  any  pro- 
ductive locality  can  be  seen  to  the  best  advan- 
tage. The  exigencies  of  railroad-making  often 
compel  a  line  to  be  run  through  the  most  deso- 
late sections  of  such  a  country.  The  fairer 
portions  are  usually  "just  over  the  hill,  the 
bluff  or  the  mountain."  But  in  quiet,  reflective 
drives  through  peaceful  valleys,  by  tinkling 
brooks,  or  in  silent,  sombre  woodlands,  one  can 
thoroughly  assimilate  the  beauties  of  the 
scenery,  acquire  local  color,  and  come  in  touch 
with  the  heart-throbs  of  the  people  with 
whom  he  desires  to  mingle  on  an  equal  foot- 
ing and  with  equal  facilities  to  learn  their 
true  conditions.  It  is  in  such  drives  through 
the  Stevens  county  valleys  that  a  glorious 
panorama  of  ever  changing  beauties  unfolds 
before  him.  It  is  a  series  of  pastoral  pictures 
that  greet  the  traveler's  eye,  varying  with  the 
seasons.  From  seed  time  to  harvest,  and  from 
harvest  to  spring  the  aspect  of  this  agricultural 
country  continually  presents  a  new  and  inspir- 
ing view.  And  the  traveler  realizes  that  each 
month  the  country  is  growing  richer ;  richer  in 
material  products;  richer  in  thought,  experi- 
ence and  substantiality. 

Should  the  tourist's  road  lead  through  the 
majestic  forests  the  ring  of  the  swamper's  axe 
will  alternate  with  the  flute-note  of  some  wild 
bird,  or  the  stirring,  exhilirating  drum  of  the 
partridge.  Then  silence  for  a  distance,  and 
then  the  whirr  of  a  lumber  mill  will  sharply  ac- 
centuate the  difiference  between  solitude  in  the 
"forests  primeval,"  and  the  restless  industry  of 
man.  For  it  is  not  in  the  broil  and  moil  of 
city  life  that  the  actual  producing  industries  of 
our  country  are  carried  on.  Far  from  it.  There 
they  are  simply  living  one  upon  the  other;  a 
vast  throng  of  non-producing  bumble-bees, 
more  remarkable  for  their  ceaseless  hum  than 
for  honey.  It  is  here,  back  in  the  mountains, 
the  woodlands,  the  meadows  and  the  harvest 
fields  that  the  farmer,  the  miner,  the  stockman 
and  the  fruit  grower  are  supporting  them  all. 


Albeit  our  Stevens  county  traveler — by  pri- 
vate conveyance — would  fain  forget  for  a  while 
the  rush,  roar  and  hustle  of  conflicting  com- 
mercial interests,  and  turn  to  sports  afield. 
They  abound  on  every  hand.  Mr.  S.  Fred 
Sherwood,  of  Colville,  an  ardent  and  true 
sportsman,  one  who  has  hunted  from  the 
Catskills  to  the  Olympics,  in  Central  and  South 
America  and  other  countries,  ranks  as  one  of 
the  leading  authorities  in  the  country  on  fauna. 
He  says  that  Stevens  county  stands  peerless 
in  the  profusion  of  bear,  deer  and  lesser  game. 
On  the  Columbia  moimtains  and  in  many  other 
portions  of  the  county  range  the  beautiful 
black-tail,  or  Columbia  deer,  as  well  as  Virginia 
or  mule-deer ;  black,  brown  and  silver-tip  bears 
are  the  easy  prey  of  the  skillful  sportsman  in 
all  the  mountains  and  valleys.  Caribou  is  also 
found,  but  principally  in  the  Metaline  district 
and  the  Calispell  country.  Smaller  game 
abounds  represented  by  the  blue  grouse,  sharp- 
tail  grouse,  or  prairie  chicken,  ruff  grouse, 
commonly  called  pheasant,  and  spruce  partridge 
or  fool  hen.  All  of  these  birds  of  the  gallina- 
ceous species  are  found  in  abundance  through- 
out the  valleys  of  the  rivers  and  the  creeks  of 
the  canyons.  And  a  bird  not  indigenous  to 
all  localities  in  the  state  appears  in  small  num- 
bers in  Stevens  county,  a  bird  that  has  been 
removed  by  Tennyson  from  its  humble  coverts 
into  the  classic  niche  of  fame. 

'Tis  the  place,  and  all  around  it,  as  of  old  | 

the  curlews  call, 
Dreary   gleams   about   the   moorland    flying  | 

over    Locksley   Hall. 

There  are.  also,  the  upland  plover,  and  in 
the  bottoms  the  rail  and  rare  and  gamey  jack- 
snipe.  The  latter  is  the  true  sportsman's  de- 
light, for  it  is  an  exceedingly  active  bird,  diffi- 
cult to  capture  and  must,  invariably,  be  shot  on 
the  wing.  While  the  jacksnipe  is  a  migra- 
tory bird,  it  has  been  known  to  nest  and  winter 
in  Stevens  county.  Throughout  the  swampy 
portions  of  the  valleys  and  in  the  lakes  abound 

many  varieties  of  wild  geese  and  ducks.  Here 
are  found  in  the  spring  and  autumn  months 
the  Canadian,  spot-breasted  gray  goose,  white 
goose,  or  brant,  sand-hill  crane  and  swan.  The 
evening  flight  of  wild  ducks,  together  with  the 
appropriate  mise  en  scene,  recall  Bryant's 
pastoral — 

Vain  might  the  fowler  mark  thy  distant  flight  to 
do  thee  wrong. 

Not  in  vain,  however,  in  this  section  of  the 
country.  It  is  popular  opinion  that  every  fish- 
erman should  carry  a  gun,  so  plentiful  are  wild 
ducks.  To  the  skillful  sportsman  the  canvas- 
back,  redhead,  mallard,  blue-wingteal,  green- 
wingteal,  widgeon  and  other  varieties  of 
ducks  are  easy  prey  and  gamey  sport.  Trout 
fishing  throughout  the  county  is  unexcelled. 
All  of  the  numerous  streams  abound  in  this 
variety  of  the  finny  tribe  peculiar  to  the  region 
of  the  Rockies.  The  principal  species,  however, 
is  the  rainbow  trout,  although  other  varieties 
of  brook  and  mountain  trout  are  often  among 
a  good  day's  catch. 

Concerning  the  resources  of  the  lower  Pend 
d'Oreille  river,  Stevens  county,  the  following- 
article  from  the  pen  of  a  well-known  writer  and 
correspondent  conveys  an  adequate  and  con- 
servati\e  view  of  that  picturesque  country : 

".\  great  country  with  a  great  future ;"  such  is  the 
expression  from  every  one  who  gives  himself  the  pleas-^ 
ure  of  the  journey  from  Newport.  Washington,  by 
steamboat  on  the  lovely  and  incomparable  river,  the 
Pend  d'Oreille,  to  Box  Canyon,  a  distance  of  about 
fifty-four  miles.  The  river  for  the  first  thirty  miles  runs 
through  a  country  now  well-known  and  partly  settled, 
and  is  the  highway  to  the  njining  districts  of  Bead  and 
Marshall  Lakes,  the  open  and  fertile  Calispell  Valley, 
famous  for  its  hay  and  butter,  and  Usk.  the  chief  center 
of  supply   for  this  region. 

At  Parker  the  stretches  of  the  lower  river  com- 
mence and  the  country  on  both  banks  is  being  rapidly 
settled.  Some  three  miles  below  Parker  Mountain,  on 
the  east  bank,  and  situated  in  an  immense  forest  of 
splendid  timber,  a  large  sawmill  of  50.000  capacity  per 
day  is  being  erected.  About  two  miles  below  this  is 
another  large  sawmill  in  process  of  erection,  while 
just  below  we  pass  through  a  large  granite  belt,  con- 
tiguous to  the  coal  measures,  and  which  is  found  to  con- 



tain  several  varieties  of  structural  granite,  from  the 
gray  to  the  red. 

Next  we  sight  the  well-known  landmark,  The  Blue 
Slide,  (a  large  landslide  from  the  side  of  the  mountain 
into  the  river  of  decomposed  porphyry).  From  here 
the  country  widens  out  in  extensive  flats,  well  timbered 
and  watered,  and  where  cultivated,  is  found  to  yield 
abundant  crops  of  hay,  vegetables  and  fruit.  Here  are 
to  be  seen  some  of  the  finest  ranches  in  the  northwest, 
well  sheltered  and  watered,  and  from  whence  starts  the 
trail  for  Sullivan  Lake,  distant  to  the  northwest  some 
twelve  miles,  where  game  of  all  kinds  abound,  with 
caribou  in  the  higher  ranges  beyond.  At  this  point  the 
river  seemes  to  be  obstructed  by  a  high  mountain  with 
rugged  and  picturesque  faces,  bluffs  and  slopes.  The 
river  at  this  point  is  very  wide  and  deep,  and  affords 
a  natural  harbor  with  easy  anchorage.  The  mountain, 
known  as  Mount  Jordan,  is  one  vast  and  inexhaustible 
deposit  of  cement  material  and  upon  near  approach  we 
see  active  progress  of  construction  under  way  of  a  large 
Portland  and  natural  cement  plant.  The  buildings  are 
so  located  that  all  the  material  proceeds  from  one  de- 
partment of  the  plant  to  another  by  gravity,  thus  re- 
ducing the  cost  of  manufacture,  and  all  the  power  is 
generated  from  the  water  of  a  side  stream  conducted  in  a 
ditch  so  as  to  give  a  fall  of  one  hundred  and  ten  feet, 
generating  a  power  of  two  hundred  horse  power.  The 
deposits  of  material  are  suited  to  the  manufacture  of 
very  high  grades  of  Portland  cement  and  two  grades  of 
hydraulic  natural  cement.  The  cements  being  now  made 
in  the  model  plant,  when  compared  with  the  imported 
cement,  are  at  least  forty  per  cent,  in  favor  of  the  local 
article  produced.  It  is  safe  to  assert  that  here  is  being 
erected  a  plant  that  will  supply  the  trade  and  be  in 
operation  so  long  as  cement  is  used.  The  works  and 
town  site  are  prettily  situated  on  a  flat  bench  over- 
looking the  river,  and  one  can  forsee  a  soon-to-be  loca- 
tion of  a  prosperous,  thriving  city  to  be  known  as 

One  mile  farther  down  the  river  and  just  above 
the  Box  Canyon  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  are  ex- 
tensive quarries  of  marble,  now  being  operated  by  a 
company  that  are  producing  marbles  of  many  shades  and 
colors,  from  pure  white  statuary  to  the  jet  black  monu- 
mental, with  grays  and  indescribable  cloudings.  The 
quarries  are  being  opened  up  with  steam  drills  and  the 
prospects  are  that  the  marble  will  be  highly  suited  for 
statuary,   decorative  and  monumental  purposes. 

Leaving  the  steamboat  here  we  take  the  trail  on  the 
west  bank  for  the  old  mining  camp  of  the  Metaline. 
Before  we  have  gone  quite  one  half  a  mile  we  come  upon 
the  great  sandstone  quarries,  which  are  of  the  fine 
grain,  blue  varieties  and  classed  as  free  stone.  This 
sandstone  is  easily  worked,  having  the  property  of 
hardening  when  exposed  to  the  air.  The  beds  are  level 
and  blocks  of  monolith  size  can  be  quarried.  Below  the 
sandstone  is  a  deposit  of  fire-clay  in  vast  quantities  that 
has  the  same -property  of  the  clays  of  Europe,  noted 
for  making  fire  brick.      Seven   miles   from   here  is   the 

camp  of  the  old  Metaline,  where  progress  is  stagnated 
from  the  lack  of  transportation.  It  will  be  seen  that 
there  are  resources  on  the  lower  Pend  d'Oreille  river 
which  for  quality  and  abundance  it  would  be  hard  to 
equal  and  which  will  give  employment  and  support  for 
a  very  large  population. 

Perhaps  no  other  county  in  the  state  of 
Washington  possesses  greater  available  water 
power  than  Stevens.  Nor  is  this  valuable 
auxiliary  to  successful  manufacturing  indus- 
tries confined  to  one  locality  within  the  limits 
of  the  county.  The  most  important  in  volume 
and  power  are  the  Kettle  Falls  of  the  Columbia 
river,  near  the  town  of  that  name.  Here  the 
river  makes  a  precipitous  descent  of  thirty-five 
feet.  This  immense  volume  of  water  accumu- 
lates force  sufficient  to  warrant  the  assertion 
that  it  is  the  most  extensive  hydraulic  power 
in  the  west ;  a  force  capable  of  supplying  electric 
energy  throughout  the  entire  territory  em- 
braced by  many  contiguous  counties.  Another 
magnificent  water  power  is  that  of  Meyers 
Falls,  in  the  Colville  river.  One-half  mile  from 
this  is  located  the  town  of  Meyers  Falls,  an- 
cient in  history  and  reminiscent  of  the  old 
Hudson's  Bay  Company.  Here  is  a  succession 
of  falls  that  would  be  easily  developed  and  are 
capable  of  furnishing  thousands  of  horsepower. 
Within  the  limits  of  three-eights  of  a  mile  the 
total  fall  is  one  hundred  and  thirty-five  feet. 
The  main  fall  is  eighty  feet  high.  Aside  from 
these  are  the  Albany  falls,  two  miles  east  of 
Newport,  on  the  Idaho  line,  and  the  falls  of 
the  lower  Pend  d'Oreille  river.  At  present  these 
great  water  powers  are  practically  undeveloped. 
There  are  flour  and  saw  mills  at  Meyers  Falls, 
and  an  electric  light  plant  supplying  a  number 
of  towns,  but  otherwise  little  advantage  has 
been  taken,  so  far,  of  the  vast  possibilities  of 
these  mighty  and  economical  forces  of  generous 

Considered  as  a  fruit  producing  section 
Stevens  county  is  unsurpassed.  It  has  been 
claimed  that  her  prolific  qualities  in  this  line 
challenge  the  world.  To  those  who  have  deli- 
cately implied  that  this  was  rather  a  sweeping 


assertion,  reply  has  been  made  that  it  was  abso- 
lutely true,  and  a  number  of  fruit  exhibitors 
have  very  nearly  approached  verification.  It 
is  quite  certain,  however,  that  a  vital  and  most 
advantageous  consideration  to  the  Stevens 
county  fruit  grower  lies  in  a  lucrative  market 
at  its  doors.  The  bane  of  the  western  fruit 
grower  has  ever  been  exhorbitant  and.  at  times, 
prohibitive  cost  of  transportation.  But  so 
omniverous  is  the  demand  of  the  mining  towns 
of  the  northern  country  for  Colville  and  Colum- 
bia valley  fruits  that  prices  have  invariably 
ruled  high.  The  horticultural  industry  is  in- 
creasing in  a  most  gratifying  ratio  with  each 
successive  year.  In  the  Columbia  river  valley, 
from  the  town  of  Alarcus,  extending  along  the 
Columbia  a  distance  of  one  hundred  miles,  lies 
a  belt  from  five  to  fifteen  miles  in  width.  This 
is  the  remunerative  habitat  of  the  deciduous 
fruit  grower.  ^Nlany  \arieties  of  the  tenderest 
fruits  thrive  here  and  yield  profusely,  as  the 
magnificent  Morrison,  Sparks,  Clinton,  Harvey 
and  other  orchards,  laden  in  season  with 
lucious,-  sweetly  flavored  fruits  glowingly 
testify.  Fully  three-fourths  of  the  area  men- 
tioned is  well  adapted  to  fruit  growths.  With 
equal  care  and  intelligent  cultivation  all  this 
territory  can  be  made  fully  as  productive  as 
the  orchards  named  above.  Two  of  the  leading 
horticulturists  of  Stevens  county  have  testified 
from  the  view  point  of  experts  concerning  this 
industry.     Mr.  W.  H.  Oakes  says : 

"When  I  first  took  up  what  is  now  Belle- 
view  Fruit  Farm  sixteen  years  ago  I  had  no 
idea  of  developing  it  to  the  splendid  place  you 
now  see  it  is.  But  I  noticed  how  prolific  was 
the  growth  of  berries,  fruits,  watermelons,  to- 
matoes, etc.,  and  it  occurred  to  me  that  fruit 
trees  might  do  well.  I  set  out  at  first  one  hun- 
dred deciduous  bearing  trees  of  dififerent  varie- 
ties. They  began  to  bear  at  the  end  of  three 
years,  and  most  of  them  tlirived  exceedingly. 
Since  that  time  I  have  continued  planting  and 
experimenting  as  to  the  kind  of  fruits  and  the 
varieties  of  those  kinds  that  would  do  best  in 

this  soil  and  climate.  You  can  see  the  result. 
Peaches  grow  well  on  sheltered  bench  land  well 
removed  from  water  or  in  the  black  gravelly 
soil  or  sandy  loam  along  the  Columbia  river. 
But  you  must  have  the  hardy  and  early  varie- 
ties. I  succeeded  best  with  Hale's  Early,  Crof- 
fin's  Early,  Alexander,  Malta  and  Wagner.  In 
pears  the  Bartlett  is  not  hardy  enough,  but  the 
Buer  De  Angoa  and  Flemish  Beauty  are  per- 
fectly hardy  and  do  well.  I  have  one  tree  of 
the  latter  that  never  failed  in  eleven  years. 
The  Beauty  is  almost  equal  to  the  Bartlett.  In 
winter  pears  the  Winter  Mellis  and  Buer  Easter 
can  be  grown  here  with  great  success.  Nearly 
all  kinds  of  prunes  do  well,  but  I  would  recom- 
mend the  Italian,  Hungarian,  German  and 
French.  I  found  all  kinds  of  plums  safe  except 
Kelsey's  Japan.  In  apricots  the  Russian  varie- 
ties do  excellently  well,  while  the  Morepark, 
though  the  best  in  the  market,  does  not.  The 
peach  and  golden  are  also  too  tender.  All 
apples  will  grow  well,  but  the  Ben  Davis  is 
the  best  for  the  market,  and  is  a  hardy  winter 
apple.  The  Wallbridge  and  Baldwin  I  found 
not  so  hardy.  Delaware,  Red  Winter,  Wine- 
sap,  Baily's  and  Talmund's  Sweet  are  O.  K. 

"Low  lands  should  be  avoided,  but  bench 
lands  removed  from  water  will  grow  the  fruits 
I  have  mentioned,  and  there  is  no  hill  so  high  in 
Stevens  county  but  that  there  is  moisture 
enough  in  it  to  grow  fruit  profitably  if  well 
cultivated.  I  want  to  say  that  the  soil  should 
be  well  stirred  with  a  harrow  or  cultivator  every 
ten  days  or  less.  The  reason  for  this  is  that  the 
pores  of  the  earth  expand  and  open  in  from 
seven  to  ten  days  and  unless  stirred  the  heat  of 
the  sun  draws  out  the  moisture.  This  is  the 
most  important  point  in  cultivating  dry  soil. 
Regarding  the  relative  quality  of  fruits  grown 
here  and  elsewhere,  other  sections  grow  larger 
fruits,  but  Stevens  county  fruits  are  much 
sweeter  flavored.  The  best  flavored  fruit  is 
always  grown  on  dry  soil.  Our  apples  and 
prunes  are  the  best  in  the  world.  Our  prunes 
are  superior  bearers,  and  don't  dry  down  as 



much  as  others  and  go  into  market  as  the  best. 
As  to  bearing,  all  our  fruits  bear  as  early  as 
anywhere  in  the  world,  pears  bearing  in  two 
years  and  apples  extensively  in  three." 

"The  first  thing  of  importance  in  fruit- 
growing," said  Mr.  H.  W.  Sparks,  of  Kettle 
Falls,  who  has  a  splendid  orchard  on  the 
Columbia,  two  miles  south  of  that  city,  and  who 
has  given  the  subject  of  horticulture  intelligent 
study,  "is  the  varieties,  location,  cultivation  and 
care.  Care  is  the  most  important,  as  without 
care  no  one  can  expect  to  succeed.  Variety  de- 
pends on  undivided  taste  and  location  and 
intelligent  demarkation  of  the  crop  as  to  those 
grown  for  revenue  and  those  grown  for  home 
use.  Every  one  should  have  a  goodly  assort- 
ment for  different  seasons  and  tastes  in  those 
grown  for  the  market.  The  main  point  is  a 
hardy  variety  for  the  main  crop  and  good  ship- 
pers, those  that  will  bear  handling." 

Concerning  the  transportation  facilities  of 
Stevens  county,  it  is  no  exaggeration  to  say 
that  they  are  excellent,  when  the  large  size  of 
the  territory  is  taken  into  consideration.  Re- 
garding this  important  factor  in  the  upbuilding 
of  a  county  the  Statesman-Index  says  : 

"The  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  Railroad 
with  more  than  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles 
of  main  line  in  the  county,  is  doing  much  to 
assist  in  its  progression  and  prosperity.  It  has 
recently  been  a  heavy  contributor  to  the  Kettle 
Falls  and  Republic  road,  the  importance  of 
which  to  this  portion  of  the  county  it  is  scarcely 
necessary  to  dwell  upon.  It  runs  a  passenger 
train  with  comfortably  equipped  coaches  north 
and  south  daily,  and  it  is  a  very  rare  occasion 
when  they  are  not  promptly  on  time.  To  the 
annual  Spokane  Fruit  Fair  and  like  events  the 
road  always  accords  a  generous  rate  and  in 
other  regards  the  passenger  department  of  the 
Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  has  ever  consulted 
the  best  interests  of  our  people  and  afforded 
them  many  advantages. 

"The  southeastern  portion  of  the  county  is 
traversed  bv  the  Great  Northern  Railwav.  This 

line  affords  the  settlers  of  the  Calispell  and 
Pend  d'Oreille  valleys  a  means  of  communica- 
tion with  the  outside  world.  Small  steamers 
ply  the  waters  of  the  Pend  d'Oreille  river  be- 
tween Newport  and  Box  Canyon,  and  do  a  gen- 
eral freighting  and  passenger  traffic  for  the 
convenience  of  the  river  settlements.  At  New- 
port on  the  boundary  line  between  Washington 
and  Idaho,  the  freight  and  passengers  are  trans- 
ferred to  the  Great  Northern  railway. 

"There  are  now  nearly  eleven  hundred  miles 
of  public  highway  in  the  county  running  in  all 
directions  and  others  are  in  constant  course  of 
construction.  The  boards  of  county  commis- 
sioners, realizing  the  importance  of  easy  means 
of  inter-communication,  have  been  broad- 
gauged  and  liberal  in  their  attitude  on  the  im- 
portant matter  of  roads,  while  in  no  community 
can  there  be  found  more  liberal  contributors  to 
projects  of  this  nature  than  the  public-spirited 
business  men  of  Stevens  county." 

The  social  conditions  of  this  county  have 
been  earnestly  and  conscientiously  considered 
by  Mr.  John  B.  Slater  in  his  valuable  work, 
"Natural  Resources  of  Stevens  County."  He 

Stevens  county  is  chiefly  settled  by  an  industrious 
and  thrifty  class  from  the  northern  Mississippi  states. 
A  dozen  souls  will  fill  the  Chinese  and  colored  popula- 
tion of  the  county ;  these  classes  having  at  all  times  in 
the  past  been  discouraged  from  coming  into  the  county. 
On  the  Colville  Indian  Reservation  are  about  five  hun- 
dred peaceable  Indians,  nearly  all  of  whom  are  actively 
engaged  in  the  pursuits  of  farming  and  stock-raising. 
The  tide  of  immigration  of  the  white  people  has,  prac- 
tically, driven  the  native  population  to  the  reservations, 
and  those  of  the  Indian  race  who  are  adverse  to  toil 
have  found  their  way  into  the  far  interior  and  unin- 
habited portions  of  British  Columbia. 

The  society  of  Stevens  county  is  the  very  best,  and 
its  people  take  pride  in  upbuilding  its  institutions  and 
maintaining  them.  This  fact  is  attested  by  the  sub- 
'  stantial  character  of  the  many  splendid  buildings  to  be 
seen  on  every  hand  in  all  the  towns,  devoted  to  religious 
and  public  school  work.  There  are  over  one  hundred 
school  districts  in  the  county,  and  in  nearly  all  of  them 
may  be  seen  well  built  school  houses  of  handsome 
design.  In  all  the  more  populous  districts  the  schools 
are  graded,  and  a  superior  class  of  instructors  are  em- 
ployed in  charge  of  all  educational  work.     The  Catholic, 



Methodist,  Congregational,  Presbyterian,  Adventist, 
Baptist  and  a  number  of  other  denominational  institu- 
tions are  represented.  Sunday  school  work  is  a  leading 
feature  in  all  settled  portions  of  the  county.  The  old 
Catholic  church,  built  on  a  sightly  place  on  the  bank 
of  the  Columbia  river,  near  Kettle  Falls,  nearly  sixty 
years  ago,  is  still  standing,  though  it  was  long  since 
abandoned  for  a  more  convenient  location  at  Meyers 
Falls,  where  a  large  cathedral  and  the  mission  school 
for  boys  and  girls  are  located  and  are  accorded  a  good 
patronage.  The  secret  societies  have  firmly  established 
lodges,  among  which  are  the  Masonic,  Odd  Fellows, 
and  K.  P.,  all  of  which  are  patronized  and  are  fostered 
by  the  best  classes.  A  number  of  G.  A.  R.  posts  have 
also  been  established  and  in  many  of  the  country  places, 
as  well  as  in  the  cities,  they  have  erected  large  and 
commodious  halls  in  which  the  largely  decimating 
heroes  of  the  last  great  national  struggle  take  refuge 
in  social  intercourse  and  in  appropriate  exercises  com- 
memorative of  their  great  work. 

As  well  as  having  a  market  at  hand  for  everything, 
Stevens  county  has  everything  for  a  market.  Its  wealth- 
producing  capacity  is  circumscribed  by  no  limit.  With 
all  it  has  room  for  the  lumberman.  Its  forests  are 
largely  confined  to  the  mountain  districts  and  along  the 
foot-hills.  The  timber  growth  is  prolific  and  well- 
developed.  Pine,  fir,  spruce  and  cedar  grow  in  splendid 
proportions,  in  endless  quantity  and  of  a  superior 
quality.  The  tamarack  trees  are  now  much  sought  after 
by  builders,  and  lumber  men  are  led  to  consider  it  one 
of  the  choicest  of  timbers  for  finishing  purposes.  It 
possesses  the  most  lasting  qualities,  and  subject  to  all 
manner  of  hard  usage  and  exposure  it  answers  every 
purpose.  It  partakes  of  the  finest  finish  and  the  highest 
polish,  is  not  susceptible  to  expansion  and  contraction, 
so  commonly  complained  of  in  other  timbers  when  ex- 
posed to  the  ravages  of  the  elements,  and  promises,  as 
a  hard  wood,  to  supplant  the  use  of  oak,  ash  and  maple 
in  the  manufacture  of  all  varieties  of  furniture. 

Added  to  the  numerous  industrial  interests 
of  this  county  is  something  in  the  way  of  the 
weirdly  picturesque  which  is  a  recent  discovery, 
dating  in  the  summer  of  1903.  This  is  what  is 
called  Gardiner's  Cave,  and  the  following  de- 
scription of  the  same  is  from  the  Spokcsman- 
Reviezv.  of  date  September  13,  1903,  written 
by  one  of  a  Spokane  exploring  party  who  vis- 
ited it.  Investigation  by  the  writer  reveals  the 
fact  that  it  is  nowise  overdrawn : 

If  you  will  take  a  map  of  Washington,  trace  the 
Fend  d'Oreille  river  down  to  where  it  passes  into 
British  Columbia,  get  the  scale  of  the  map.  put  your 
pencil  one  mile  south  of  the  international  boundary  line 

and  one  mile  west  of  the  river,  you  will  have  determined 
almost  the  exact  location  of  Gardiner  Cave,  in  Stevens 
county,  Washington.  About  due  north  and  ninety  miles 
distant  from  Spokane,  this  natural  wonder,  so  far  as 
explored,  constitutes  the  largest  cave  yet  discovered  in 

Various  and  conflicting  reports  heard  about  this 
cave  led  a  number  of  Spokane  men  to  organize  and 
equip  a  party  to  visit  and  secure  some  exact  data  on  the 
subject.  The  party  left  Spokane  on  the  morning  of  the 
24th  of  August,  1903,  over  the  Great  Northern  railway 
via  Newport,  thence  by  steamer  down  the  Pend  d'Oreille 
to  the  foot  of  navigation  near  lone,  sixty-four  miles 
below  Newport,  from  which  point  they  secured  the 
services  of  7.  E.  Hall,  with  pack  and  saddle  animals  to 
make  the  overland  journey.  The  trail  was  found  to  be 
in  fairly  good  condition  overlooking  the  river  the 
greater  part  of  the  way,  and  the  pedometer  recorded 
24.75  miles  between  lone  and  Gardiner  Cave,  over  a 
crooked  trail.  Elevation  of  lone  2.000  feet,  and  at  the 
cave  entrance  2,665  feet  above  tide  water.  The  country 
is  in  almost  as  primitive  a  state  as  it  was  one  hundred 
years  ago,  the  most  noticable  indication  of  civilization 
being  the  ruthless  waste  of  the  forests ;  fires  having 
devastated  about  one  half  the  country  to  be  seen  from 
the  trail.  Young  growth  of  pine,  fir,  cedar,  tamarack 
and  hemlock,  however,  if  permitted  to  live,  would  in  a 
few  years  reforest  a  greater  part  of  the  burnt  area. 

Fiom  the  trail  may  be  seen  a  mountain  to  the  west 
which  was  determined  by  the  United  States  geological 
survey,  who  were  re-establishing  the  international 
boundary  monuments  last  year,  to  be  over  8.000  feet 
above  sea  level.  This  peak  is  between  six  and  ten  miles 
from  the  boundary  in  Stevens  county.  It  is  said  that 
there  are  several  monuments  on  the  south  and  west 
slopes  of  this  mountain  which  have  the  appearance  of 
aboriginal  construction,  but  limit  of  time  precluded  a 
visit  there.  Other  similar  monuments  occur  at  various 
points,  both  in  Washington  and  British  Columbia  not 
far  from  the  cave.  Grouse  are  plentiful  along  the 
entire  route,  bear  and  deer  abound,  seldom  disturbed 
by  man,  and  from  indications  along  the  trail  the  country 
seems  to  be  the  home  of  many  marten  and  other  furred 
animals.  The  odoriferous  pole  cat  was  the  only  feline 
seen  by  the  party,  although  a  cougar  and  a  lynx  paid 
the  life  penalty  for  being  too  eager  for  a  taste  of  civiliza- 
tion a  few  days  since,  and  the  human-like  voice  of  the 
former  is  often  heard  in  the  hills.  Trout  abound  in  all 
the  streams,  and  migratory  waterfowl  take  long  rests  in 
the  waters  of  this  region  in  spring  and  fall.  A  well' 
authenticated  story  is  current  that  a  couple  of  hunters 
killed  over  two  hundred  deer  near  their  camp  one  winter 
recently,  simply  for  their  hides,  yet  there  are  large  num- 
bers  remaining  in  that   section. 

Arriving  at  the  cave's  mouth,  which  is  situated  on 
an  easy  slope  on  the  east  side  of  a  pretentious  mountain, 
at  9:30  o'clock  a.  m.,  the  party  found  that  the  opening 
is  simply  a  break  in  the  roof  of  the  cave,  by  which  an 
easy    entrance    is   made    with   a    ladder    constructed   on: 



the  ground.  How  far  upward  along  the  slope  of  the 
mountain  the  cave  extends  the  party  did  not  discover, 
an  obstruction  occurring  some  twenty  feet  above  where 
a  portion  of  the  cave  roof  fell  in.  The  barometric 
elevation  at  the  surface  was  2,665  feet,  and  at  the  floor 
of  the  entrance  2,645  feet  above  sea  level.  The  general 
course  of  that  part  of  the  cave  explored  was  E.  S.  E., 
with  a  gradual  curve  toward  the  east.  But  one  branch 
of  any  importance  was  discovered.  The  first  six  hun- 
dred feet  constitutes  the  most  attractive  portion  of  the 
cave,  as  below  that  point  mud  is  found  on  the  floor  in- 
creasing in  depth  until  at  the  present  end  the  entire 
cave  is  coated  with  an  accumulation  of  natural  cement 
but  partially  dried,  and  increasing  at  the  rate  of  one- 
eighth  of  an  inch  per  year.  Early  in  the  spring  the 
water,  doubtless,  fills  the  entire  cave  at  the  lower  end, 
but  gradually  passes  out  through  small  orifices  until  at 
this  season  it  entirely  disappears  and  the  air  becomes 
clear  and  pure.  By  the  aid  of  tools  and  powder  it  may 
be  possible  to  open  up  chambers  still  lower  down  from 
the  present  end  of  the  cave,  as  without  doubt  the  sub- 
terranean waters  finally  reach  the  Pend  d'Oreille  river, 
a  mile  away.  Carefully  measured  from  entrance  to  the 
lower  end  of  the  main  cave  the  total  length  was  found 
to  be  780  feet,  with  a  total  loss  in  elevation  from 
2,645  to  2,420  feet,  or  225  feet,  a  mean  grade  of  about 
34  per  cent. 

With  Ed.  Gardiner,  the  discoverer,  in  the  lead 
the  entire  party  of  seven  penetrated  the  cavern  and  ex- 
amined all  its  side  chambers,  finding  a  ball  of  twine 
thrown  over  a  difficult  passage  near  the  lower  end, 
recorded  the  date,  taking  several  flash-light  photographs, 
measuring  the  various  chambers  and  securing  other 
valuable  data.  This  cave  has  many  features  of  interest 
and  beauty.  The  first  600  feet  is  gorgeously  draped  and 
festooned  with  stalactites  and  stalagmites  in  many 
grotesque  forms,  the  former  pendant  from  the  ceiling, 
while  the  latter  rise  from  the  floor.  At  two  points  the 
main  passage  way  is  divided  by  two  huge  pillars,  deli- 
cately fluted  and  of  rare  color,  the  first  of  which  is  about 
280  feet  from  the  entrance  and  the  lower  one  155  feet 
further  down,  while  all  between,  along  the  sides  and 
ceiling,  are  stalactites  of  various  lengths. 

At  two  places  along  the  wall  are  numerous 
stalactites,  which,  by  striking  sharply,  produce  clear 
notes  which  resemble  those  of  a  piano.  In  places  the 
floor  is  covered  with  rock  forms  of  white  limestone 
resembling  baths,  in  some  of  which  the  water  still  re- 
mains clear  as  crystal.  At  other  places  are  pillars  rising 
from  a  few  inches  to  several  feet.  At  one  side  of  this 
chamber  is  a  wonderful  formation  resembling  a  frozen 
waterfall,  near  by  which  is  an  overhanging  canopy  with 
a  well-formed  seat  at  the  base.  This  is  "The  Throne," 
and  from  it  one  can  see  all  the  principal  beauties  of 
this  marvellous  "chamber  of  wonders."  The  cathedral, 
to  the  right  and  30  feet  below,  is  frescoed  and  festooned 
with  glistening  gems.  Rising  from  the  floor  are  several 
fragile  columns.  o,i  the  tops  of  which  the  party  placed 
their    candles    and    viewed    with    pleasure    the    sublime 

effect.  Thirty  or  more  feet  from  the  floor  of  the  main 
hall  and  directly  before  the  throne,  a  cluster  of  cyrstals 
resembles  a  huge  bunch  of  grapes. 

The  gigantic  pillar  at  the  upper  end  of  this  chamber 
gives  the  visitor  ample  space  to  pass,  but  when  its  twin 
column  at  the  lower  end  is  reached,  one  is  mutely  but 
firmly  reminded  that  due  obeisance  must  be  made  in 
acknowledgment  of  the  beauties  just  seen  before  passage 
will  be  granted  to  the  depths  below.  Passage  can  be 
obtained  here  only  by  prostrating  oneself  and  crawling 
in,  after  which  one  passes  through  a  narrow  aisle,  ten 
feet  by  about  four  feet  wide,  for  about  seventy-five 
feet,  where  another  hole  is  reached,  through  which  one 
must  crawl  bear-fashion.  At  720  feet  from  the  en- 
trance the  only  considerable  side  passage  is  found  at 
the  right  running  back  at  an  angle  from  the  main  cavern 
some  fifty  feet,  and  ending  in  a  circular  chamber,  the 
entire  passage  being  about  twelve  feet  high  by  eight 

There  is  ample  evidence  that  Gardiner  Cave,  so  far 
as  explored  by  the  party,  constitutes  but  a  small  part  of 
the  subterranean  chambers  and  passageways  of  the  im- 
mediate locality.  Points  in  favor  of  this  assertion  are 
that  this  cave  was  penetrated  twenty  feet  above  the 
entrance,  where  a  portion  of  the  roof  had  caved  in, 
obstructing  further  observations  without  some  further 
preliminary  manual  labor.  Circular  sinks  of  the  sur- 
face in  various  places  show  that  the  underlying  lime- 
stone has  been  removed.  A  considerable  stream  gush- 
ing out  of  the  hill  half  a  mile  or  more  away  with  an 
opening  above  some  two  by  four  feet  at  low  water  and 
cut  in  the  limestone  adds  to  the  evidence.  Streams, 
which,  as  springs,  gush  out  of  the  mountain  above, 
suddenly  disappear.  The  whole  mountain  so  far  as 
examined  is  limestone,  an  excellent  material  in  which 
to  look  for  caves.  For  ten  days  or  a  month's  outing 
tViis  portion  of  Stevens  county  offers  great  opportunity 
for    either    pleasure    or    research. 

While  it  is  not  within  the  province  of  this 
work  to  produce  an  exhaustive  or  technical 
treatise  on  the  geology  of  Stevens  county,  we 
may  candidly  admit  that  such  a  division  of  the 
book  would  not  prove  the  least  interesting.  To 
the  student  of  this  science  the  geological  for- 
mation of  the  county  is  replete  with  interest 
offering  a  wide  field  for  a  fascinating  investiga- 
tion. It  is  considered  necessary,  however,  to 
glance  at  the  primordial  character  of  this 
greatly  diversified  country  that  others  may  trace 
therein  the  elementary  outlines  of  a  vast  and 
comprehensive  cosmogony. 

The  greater  portion  of  eastern  Washington 
is  covered  by  the  original  "fire-rock,"  the  basalt. 



This  dull,  uninviting  substance  meets  the  eye 
everywhere,  on  the  bluffs,  along  the  streams  and 
upon  the  "scab  lands."  But  in  Stevens  county 
there  occurs  a  radical  transformation.  Here  we 
encounter  every  variety  of  the  secondary  rock 
and  in  the  dykes  and  veins  in  them  we  find 
almost  every  known  mineral.  Among  these 
may  be  named  zinc,  antimony,  nickel,  tin, 
arsenic,  iron,  silver  and  gold.  Specimens  of 
one  or  more  of  them  are  obtainable  in  numerous 
places  throughout  the  county.  Igneous, 
sedimentary  and  metamorphic  rocks  are  in 
abundance  everywhere,  often  thrown  together 
in  a  confused  mass  by  volcanic  action.  Of  the 
igneous  rocks  basalt  and  porphyry  are  obtaina- 
ble, and  of  sedimentary  rocks,  sandstone,  shale, 
and  limestone  are  found.  All  the  varieties  of 
limestone  are  easily  procured,  carbonate  of 
lime,  magnesian  limestone  and  sulphate  of  lime 
or  gypsum.  One  variety  of  gypsum,  alabaster 
of  wonderful  beauty,  rewards  the  industrious 
searcher.  Of  the  metamorphic  rocks  quartzite, 
marble,  syenite,  slate,  granite,  gneiss  and  mica 
schist  are  in  surprising  abundance.  The  many 
varieties  of  the  finest  marble  in  the  world  have 
already  assumed  a  prominent  position  in  the 
commerce  of  the  county  and  are  treated  of  else- 
where in  extenso.  One  variety,  improperly 
termed  onyx,  is  said  by  experts  to  be  the  hand- 
somest and  most  valuable  for  decorative  pur- 
poses to  be  found  in  any  portion  of  the  union. 
The  slate  is  unequaled  anywhere.  Pure  feld- 
spar, when  decomposed,  produces  kaolin,  a 
kind  of  clay.  In  the  southeastern  part  of 
Stevens  county  is  found  an  immense  deposit  of 
kaolin  which  has  been  experted  and  pronounced 
as  running  in  high  values.  Mineral  paint, 
formed  from  variously  colored  clays  and 
ground  oil,  is  an  industry  in  the  eastern,  or 
Calispell  section  of  the  country,  and  in  the  Pend 
d'Oreille  mountains  are  found  huge  buttes  of 
pure  mica. 

So  far  the  coal  measures  developed  are  lim- 
ited. Although  there  are  a  number  of  small 
deposits,  most  of  them  have  been  burned  out 

by  later  volcanic  action.  While  geologists  in 
this  locality  have  been  unable  to  find  traces  of 
the  northern  drift  of  the  glacial  period,  the 
Rocky  Mountains  forming,  probably,  a  barrier 
against  the  great  glacier  that  aeons  ago  over- 
whelmed so  large  a  portion  of  this  continent, 
yet  e\'erywhere  in  Stevens  county  are  indubita- 
ble signs  of  glacial  action.  At  that  period  the 
mountains  attained  a  far  greater  altitude  than 
at  present,  and  were  covered  with  immense 
glaciers  which  plowed  out  the  valleys  now 
thickly  populated,  and  filled  them  with  drifts 
hundreds  of  feet  in  depth.  The  fossiliferous 
distribution  in  this  county  is  not  so  large  as  in 
many  other  localities.  The  powerful  incinerat- 
ing heat  that  crystallized  limestone  into  marble, 
clay  into  slate  and  quartz  into  quartzite,  burned 
out  the  greater  portion  of  fossils;  yet  with  a 
little  care  quite  a  fair  collection  may  be  made 
at  the  present  day.  In  every  school  district 
throughout  the  county  a  collection  of  ores  and 
rocks  may  be  accumulated  superior  to  the 
geological  cabinets  of  many  eastern  colleges. 

In  speaking  of  the  topography  of  the  county 
Mr.  L.  K.  Armstrong,  editor  of  Mining,  says : 

"Between  the  Columbia  and  the  Colville 
rivers,  with  the  exception  of  the  narrow  valleys 
along  these  streams,  the  country  is  rough  and 
mountainous  in  places,  reaching  an  altitude 
above  sea  level  of  more  than  6,000  feet  and 
the  divide  between  these  streams  has  an  alti- 
tude of  more  than  4,500  feet.  To  the  east  of 
the  Colville  valley  and  between  it  and  the  Pend 
d'  Oreille  valley  is  another  mountain  range,  the 
highest  point  of  which,  Calispell  peak,  has  an 
altitude  of  6,905  feet  above  sea  level,  with  an 
average  height  of  the  divide  between  4,800  and 
5,500.  East  of  the  Pen  d'Oreille  river  the  coun- 
try is  mountainous  and  rough  with  about  the 
same  altitude  as  that  to  the  west.  All  these 
mountain  ranges  are  well  supplied  with  lateral 
streams  which  have  formed  in  many  instances 
quite  deep  gorges.  The  mountains  rise  grad- 
ually from  the  valleys,  first  being  the  foothills, 
which    gradually   merge    into    the    mountains. 



Along  the  Columbia,  however,  the  bluffs  rise 
more  abruptly  than  they  do  along  most  of  the 
streams.  The  mountain  ranges  extend  in  an 
almost  due  north  and  south  direction  across  the 
county.  The  following  list  of  elevations  of 
different  places  over  the  county  will  give  an 
idea  of  the  diversified  character  of  the  surface : 

Locality.  Feet. 

Addy    (.1)     1,652 

Bossburg  (1)    1,385 

Calispell  Lake   (2;    2,110 

Calispell  Peak   (2)    6,905 

Chewelah    Peak    (.2)    5,748 

Chewelah    (i)    1,690 

Colville  Mountain  (2)   5,667 

Colville  (I)    1,602 

International   Boundary   (i)    1,370 

Loon   Lake    2,440 

Marble   (l)    1,486 

Mouth  of  Colville  River   (2)    1,176 

Mouth  o£  Spokane  River   (2)    1,068 

Northport   (i)    1,350 

Newport  (3)   2,121 

Springdale    (i)     2,100 

Stensger's  Peak  (2)   6,299 

Waits  Lake  (2)    1,816 

(1)  Elevation  by  U.   S.   Geological   Survey. 

(2)  Elevation  by  the  North  Transcontinental  Survey. 

(3)  Elevation   from  the  G.  N.  Railroad. 

What  is  known  as  the  Colville  State  Fish 
Hatchery  was  established  in  1900  about  one 
mile  from  Kettle  Falls.  In  his  report  for  1902 
Fish  Commissioner  Kershaw  said : 

"It  is  erected  on  state  land,  of  which  the  de- 
partment has  a  lease  for  five  years.  It  is  located 
about  one  mile  from  Kettle  Falls,  on  the  Col- 
ville river,  in  Stevens  county.  It  was  operated 
in  1901,  hut  only  took  about  90,000  spawn,  and 
I  concluded  that  the  expense  of  operation 
would  not  justify  the  results  obtained,  and 
closed  the  plant  down  for  the  present  season. 
I  placed  Mr.  D.  M.  Richard  in  charge,  at  a 
nominal  salary,  with  instructions  to  closely 
watch  the  river  and  report  to  me  the  number 
of  salmon  that  ascended  the  stream  this  sea- 
son, and  he  reported  that  he  had  seen  only 
forty-five  salmon  so  far.  I  have  no  doubt  that 
at  one  time  this  was  a  fine  salmon  stream,  but 

a  freshet  they  had  a  few  years  ago  changed 
the  entire  condition  of  the  river.  Instead  of 
emptying  its  waters  down  the  Columbia  river 
as  in  former  years,  it  now  discharges  its  waters 
up  stream.  The  channel  of  the  Columbia  river 
has  changed  from  the  east  to  the  west  side,  and 
this,  together  with  the  freshet,  has  left  the 
sprawning  grounds  in  the  river  covered  with 
large  boulders,  and  has  completely  destroyed 
whatever  natural  conditions  favorable  for 
spawning  ever  existed." 

Three  miles  from  Newport,  in  the  south- 
eastern part  of  the  county,  ^Ir.  B.  L.  Gordon, 
of  Spokane,  in  the  summer  of  1903,  established 
a  private  fish  hatchery  in  the  headwaters  of  the 
Little  Spokane  river  for  the  purpose  of  breed- 
ing trout.  At  present  this  is  the  only  fish  hatch- 
ery of  any  importance  in  the  county. 

October  i,  1903,  Stevens  county  contained 
the  following  postoffices,  thirteen  of  them  being 
money  order  offices :  Addy,  Alyea,  Arzina, 
Bissell,  Bluecreek,  Bossburg,  Boundary,  Calis- 
pell, Camden,  Cadonia,  Chewelah,  Clayton,  Col- 
ville, Daisy,  Deertrail,  Dunn,  Echo,  Frontier, 
Gifford,  Gray,  Harvey.  Hunters,  lone.  Kettle 
Falls,  Locke,  Loonlake,  Marble,  Maud,  Meyers 
Falls,  Newport,  Northport.  Oren,  Penwith, 
Rice,  Rockport,  Ryan,  Scotia,  Springdale, 
Tumtum,  Usk,  Valley,  Waterloo.  Cusick,  Dal- 
kena,  Evans,  Lenora,  Wellpinit,  forty-nine  all 

In  the  extreme  southwestern  portion  of 
Stevens,  and  due  north  from  Lincoln  county, 
.lies  the  Spokane  Indian  reservation.  On  the 
south  it  is  bounded  by  the  Spokane  river,  on 
the  west  by  the  Columbia,  while  its  eastern 
boundary  is  formed  by  Chamokane  Creek.  Its 
area  is  about  328  square  miles.  There  are  no 
towns  within  its  limits,  the  Indian  agency  being 
headquarters  for  all  business  connected  with  the 
tribe  to  which  it  is,  at  present,  dedicated.  The 
population  is  indefinite  as  the  Indians  come  and 
go  at  nearly  all  seasons  of  the  year. 

At  one  period  the  whole  of  the  Colville 
Valley  was  included  in  the  vast  Colville  reser- 


vation,  now  forming  much  of  the  territory  of 
Ferry  and  Okanogan  counties.  This  is  a  fact 
not  generally  known.  But  along  in  the  7o"s 
General  Grant,  then  president,  issued  a  procla- 
mation. By  the  terms  of  this  document  all  the 
country  lying  in  the  northeastern  portion  of  the 
Territory  of  Washington,  touching  the  bound- 
ary of  Idaho  on  the  east,  for  a  width  of  nearly 
one  hundred  miles,  and  extending  in  length 
nearly  two  hundred  miles  westward,  should  be 
included  in  the  Colville  Indian  reservation.  It 
is  in  accordance  with  this  fact  that  it  is  deemed 
best  to  treat  the  Colville  Indian  reservation  in 
this  descriptive  chapter  of  Stevens  county,  for 
at  that  period  all  of  what  is  now  the  Colville 
reservation  was  within  the  county  of  Stevens, 
prior  to  the  severance  of  Okanogan  and  Ferry 

During  the  administration  of  President 
Grant  it  was  considered  in  the  extreme  east,  and 
what  was  then  the  middle  west,  that  the  best 
use  to  which  this  portion  of  the  earth's  sur- 
face could  be  put  was  to  cut  it  up  into  Indian 
reservations.  Various  military  men  and  the 
heads  of  geological  surveys  had  issued  scientific 
pronunciamentos  to  the  effect  that  the  "Great 
American  Desert"  comprised  nearly  all  the  ter- 
ritory between  California  and  the  Missouri 
ri\er.  Settlers  had,  however,  located  on  widely 
separated  tracts ;  had  tested  the  qualities  of  the 
"desert;"  had  spied  out  the  land  and  pro- 
nounced it  good  despite  the  military  men  and 
scientists.  Among  these  some  had  established 
the  outposts  of  civilization  in  tlie  Colville  valley, 
on  the  "reservation."  So  vigorously  did  they 
protest  at  the  expansion  idea  of  President  Grant 
that  he  soon  changed  the  plan  and  fixed  the 
Columbia  river  as  the  southern  and  eastern 
boundaries  of  the  Colville  reservation.  That 
threw  the  territory  of  modern  Stevens  county 
out  of  it. 

The  north  half  of  the  Colville  reservation 
was  opened  to  agricultural  settlement  Octolier 
lo.  I  goo.  Considerable  excitement  had  been 
anticipated   which   did   not   eventuate.      There 

was  not  the  "rush"  that  attended  the  opening 
of  Oklahoma  or  even  that  of  the  Nez  Perce 
Reservation  in  Idaho.  Conditions  were  dis- 
tinctly different.  For  a  number  of  years  this 
territory  had  been  open  to  mining  settlement, 
and,  consequently,  it  was  impossible  to  herd 
homesteaders  off  the  promised  land  as  thev 
were  barred  out  of  Oklahoma.  Since  tlie  reser- 
vation was  open  to  mining  development  the 
right  of  any  one  to  enter  freely  and  pursue  his 
avocations  remained  unquestioned.  Towns  had 
sprung  up  and  a  large  population  had  taken 
full  possession  prior  to  the  government's  edict 
opening  the  reservation.  Homeseekers  under 
the  guise  of  prospectors  had  chosen  their  loca- 
tions, pitched  their  tents,  erected  cabins  and 
made  other  improvements.  The  greater  num- 
ber who  had  contemplated  filing  had  already 
done  so.  For  weeks  and  even  months  home- 
steaders had  been  selecting  their  lands,  many 
camping  beside  them  the  night  previous  to  the 
opening.  Practically  the  best  of  feeling  pre- 
vailed. At  noon  they  simply  stepped  across  the 
section  line  and  established  their  claims.  But 
the  event,  though  a  quiet  one,  devoid  of  any 
sensationalism,  was  another  landmark  in  the 
fuller  development  of  Washington,  and  the  ter- 
ritory once  comprised  in  Stevens  county. 
Along  with  the  great  mineral  resources  the 
agricultural  and  timber  wealth  were  now  to  lie 
developed.  An  era  of  railway  construction  was 
to  follow  which,  although  still  incipient,  is 
destined  to  produce  great  results,  and  wild  and 
idle  regions  made  to  blossom  as  the  rose. 

A  Spokesiiian-Rcz'iezi'  correspondent,  writ- 
ing of  this  incident  from  Grand  Forks,  B.  C, 
under  date  of  October  lo,  1900,  says: 

"The  opening  of  the  north  half  of  the  Col- 
ville reservation  today  for  homestead  purposes 
was  characterized  by  many  ludicrous  and  ex- 
citing incidents.  Information  received  would 
indicate  that  there  are  an  average  of  five  claim- 
ants for  each  location.  The  United  States 
Land  Office  .will  be  fully  occupied  for  months 
in    adjusting    disputes    respecting    ownership. 


For  instance,  no  less  than  six  individuals,  in- 
cluding Frank  Law,  of  Grand  Forks,  and  O.  B. 
Nelson,  H.  Donough,  B.  Price  and  H.  N. 
Genin,  of  Nelson,  simultaneously  located  one 
hundred  and  sixty  acres  comprising  the  north 
addition  of  the  townsite  of  Nelson.  The  land 
lies  between  the  town  and  the  international 
boundary.  There  is  a  perfect  forest  of  stakes 
and  each  claimant  before  nightfall  had  erected 
a  shack.  The  same  condition  of  affairs  practir 
cally  prevails  south  through  the  Kettle  River, 
Curlew,  and  San  Foil  valleys  to  Republic. 

"J.  A.  Coryell  and  Fred  Wallaston,  of 
Grand  Forks,  who  have  been  engaged  on  the 
railway  survey  for  the  Clarence  J.  McCuaig 
syndicate,  returned  here  tonight  and  report  that 
every  available  foot  of  the  land  in  the  bottoms 
or  on  bench  lands  had  been  located.  Mr.  Cor- 
yell estimated  tht  the  locations  along  this  route 
will  exceed  five  hundred,  while  the  territory 
will  not  permit  of  over  one  hundred  and  twen- 
ty-eight valid  locations.  Mr.  Coryell  reached 
a  point  twelve  miles  south  of  the  boundary  (B. 
C.)  line.  He  states  that  camping  parties  were 
strung  along  a  few  acres  apart  for  the  entire 
distance.  At  noon  rival  claimants  began  stak- 
ing their  homesteads  in  close  proximity,  with 
the  result  that  farm  after  farm  dovetails  into  its 
neighbor.  Fortunately  no  ill  feeling  was  dis- 
played and  the  entire  proceedings  were  note- 
worthy for  the  absence  of  gun  play.  The  bench 
lands  seemed  to  attract  as  much  attention  as 
bottom  lands  or  timbered  flats.  Homestead^s 
showed  especial  partiality  for  the  west  side  of 
Curlew  Lake,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Curlew 
townsite  each  location  has  seven  or  eight  claim- 
ants. Helphry  Brothers,  merchants  of  Cur- 
lew, are  among  those  who  located  land  near 
the  townsite.  They  have  an  eight-cornered 
contest  on  their  hands. 

"Shacks  and  other  buildings  sprang  up 
within  three  hours  as  if  by  magic.  Many  of 
the  homesteaders  hail  from  Idaho  and  eastern 
Washington,  and  are  accompanied  by  their 
families.     Several  women  secured  choice  lands. 

Miss  Reeves,  a  young  and  prepossessing  lady, 
abandoned  her  "hello"  duties  at  Grand  Forks' 
telephone  office  yesterday  to  join  in  the  stam- 
pede. She  was  fortunate  enough  to  secure  one 
hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  bottom  land  two 
miles  west  of  Curlew.  Half  a  dozen  men  were 
camped  on  the  same  ground  before  her  arrival, 
but  they  chivalrously  capitulated  and  moved 
elsewhere,  possibly  only  to  become  involved  in 
contests  with  their  masculine  neighbors." 

A  Colville  correspondent  wrote  as  follows : 

"The  opening  of  the  reservation  today  cre- 
ated little  public  attention  or  interest.  People 
intent  on  settlement  ha\'e  been  going  in  for  sev- 
eral weeks,  not  waiting  at  the  border.  No  offi- 
cial signal  gave  notice  of  the  time  the  proclama- 
tion took  effect.  It  was  simply  12  o'clock  noon. 
Bossburg  and  Marcus  were  the  principal  points 
of  entrance.  The  ferries  were  busy  all  night. 
Major  Anderson,  the  agent,  has  been  along  the 
border  the  past  few  days  making  observations. 
The  general  rule  observed  was  that  a  settler 
was  not  obliged  to  stay  off  the  land,  but  could 
camp  anywhere  on  the  reservation  in  sight  of 
the  land  he  coveted,  instead  of  at  the  border, 
and  move  on  the  land  at  once  on  the  opening. 
At  Northport  much  annoyance  was  expressed 
on  account  of  the  land  not  being  surveyed. 
Only  township  lines  are  run  out  to  the  extreme 
east  end." 

The  Spokesiuaii  -  Rcvinc  correspondent 
from  Republic  said : 

"The  city  hall  bell  rang  today  at  12  o'clock 
noon  announcing  the  opening  of  the  north  half 
of  the  Colville  reservation  to  agricultural  set- 
tlers. Within  a  few  minutes  thereafter  there 
were  filings  made  with  the  United  States  Com- 
missioner O.  S.  Stocker.  From  that  time  until 
nine  o'clock  tonight  (October  10)  stragglers 
came  in  until  the  number  reached  twenty-five. 
There  will  he  probably  a  larger  number  tomor- 
row as  none  was  filed  by  those  living  at  any 
considerable  distance  from  Republic,  or  by  per- 
sons who  are  not  old  time  residents.  The  fil- 
ings were  made  upon  lands  near  Curlew  Lake, 


San  Foil  lake  and  along  the  streams  feeding 
those  lakes.  There  are  no  difficulties  over 
lands  so  far  as  known  here.  Several  persons 
filed  on  a  ranch  that  has  been  cultivated  for  sev- 
eral years  by  a  man  named  Murrier,  but  there 
has  been  no  trouble  over  it  yet.  There  were 
two  or  three  races  made  to  catch  the  commis- 
sioner's office  first.  Miss  Elizabeth  E.  Bee- 
croft,  well  known  in  Spokane,  where  she  once 
taught  school,  made  the  ride  from  a  point  on 
Curlew  lake  to  Republic,  nine  miles,  in  fifty-nine 
minutes.  Four  miles  of  the  road  was  over 
Klondike  mountain." 

On  the  same  date  (October  lo)  a  Kettle 
Falls  correspondent  wired : 

"It  is  exceedingly  quiet  here  today,  nowith- 
standing  the  fact  that  the  reservation  was 
opened  at  noon,  nearly  all  those  intending  to  go 
in  having  gone  before  and  settled  on  or  near 
their  prospective  homesteads." 

A  Marcus  correspondent  said : 

"Agent  A.  M.  Anderson,  in  charge  of  the 
Indians  on  the  Colville  reservation,  and  Clair 
Hunt  arrived  here  this  morning  from  an  ex- 
tended trip  through  the  reserve.  The  Indian 
agent  discovered  in  a  number  of  instances  that 
settlers  were  attempting  to  encroach  upon  al- 
lotments and  ordered  the  tresspassers  off.  Mr. 
Hunt  said :  'There  are  "sooners"  all  over  the 
reserve,  and  there  \\as  a  great  rush  to  make 
filings.  Contests  are  numerous,  in  instances 
three  or  four  men  claiming  the  same  land  and 
all  at  work  building  houses  on  it.'  " 

The  interest  taken  by  our  Canadian  friends 
across  the  border  is  manifested  by  the  follow- 
ing from  Grand  Forks,  B.  C,  under  date  Octo- 
ber 1 1  th : 

"Half  a  score  or  more  of  disappointed  and 
disgusted  homeseekers  passed  through  here  to- 
day on  their  way  from  Colville  reservation. 
Thev  came  from  various  points  along  the  upper 

Columbia  river.  Several  of  them  were  accom- 
panied by  their  families.  Theirs  was  a  hard 
luck  story.  In  nearly  every  instance  they  had 
located  on  lands  claimed  by  other  individuals, 
and  rather  than  await  the  outcome  of  intermin- 
able legal  proceedings  they  concluded  to  aban- 
don their  holdings.  Others  less  fortunate  ar- 
rived too  late.  Comparatively  few  of  the  home- 
steaders hastened  to  the  land  office  to  record 
their  filings.  The  majority  contented  them- 
selves with  erecting  shacks  on  their  holdings, 
feeling  confident  that  such  an  evidence  of  good 
faith  would  more  than  counterbalance  priority 
of  registration.  A  number  of  settlers  located 
on  St.  Peter's  Flat,  south  of  Curlew,  only  to 
discover  today  that  their  lands  had  already 
been  patented  as  placer  claims." 

On  October  loth  and  nth  filings  were 
made  on  homesteads  in  the  Colville  reserva- 
tion at  the  dififerent  land  offices  as  follows: 
Waterville,  1 1 1  homesteads  and  eight  soldiers' 
applications ;  Republic,  40 ;  Spokane,  37. 

The  free  homestead  law  which  was  then  ap- 
plied to  the  north  half  of  the  Colville  Indian 
reservation  has  certainly  made  that  region  an 
attractive  field  for  the  bona  fide  homeseeker. 
The  uncertainty  of  Indian  titles  there  had  been 
a  rather  strong  incentive  for  white  people  to 
remain  away  from  that  region.  But  since  it 
has  been  made  clear  what  constitutes  a  "real 
Indian"  for  homestead  purposes,  it  appears  that 
a  new  and  vast  acreage  of  the  reservation  that 
had  been  held  under  Indian  claims  by  white 
men  and  half  breeds,  claiming  by  marital  ties 
is  actually  open  to  homestead  entry.  There  is 
quite  a  large  area  lying  east  of  the  Kettle  river 
that  has  not  been  prospected  with  a  view  to 
settlement  by  the  people  coming  into  the  coun- 
try. It  is  now  easily  accessible,  supplied  with 
plenty  of  water  and  timber,  and  comprises  the 
finest  land  and  stock  range  in  the  countr\'. 




Near  Kettle   Falls.      Erected  in   1858.   replacing  a  formi 
Church  built  in  1846. 



Due  justice  to  the  subject  of  which  this 
chapter  treats  could  not  be  done  without  a  brief 
introduction  concerning  the  geology  of  Stevens 
county.  Although  the  Old  Dominion  mine, 
carrying  gold,  silver  and  lead,  was  the  original 
mineral  property  opened  in  what  is  now  the 
state  of  Washington,  it  is  to  her  marble,  ser- 
pentine, jasper  and  cjuartzite  developments  that 
the  county  owes  her  prominence.  As  has  Ijeen 
previously  stated  the  country  rock  is  granite, 
(juartzite,  marble,  limestone  and  metamorphic 
rock  in  general.  The  marbles  show  stratifica- 
tion in  but  few  places,  the  metamorphism  hav- 
ing been  great  enough  in  most  instances  to  de- 
stroy all  traces  of  it.  In  places  the  sedimentary 
deposits  are  steeply  inclined,  having  been  much 
disturbed.  In  certain  localities  the  marbles  are 
found  in  contact  with  the  granites.  In  the 
great  part  of  the  district  fossils,  if  they  e\'er 
did  exist,  have  been  destroyed.  They  are  found 
in  extremely  limited  quantities  near  Valley- 
Brook  where  the  Washington  Brick,  Lime  and 
Manufacturing  Company  are  quarrying  the 
limestone  that  occurs  there  and  using  it  for  the 
manufacture  of  lime.  These  fossils  have  been 
poorly  preserved,  and  as  yet  it  has  not  been  pos- 
sible to  do  much  with  them.  They  ha\'e  the 
a])pearance  of  being  Palaeozoic  corals. 

The  same  limestone  and  marble  deposits 
are  found  to  the  north  of  Stevens  county  in 
British  Columbia  and  in  some  places  they  con- 
tain a  few  poorly  preser\-ed  fossils  which  are 
thought  to  be  of  the  Carboniferous  age.  It  is 
quite  likely  that  the  Stevens  county  marbles 
and  limestones  are  of  the  same  age  as  those  in 
British  Columbia.  Should  the  latter  prove  to 
1)6  Carboniferous  the  Stevens  county  fossils  are 
probal:)lv  the  same. 

In  the  southern  part  of  the  marlile  area  it 
occurs  low  down  either  in  valleys  or  low  foot- 
hills. To  the  north  it  is  found  at  a  much 
greater  altitude.  Igneous  and  metamorphic 
rocks,  such  as  granite,  slate  and  quartzite  are 
found  in  the  highest  part  of  the  mountain 
ranges.  In  the  foot-hills  which  border  the  Col- 
\-ille  A^alley,  from  Valley-Brook  to  the  north- 
ern end  is  found  more  or  less  marble  and  lime- 
stone. Indications  show  that  the  marbles  and 
limestones  of  Stevens  county  are  the  remnants 
of  what  was  at  one  period  a  much  larger  de- 
posit covering  the  country  to  the  west  as  far  as 
the  Cascade  Mountains.  This  area  must  have 
been  under  water  at  the  time  these  deposits 
were  forming,  and  these  sediments  accum- 
ulated, following  which  there  was  an  elevation 
and  the  sedimentary  rocks  were  folded  more 
or  less  and  in  places,  batUy  broken.  At  the 
time  this  elevation  took  place  the  igneous  rocks 
were  forced  up  into  those  of  sedimentary  depo- 
sition, the  sedimentary  rocks  more  or  less 
metamorphosed  and  thrown  into  anticlines  and 
sinclines.  At  about  this  period  erosion  began 
to  cut  down  this  area  and  has  succeeded  in  re- 
mo\-ing  a  large  part  of  the  limestone  from  it 
and  especially  from  the  highest  parts  where 
erosion  would  naturally  be  the  greatest.  The 
e\'idence  of  folding  is  not  very  great,  and  such 
evidence  has  been  found  in  but  a  few  instances. 
There  is,  however,  plenty  of  evidence  that  there 
has  been  very  marked  disturlaances  and  in  many 
places  the  strata  are  tilted  and  steeply  inclined. 
In  the  northern  part  of  Stevens  county  there 
are  marked  indications  that  this  part  of  Wash- 
ington was  covered  with  glaciers.  In  places 
large  masses  of  rock,  which  are  unlike  the  rock 
on  which  thev  rest,  are  fnund,  while  in  others 



the  country  rock  plainly  shows  the  effects  of 
ice  in  the  polished  surface  and  striations  which 
are  found. 

In  the  matter  of  building  and  ornamental 
stone  of  various  kinds  Stevens  ranks  second  to 
no  county  in  the  state.  Granite,  marble,  jaspar, 
.serpentine  and  limestone  comprise  the  principal 
material  in  this  line.  The  quarry  industry,  yet 
in  its  infancy,  has  made  rapid  strides  during 
the  past  few  \ears  and  a  large  amount  of  money 
has  been  expended  in  developing  this  portion 
of  the  county's  resources.  The  deposits  of 
marble  found  in  various  sections  are  enormous 
and  the  prospect  for  their  being  extensively 
quarried  is  flattering. 

Concerning  the  history  of  the  marble  in- 
dustry in  this  county  Mr.  John  B.  Slater,  while 
editor  of  the  Stevens  County  Reveille,  wrote 
the  following  under  date  of  July  30,  1903  : 

In  view  of  the  interest  being  taken  in  the  develop- 
ment of  this  industry  it  is  interesting  to  know  some- 
thing of  the  history  of  marble  in  its  native  state.  .'\s 
early  as  1804,  when  the  famous  explorers  Lewis  and 
Clarke  traversed  the  wilds  of  the  Pacific  slope,  then 
inhabited  by  Indian  tribes.  General  Clarke  reported  the 
fact  that  a  fine  quality  of  marble  abounded  along  the 
region  traversed  by  the  Columbia  river.  According  to 
his  reports  the  point  traversed  by  the  Columbia  river, 
where  he  noted  the  fact  that  marble  existed,  was  cer- 
tainly somewhere  within  the  boundaries  of  Stevens 
county,  and  as  he  traveled  over  a  vast  range  of  country 
examining  critically  the  geological  formation,  nowhere 
else  did  he  find  anything  in  the  form  or  shape  of  marble 
worth  mentioning.  Soon  after  Fort  Colville,  which  is 
located  three  miles  north  of  this  city,  was  garrisoned, 
in  1839,  by  two  companies  of  California  volunteers  under 
the  command  of  Major  Curtis,  who  was,  before  his 
enlistment,  chief  of  police  of  San  Francisco,  Lieutenant 
Whing,  first  lieutenant  quartermaster  in  his  cortipany, 
died  at  his  own  hands  March  22,  1862. 

This  was  the  first  death  of  an  officer  reported  at 
the  post  since  its  e.stablishment,  and  the  garrison  being 
small  it  created  a  profound  sensation  among  the  few 
who  afforded  the  only  military  protection  to  this  vast 
section  of  country.  It  was  suggested  by  the  soldiers 
that  it  was  proper  that  his  grave  be  marked  by  some 
suitable  monument  and  the  discussion  of  this  matter 
brought  forth  the  opinion  and  the  skill  of  an  ex- 
perienced marble  cutter,  who  was  a  private  in  Lieuten- 
ant Whing's  company,  and  he  straightway,  acting  upon 
the  encouragement  of  his  comrades,  explored  the  region 
inmiediatcly    surrounding    the    fort    for    suitable    stone 

from  which  to  prepare  a  tablet  upon  which  to  inscribe 
the  historical  event.  About  three  miles  southeast  of  the 
fort  he  discovered  a  ledge  of  marble  which  appeared 
to  be  of  suitable  quality  for  the  work  he  had  in  charge, 
and  it  was  from  this  ledge  that  the  beaiitiful  slab  was 
finished  and  lettered  with  the  name  of  the  soldier  and 
the  date  of  his  death,  and  laid  over  the  grave,  a  stone 
monument  erected  as  a  memorial  to  Lieutenant  Whing. 

This  is  supposd  to  be  the  first  marble  tombstone 
erected  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  state  of  Washington, 
and  it  is  a  fact  worthy  of  commemoration  that  this 
first  monument  was  carved  out  of  Washington  marble. 
When  the  military  authority  caused  the  remains  of  the 
soldier  to  be  taken  from  the  burying  ground  at  the  old 
garrison,  some  twelve  years  ago,  and  removed  to  the 
Presidio  at  San  Francisco  for  final  interment,  the  stone 
over  the  grave  was  discarded  and  soon  afterwards 
picked  up  and  used  by  a  rancher  as  a  base  in  an  open 
fireplace  built  of  stone.  For  a  number  of  years  this 
historical  relic  stood  the  test  of  fire  until  it  was  dis- 
covered by  J.  W.  Douglas  a  few  days  ago  and  he  being 
impressed  with  its  origin,  secured  it  as  a  memento  to 
be  held  by  his  company  commemorative  of  the  first 
product  of  the  kind  in  the  state.  This  stone  was  about 
twenty-eight  inches  wide  by  three  and  a  half  feet  in 
length,  and  is  a  beautiful  blue,  slightly  varigated  with 
white.  The  finish  was  effected  by  crude  methods  at  the 
time,  but  the  surface  took  a  beautiful  finish  which  re- 
mains upon  the  stone  through  ail  its  varied  experiences 
of  climatic  conditions,  which  is  considered  a  very  re- 
liable test  of  the  value  of  the  stone.  It  is  also  worth 
mentioning  that  in  after  years  when  civilization  began 
to  supplant  the  military,  that  the  marble  slab,  which  has 
been  described,  proved  an  index  to  what  has  grown 
into  an  industry  of  such  vast  importance,  .\bout  the 
time  the  stone  was  discared  from,  the  grave  of  Lieuten- 
ant Whing,  Judge  Samuel  Douglas,  of  this  city,  traced 
its  history  and  origin  and  forthwith  located  the  immense 
ledge  from  which  it  was  taken.  Samples  of  the  marble 
from  these  claims  were  sent  to  the  St.  Louis  exposi- 
tion some  twenty-five  years  ago  and  were  reported  as 
possessing  every  element  of  strength,  susceptible  of 
high  polish  and  freedom  from  fracture  that  rendered 
it  of  the  most  desirable  quality  for  commercial  purposes. 

Soon  after  that  George  J.  Wardwell,  one  of  the 
most  widely  known  marble  operators  in  the  state  of 
Vermont,  and  the  inventor  of  many  useful  devices  for 
working  marble,  visited  Colville  and  made  a  most 
thorough  'investigation  of  these  marble  quarries.  He 
pronounced  it  one  of  the  finest  deposits  of  the  native 
material  he  had  ever  seen,  but  discouraged  its  develop- 
ment, because,  as  he  stated,  lack  of  transportation  was, 
practically,  prohibitive  for  working  it  with  the  ex- 
pectation of  any  profit.  Mr.  Douglas  took  fresh  cour- 
age from  the  statement  of  Mr.  Wardwell,  and  after  rail- 
road facilities  had  been  established  in  the  county,  he 
associated  himself  with  his  brother,  J.  W.  Douglas,  a 
well-known  attorney  of  Spokane,  and  a  number  of 
eastern    parties,    and    organized    the    Standard    Marble- 



Onyx  Company.  This  company  acquired  title  to  sur- 
rounding land  until  now  it  has  a  holding  of  nearly  800 
acres  in  one  body  at  this  place.  They  have  also  ac- 
quired some  marble  properties  at  Chewelah,  in  this 
county,  and  have  expended  considerable  capital  and 
energy  in  their  development.  During  the  present  season, 
and  within  the  last  two  months,  the  Standard  Marble- 
Onyx  Company  has  placed  upon  the  quarries  a  large 
plant  of  machinery  for  quarrying  the  marble  and  as  soon 
as  developments  will  justify  they  will  put  in  the  neces- 
sary machinery  and  mills  for  working  and  polishing  the 
marble  upon  the  grounds.  Within  the  next  year  this 
company,  according  to  its  present  plans,  will  have  eight 
or  ten  quarries  opened.  Within  their  holdings  may  be 
found  thirty  different  varieties  and  colors  of  marble ; 
and  these  for  fineness  of  texture,  beauty  of  finish  and 
resistance  of  pressure,  will  equal  if  not  suppass  the 
product  of  any  quarries  in  the  United  States.  It  is 
claimed  that  this  wide  range  of  colors  to  select  from 
renders  it  possible  to  meet  exery  demand  of  the  trade 
without  having  to  divide  honors  with  any  other  concern 
to  furnish  a  quality  of  marble  that  cannot  be  produced 

Mr.  Charles  Lyman,  who  represents  the  largest  man- 
ufacturers of  marble  machinery  in  the  State  of  Vermont, 
•was  recently  here  from  Rutland,  and  spent  two  months 
examining  the  various  deposits  of  marble  in  this  section. 
His  object  in  making  a  searching  investigation  of  the 
marbles  of  this  county  was  to  determine  the  advisability 
of  looking  to  this  county  for  a  market  for  his  machinery. 
After  going  personally  over  the  ground  Mr.  Lyman 
states  that  the  marbles  of  Washington  are  in  texture, 
far  ahead  of  anything  he  has  ever  seen  east  or  west, 
and  especially  are  they  remarkable  for  solidity.  The 
deposits  stand  vertical  with  a  tendency  pitching  east- 
ward, trending  north  and  south,  which  is  an  evidence 
of  permanance.  The  great  width  of  the  deposits  are  in 
remarkable  contrast  to  the  variety  and  narrow  ledges 
of  the  material  to  be  found  in  most  places  in  the  east. 
Here  a  ledge  of  marble  of  an  identical  color  may  be 
found  without  a  change  for  a  width  of  from  100  feet 
when  another  ledge  of  equal  width  of  another  distinct 
color  may  be  immediately  adjoining;  and  these  changes 
may  occur  over  a   wide  surface  of  country. 

"There  is  no  comparison  to  be  made,"  said  Mr. 
Lyman,  "with  Vermont,  as  against  Washington  marble, 
in  variety  and  colors.  Washington  is  certainly  in  the 
lead  of  all  marble  producing  countries,  and  so  far  as 
the  quality  and  quantity  are  concerned  there  is  a  great 
abundance  of  it  here ;  in  fact  it  is  inexhaustible  and  it 
is  evidenced  from  growing  demands  for  building  ma- 
terial for  fine  finish,  that  the  builders  of  the  country 
must,  eventually,  as  a  matter  of  necessity,  come  to  the 
state  of  Washington   for  their  supply." 

It  is  not  now  a  question  of  transportation  because 
the  west,  so  far  as  marble  is  concerned,  can  compete  with 
.the  east  in  furnishing  its  products  to  the  market. 

The  process  of  extracting  the  various  dimen- 
sions of  marble  is  at  once  interesting  and  in- 
structive. There  is  no  blasting  in  this  delicate 
quarry  work.  All  marble  must  l:>e  drilled  out. 
This  is  accomplished  by  means  of  steam  drills. 
To  raise  a  block  intact  and  free  from  fracture 
a  succession  of  holes  must  be  drilled  around 
the  block.  A  "broaching"  bit  is  then  substi- 
tuted for  the  drill,  and  the  partitions  between 
the  drill  holes  are  cut  out.  The  block  is  then 
loose,  and  is  lifted  by  means  of  a  powerful 
derrick  onto  a  car  running  on  a  tramway  built 
for  the  purpose,  from  the  quarry  to  the  mill, 
where  it  is  placed  under  the  stone  gang  saw. 
This  saw  is  a  sash  apparatus  which  carries  as 
high  as  fifty  blades  if  necessary.  The  saws  are 
adjusted  to  cut  whatever  dimensions  are  re- 
quired. When  sawed  the  marble  slabs,  or 
blocks,  are  passed  on  to  the  rubbing  bed;  the 
face  of  the  stone  is  reduced  to  a  smooth  sur- 
face, and  it  is  ready  for  boxing  and  shipment. 
For  the  manufacture  of  pottery,  terra  cotta, 
sewer  pipe  and  brick  the  county  contains  large 
deposits  of  suitable  clays.  Clays  which  make 
an  excellent  cement  when  mixed  with  limestone 
also  abound.  The  clays  which  occur  around 
Clayton  are  being  used  by  the  Washington 
Brick,  Lime  and  Manufacturing  Company  for 
purposes  of  terra  cotta,  sewer  pipe  and  brick. 
Here  the  company  have  an  extensive  plant 
affordmg  employment  to  a  large  number  of 
men.  Good  pottery  clays  are  found  in  the 
same  locality  that  are  utilized  by  the  Standard 
Stoneware  Company,  the  plant  of  which  is 
located  at  Clayton  in  the  manufacture  of  all 
kinds  of  pottery  ware.  Limestone  suitable  for 
the  manufacture  of  lime  is  found  at  Valley- 
Brook,  an  excellent  grade  of  lime  being  pro- 

Reverting  to  the  subject  of  marble  it  may 
be  said  that  the  Crystal  Marble  Company  is  one 
of  the  few  corporations  of  this  sort  in  the  west 
whose  operations  have  passed  the  experimental 
stage.    Although  the  first  location  was  made  in 


June,  1899.  the  present  company  was  not  in- 
corporated unt'l  August,  1901.  The  work  of 
legitimate  development  has  been  constant!}'  and 
consistently  prosecuted  until  at  the  present  time 
no  question  exists  as  to  the  ability  of  the  quar- 
ries to  produce  a  marble  of  exceptional 
value  in  quantities  so  great  that  the  out- 
put need  only  be  limited  by  the  extent 
of  the  operations.  The  quarries  of  which 
five  large  ones  have  been  opened  and  put 
into  condition  for  immediate  production  are 
located  about  nine  miles  southwest  of  the  town 
of  Colville.  and  the  land  held  by  the  company 
covers  an  extent  of  1340  acres,  or  an  area  as 
great  as  sixty-seven  full  mining  claims,  or  more 
than  eight  farms  of  160  acres  each.  This  prop- 
erty is  not  scattered  but  is  in  one  block,  and  is 
heavily  wooded  with  pine,  cedar  and  fir  timber 
of  excellent  size.  This  asset  of  the  company 
alone  is  a  very  valuable  one ;  but  when  consid- 
eration is  taken  of  the  fact  that  it  is  almost  cer- 
tain that  this  vast  area  is  entirely  underlaid 
with  marble  of  high  quality,  the  value  of  the 
timber)  sinks  into  comparative  insignificance. 
Recent  borings  in  the  vicinity  show  a  depth  of 
1 100  feet  vertical  of  crystaline  limestone  or  mar- 
ble and  the  continuity  of  the  material  for  the 
working  of  many  generations — perhaps  cen- 
turies— is  thereby  assured.  The  contour  of  the 
country  at  and  surrounding  the  quarriesof  the 
Crystal  Marble  Company  is  all  that  could  be  de- 
sired. Two  excellent  roads  of  easy  grade  lead 
down  to  Colville  and  Addy  on  the  Spokane 
Falls  &  Northern  Railway.  For  the  near  fu- 
ture a  spur  to  the  quarries  has  been  promised, 
and  railroad  rates  have  been  secured  which  will 
allow  the  product  to  be  shipped  as  far  east  as 
the  Mississippi  river  and  lake  points. 

The  Crystal  Marble  Company  is  incorpor- 
ated under  the  laws  of  the  state  of  Washington, 
with  offices  at  Colville.  The  officers  are  Robert 
E.  Lee.  president,  C.  W.  Winter,  treasurer.  F. 
H.  Chase,  manager,  Symons  Block.  Spokane. 
C.  F.  Conrady.  vice  president  and  C.  A.  Mantz. 
secretary.     It  is  reported  that  Larson  &  Green- 

ough  recently  paid  for  a  one-quarter  interest  in 
the  property  $25,000. 

The  officers  of  the  Keystone  Marble  Com- 
pany, another  promising  quarry,  are  E.  M. 
Heifner,  president:  William  E.  Richardson, 
joint  judge  of  Spokane  and  Stevens  counties, 
vice  president ;  W.  L.  Sax,  secretary  and  treas- 
urer; S.  S.  Beggs,  J.  F.  Lavigne,  George  Bell, 
W.  R.  Baker  and  T.  F.  O'Leary,  trustees.  The 
Eureka  Marble  Quarries,  now  the  property  of 
the  Keystone  Marble  Company,  are  situated 
about  sixteen  miles  north  of  Colville,  in  Stev- 
ens county,  and  in  the  foot-hills  of  the  Pend 
d'  Oreille  range  of  mountains.  Bossburg,  ten 
miles  distant,  is  the  nearest  railway  station,  with 
an  easy  grade.  These  properties  comprise  the 
Eureka  No.  i.  Eureka  No.  2,  Eureka  No.  3  and 
Eureka  No.  4.  Each  of  these  claims  is  600  feet 
in  width  by  1.500  feet  in  length  and  the  aggre- 
gate area  covered  is  about  eighty  acres  of  pure 
marble.  An  estimate  of  the  character  and 
values  of  these  properties  is.  indeed,  flattering. 
It  is  claimed  that  this  vast  deposit  is  capable  of 
producing  a  quality  of  marble  superior  to  the 
finest  statuary  product  of  Italy.  Only  the  \^er- 
mont  quarries  furnish  it,  and  that  in  limited 
quantities.  It  is  said  that  the  product  will  com- 
mand an  average  of  $12  per  cubic  foot  at  any 
point  in  America,  and  it  is  no  more  expensive 
to  take  this  marble  from  its  restifig  place  than 
it  is  the  cheaper  qualities.  Ordinarily  white 
marble  is  worth  from  $4  to  $10  per  cubic  foot 
to  the  trade.  Aside  from  the  pure  white  the 
Keystone  carries  a  variety  of  colored  marble 
ranging  from  the  most  delicate  tints  to  deep 
gray,  mottled  and  white.  There  are  also  beau- 
tiful pinks  and  deeper  shades  showing  brilliant 
effects  when  when  polished.  Facility  for  pro- 
duction is  excellent.  This  feature  has  been  ex- 
amined by  Mr.  George  Bell,  who  enjoys  a  long 
ex])erience  as  an  artificer  in  stime,  especially 
marble.  It  is  his  testimony  that  the  stone  is 
substantially  in  place,  and  that  it  has  not  been 
broken  up,  checked  or  shattered  by  volcanic 
action,  or  other  subterranean  disturbances.     He 


stated  that  all  atmospheric  effect  ceased  at  a 
depth  of  from  six  to  twenty  feet  below  the  sur- 
face, and  that  beneath  these  depths  the  marble 
is  solid  in  texture,  meeting  every  requirement 
as  to  pressure  and  expansion,  and  is  susceptible 
of  the  most  delicate  carvings  and  the  most  soft 
and  beautiful  polish.  It  is  estimated  that 
$2o;ooo  will  place  a  plant  of  marble-working 
machinery  on  these  properties  that  will  afford 
substantial  results  from  the  sale  of  the  product. 
The  Columbia  River  Marble  Company  has 
acquired  title  to  1,300  acres  of  marble  land. 
This  is  a  mountain  of  marble;  resembles  no 
other  deposit  in  this  country  and  is  an  inex- 
haustible mass  which  cannot  be  estimated  in 
cubic  feet  without  making  the  figures  look 
ridiculously  large.  The  marble  rises  in  giant 
cliffs,  spreads  in  broad,  smooth  floors,  and  is 
present  upon  every  foot  of  the  tract  owned  by 
the  company.  This  property  lies  one  hundred 
miles  north  of  Spokane,  three  miles  from  Boss- 
burg,  and  just  across  the  Columbia  river  from 
the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railway  which 
is  a  part  of  the  Great  Northern  trans-conti- 
nental line.  From  the  marble  bluffs  a  cable 
tram  will  land  blocks  of  any  desired  size  upon 
the  cars  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  stream.  Its 
proximity  to  transportation  adds  largely  to  the 
value  of  the  property.  The  greater  portion  of 
the  marble  is  cream-tinted,  with  occasional 
bold  markings  of  black  and  often  delicate  trac- 
ings and  pencilings  of  the  latter.  It  is  close 
knit,  solid  at  the  very  surface,  semi-translucent 
and  a  fine  crystalled  marble.  It  takes  a  plate 
glass  polish  without  the  application  of  expen- 
sive materials.  This  peculiar  cream-tinted 
marble  is  identical  in  appearance  with  the 
world-famous  Pavanazza  marble  of  Italy. 
With  American  architects  the  Italian  Pa- 
vanazza is  popular,  and  they  are  using  it  abund- 
antly in  interior  decorative  work  in  eastern 
cities.  The  officers  of  the  Columbia  River  Mar- 
ble Company  are  George  W.  White,  of  New 
York,  president;  Thomas  H.'  Greenway,  of 
Onyx,   Washington,  vice-president,   and  Jesse 

L.  Bishop,  of  Spokane,  secretary.  Air.  Green- 
way  was  the  first  to  discover  and  develop  mar- 
ble in  Washington,  and  Mr.  Bishop  was  for 
three  years  at  the  head  of  the  office  force  of  the 
United  States  Marble  Company,  of  Spokane. 
One  of  the  most  valuable  locations  of  the  Co- 
lumbia Company  is  "Spion  Kop,"  a  round- 
topped  mountain  of  marble,  every  cubic  inch  of 
which  is  high  grade  material,  rivalling  the  best 
Italian  marble. 

Of  this  deposit  Conner  Malott,  city  editor 
of  the  Spokesman-Rcvieiv  has  written  : 

A  deposit  of  marble  has  been  found  in  Stevens 
county  that  is  nothing,  short  of  amazing  in  size  and  in 
the  variety  of  the  ornamental  stone  which  it  contains. 
It  lies  along  the  bluffs  on  the  west  shore  of  the  Columbia 
river,  two  miles  above  Bossburg,  and  to  measure  it 
by  metes  and  bounds  would  be  almost  impossible.  A 
vast  deposit  of  the  rock  extends  for  nearly  two  miles 
and  has  been  exposed  over  a  surface  of  more  than  one 
thousand  acres.  Throughout  the  whole  property  marble 
outcrops  at  the  very  surface  in  broad,  smooth  floors  or 
in  mighty  bluffs,  of  a  size  that  seem  incredible.  .\t 
Spion  Kop,  the  highest  point  where  it  is  exposed,  there 
is  a  cliff  of  white  marble  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  mile  long 
that  rises  almost  as  sheer  as  the  side  of  a  house,  for  two 
hundred  feet. 

There  are  tombstones  for  unborn  millions  in  that 
huge  wall  alone. 

The  property  was  examined  pretty  thoroughly  by 
Thomas  H.  Greenway,  superintendent  of  the  United 
States  Marble  Company,  and  he  has  spent  more  or  less 
time  on  it  since.  Mr.  Greenway  and  C.  E.  Mitchell 
organized  a  corporation  to  work  the  property.  They 
called  it  the  Columbia  River  Marble  Company,  and  they 
have  started  development.  The  company  has  secured 
title  to  1,230  acres  of  marble  land.  There  is  very  little 
wash  on  the  property  and  the  marble  outcrops  to  the  air 
in  hundreds  of  places.  It  shows  upon  the  hillside  in  al- 
most perfectly  plane  floors  that  are  like  the  top  of  a 
table  in  smoothness  and  freedom  from  cracks.  Then 
in  the  cliffs,  such  as  those  on  Spion  Kop,  it  breaks  away 
in  precipices  that  make  one  almost  too  dizzy  to  look 
down  upon. 

The  marble  is  of  many  grades.  At  the  southern 
portion  of  the  property  it  is  a  hard,  white  crystal,  not 
unlike  loaf  sugar  in  color  and  texture,  though  it  takes 
a  fine  polish.  It  is  peculiarly  hard  and  is  perhaps  best 
adapted  for  exterior  building  purposes.  Toward  the 
middle  of  the  property  it  gives  way  to  a  mottled  stone, 
where  the  white  rock  is  shot  through  with  streaks  and 
patches  of  a  darker  tone.  There  seems  to  be  no  limit 
to  the  white  and  mottled  stone.  Mr.  Greenway  con- 
fidently declares  that   with  a    few  channeling  machines 



at  work  he  can  turn  out  marble  at  such  low  cost  that  it 
could  compete  with  granite  as  a  building  material  in 
Spokane.  He  declares  that  he  can  keep  dimension  stock 
in  yards  in  Spokane  so  cheaply  that  a  man  wanting  a 
stone  step  or  a  sill  for  a  door  can  get  it  of  marble  at 
the  price  he  would  have  to  pay  for  ordinary  building 
rock.  If  a  quarter  of  what  Mr.  Greenway  confidently 
e.xpects  should  come  true  marble  from  the  Columbia 
river  quarries  will  soon  be  a  staple  in  the  building  trade 
throughout  the  northwest.  It  is  not  all  marble  of  such 
a  character,  however.  At  the  north  of  the  property, 
between  Spion  Kop  and  the  river,  there  is  a  deposit 
of  cream-colored  stone  which  is  too  rare  ever  to  be  used 
for  common  work.  Marble  men  say  that  it  most  re- 
sembles the  Pavanazza  marble  of  Italy.  It  is  a  faintly 
colored  stone,  partly  translucent,  and  its  color  tones  are 
exquisite.  It  will  always  be  used  for  the  highest  grade 
of  interior  finish.  Mr.  Greenway  expects  it  will  be  the 
product  which  will  give  the  widest  fame  to  the  quarries, 
and  certainly  it  is  a  wonderfully  beautiful  stone. 

Nestled  within  the  confines  of  the  property  are  two 
delightful  little  lakes,  one  of  which  has  long  been 
known  to  the  Indians  for  its  curative  qualities.  It  is 
surrounded  on  every  side  by  marble  outcrops,  and  it  is 
probably  the  only  place  in  the  world  where  the  noble 
Siwash  has  bathed  himself  in  a  marble  bathtub. 

The  Jefferson  Marble,  Mining  &  Milling- 
Company  was  incorporated  under  the  laws  of 
the  state  of  Washington  on  the  28th  day  of 
August,  1899,  by  the  discoverers  of  the  first 
deposit  of  marble.  The  present  ofificers  are  D. 
J.  Zent,  Colville,  president ;  Samuel  Hutchin- 
son, Lind,  Washington,  vice-president:  George 
J.  Heimbach,  Colville,  treasurer:  W.  W.  Zent, 
Ritzville,  Washington,  secretary.  The  trustees 
are  S.  Ott,  W.  W.  King,  George  H.  Kanzler, 
H.  E.  Hill,  W.  W.  Zent.  The  marble  property 
acquired  is  comprised  in  three  claims  known  as 
the  "Lilywhite,"  "Sunnyside,"  and  the  "Unex- 
pected." These  were  taken  under  the  placer 
regulations  and  each  contains  twenty  acres. 
The  company's  property  is  in  the  Colville  Min- 
ing district,  situated  between  the  north  and 
south  forks  of  Clugston  creek,  fourteen  miles 
by  wagon  road  north  of  Colville.  The  com- 
pany now  owns  450  acres,  or  twenty-two 
claims,  together  with  the  exclusive  water  right 
on  Clugston  creek,  and  plenty  of  timber  for 
lumber  and  fuel  for  many  years  to  come. 

This  marble  has  a  specific  gravity  of  2.'/2,^\ 

and  171  pounds  to  the  cubic  foot  in  weight,  or 
13. 1  feet  per  ton.  It  has  a  resisting  strength  of 
2,100  pounds  to  the  cubic  inch.  There  are 
twelve  distinct  colors  varying  from  dark  blue 
to  pure  statuary  white.  There  are,  also,  pink, 
rose  and  mottled  grades,  all  susceptible  of  a 
high  polish.  The  company  enlisted  the  services 
of  a  very  capable  and  thorough  mining  engi- 
neer, Mr.  Charles  Carruthers,  a  graduate  of  the 
Royal  School  of  England,  who  made  careful 
and  scientific  examinations.  This  was  done  be- 
fore any  great  amount  of  money  was  expended. 
The  result  of  each  examination  and  test  is  said 
by  the  officers  of  the  company  to  haA-e  been 
highly  satisfactory.  The  price  of  this  marble 
ranges  from  $3  to  $15  per  cubic  foot  f.  o.  b.  at 
Colville.  The  price  depends  upon  the  color, 
quality  and  quantity  purchased. 

The  Jefferson  Company  owns,  also,  four 
mineral  claims,  carrying  carbonates  and  silver. 
The  principal  one,  the  Comstock,  is  recog- 
nized as  one  of  the  most  promising  proposi- 
tions in  the  district.  There  are  250  feet  of 
tunnel,  20  feet  of  winze  and  35  feet  of  drift, 
making  a  total  of  365  feet  of  underground 
work,  together  with  an  ore  chute  500  feet  in 
length.  This  property  is  about  one  mile  south 
and  east  of  the  marble  quarries. 

Among  other  marble  prospects  under  de- 
velopment are  a  number  of  most  flattering  lo- 
cations in  Stevens  county.  The  Chewelah 
Marble  Company,  seven  miles  southeast  of 
Northport,  is  about  ready  to  ship  its  product,  as 
is,  also,  the  Allen  Marble  Company,  two  miles 
south  of  the  same  city.  The  United  States 
Marble  Company,  twelve  miles  west  of  Valley, 
is  quite  an  extensive  concern,  producing  several 
varieties  of  varigated  stone  for  which  it  finds  a 
ready  market.  The  Great  Western  Company, 
eight  miles  west  of  Addy,  is  just  beginning  to 
market  its  product,  while  the  North  American, 
west  of  Valley,  and  the  Colonial,  six  miles  west 
of  Addy,  do  not  as  yet  ship  any  marble,  but  ex- 
pect to  do  so  at  an  early  day. 

During  the  month  of  October,    1903,  the 



United  States  Marble  Company  closed  two  im- 
portant deals,  one  in  Seattle  and  the  other  in 
New  York,  for  the  sale  of  $21,000  worth  of 
their  Italian  green  marble.  The  Seattle  con- 
tract called  for  $11,000  worth  of  the  marble 
from  the  quarries  of  the  United  States  Com- 
pany to  be  used  in  decorating  the  entrance  of 
the  Lumber  Exchange,  in  the  coast  city.  The 
following  day  an  order  was  received  from  New 
York  for  five  car-loads  in  the  rough,  involving 
a  purchase  price  of  $10,000. 

In  1890  the  initial  lime  kiln  was  placed  in 
commission  in  Stevens  county  for  the  purpose 
of  burning  lime  for  the  trade.  Previous 
to  that  period  all  the  lime  for  building  purposes 
was  brought  from  Puget  Sound.  Today  the 
Stevens  county  kilns  supply  the  demands  of 
nearly  all  of  Eastern  Oregon,  Washington, 
Idaho  and  a  part  of  British  Columbia.  The 
Springdale  Lime  Works,  having  kilns  also  at 
Clayton,  are  the  largest  on  the  Pacific  coast 
and  are  said  to  produce  the  best  quality  of  lime 
on  the  market. 


The  original  search  for  mineral  in  Wash- 
ington dates  from  an  early  day.  It  had  been 
followed  in  a  desultory  manner  since  the  first 
excitement  attending  the  discovery  of  placer 
claims  in  the  vicinity  of  Oro  Fino,  Idaho.  So 
early  as  1858  Indians  attacked  and  turned  back 
several  parties  of  miners  attempting  to  make 
.  their  way  to  the  northward  of  Colville  Valley 
in  search  of  alleged  bonanzas  lying  across  the 
boundary.  Owing  to  this  fact  a  number  of 
these  would-be  prospectors  and  miners  located 
in  the  Colville  Valley,  sought  other  lines  of  in- 
dustry and  became  influential  and  respected 
citizens,  contributing  much  to  the  upbuilding 
of  the  country. 

For  a  number  of  years  following  the  rather 
indefinite  and  unsuccessful  pursuit  of  the  yel- 
low metal  stories  continued  to  be  rife  of  ex- 
ceedingly rich  exposures  of  outcroppings,  and 

these  tales  continued  to  fan  the  flames  of  inter- 
est in  the  locality  now  known  as  Colville.  The 
Kootenays  had  not  been  discovered.  The  rich 
mineralized  sections  of  the  Coeur  d'  Alenes  had 
been  merely  scratched  by  prospectors,  although 
some  faint  idea  of  the  value  of  the  district  was 
l>eginning  to  be  realized.  Northeastern  Wash- 
ington was,  practically,  unexplored.  About  this 
period  Patrick  and  William  Kearney  advanced 
into  this  vicinity  on  a  prospecting  trip.  They 
had  been  told  of  the  existence  of  mineral  in 
some  sequestered  spot  of  what  was  in  that  day 
the  Territory  of  Washington.  This  informa- 
tion had  been  conveyed  to  them  by  Indians. 
According  to  fairly  well  authenticated  tradi- 
tion they  were  out  in  search  of  this  legendary 
gold  deposit. 

It  was  in  March,  1885,  that  the  Old  Do- 
minion mine,  a  gold,  silver  and  lead  proposi- 
tion, was  discovered,  probably  the  original 
quartz  location  in  Eastern  Washington.  The 
history  of  its  discovery  is  interesting.  The  two 
Kearneys,  accompanied  by  A.  E.  Benoist,  were 
first  encouraged  by  indications  of  mineral 
found  on  the  mountain  upon  which  is  now  lo- 
cated the  Nevada  and  New  Era  group  of  mines. 
An  expert  might  term  the  discovery  highly 
scientific;  a  "tenderfoot"  will,  doubtless,  pro- 
nounce it  a  pure  run  of  luck.  It  was  the  winter 
season ;  the  slopes  of  the  mountain  range, 
sheering  ofif  to  the  northeast,  afforded  a  most 
picturesque  view :  a  panorama  painted  by  the 
hand  of  nature,  and  one  of  the  many  which 
brighten  the  scenic  perspective  of  the  entire 
state  of  Washington. 

By  taste,  experience  and,  perhaps,  the 
strong  influence  of  heredity,  Mr.  Benoist  was 
a  genuine  and  an  ardent  prospector;  one  of 
those  sanguine  natures  with  a  vivid  imagina- 
tion in  the  line  of  mineral  exploitation.  It  is 
said  today  that  never  was  he  inactive  while 
among  the  foot-hills  or  the  mountains,  a  rest- 
less, eager  hunter  for  the  gleam  of  treasure. 
On  the  west  side  of  the  river  he  had  discovered 
outcroppings.     From  the  summit  of  the  nearest 


peak  which  he  immediately  ascended  he  took 
his  bearings  to  the  northward.  In  his  mind  was 
firmly  implanted  the  idea  that  upon  this  fissure 
there  was  certain  to  be  an  overflow,  and  at  that 
spot  he  would  gain  all  the  wealth  he  desired. 

But  there  sprung  up  among  this  trio  of 
gold  seekers  a  radical  difference  of  opinion. 
The  two  Kearneys  declared  that  Benoist  was 
demented.  But  not  yet  did  they  decide  to  de- 
sert him.  With  rapid  steps  the  three  men  set 
out  and  walked  a  killing  pace  for  two  days. 
The  third  day  found  them  seated  on  a  sunny 
slope  at  the  south  end  of  the  Old  Dominion,  at 
that  time  called  Colville  Mountain.  The  con- 
versation between  the  three  prospectors  was 
heated  and  the  debate  all  one-sided  so  far  as 
weight  of  opinion  was  concerned.  The  two 
Kearneys  were  disgusted  and  were  trying 
seduously  to  persuade  Benoist  to  return  with 
them  to  the  confines  of  civilization.  But  he  re- 
mained obdurate.  He  declared  himself  deter- 
mined to  prosecute  his  original  idea,  saying  en- 
thusiastically that  somewhere  on  that  mountain 
must  be  the  overflow  of  which  he  was  in  search. 
W^eary,  footsore  and  discouraged  the  Kearneys 
who  had  determined  to  abandon  Benoist,  loi- 
tered upon  the  pleasant  spot  where  they  had 
paused  for  temporary  relaxation  from  the 
heavy  strain  upon  them.  Idly  they  swung 
their  prospecting  picks  in  a  vain  endeavor  to 
convice  Benoist  of  the  errors  of  his  calcula- 
tions. A  sharp  point  of  rock  was  broken  from 
the  glacial  covering  of  soil.  It  proved  to  be 
mineralized.  The  expert  Benoist  hastily  pro- 
claimed the  discovery.  He  proceeded  to  inves- 
tigate the  extent  of  the  deposit.  Half  an  hour 
later  stakes  were  driven  and  the  Old  Dominion 
mine  was  located — a  mine  which  produced  over 
$500,000  in  silver,  lead  and  gold  during  the 
same  year  of  its  discovery.  There  were  four 
original  locators  named  in  the  filing,  as  neither 
the  Kearneys  nor  Benoist  possessed  capital,  and 
each  of  these  for  several  years  enjoyed  an  in- 
come of  $8,000  a  month. 

At  the  time  he  first  observed  the  outcrop- 
ping Benoist  is  credited  with  saying : 

"There  is  plenty  of  mineral  in  this  hill,  but 
we  are  too  poor  to  fool  with  it,  because  we  will 
have  to  give  some  of  it  away  to  get  money  to 
develop  it." 

Benoist  also  contended  that  if  they  had  con- 
tiriued  south  on  the  same  contact  they  would 
have  found  a  mine  as  good  as  the  Old  Domin- 
ion. The  Deer  Trail  group  of  mines  have  been 
developed  upon  the  same  contact  but  in  a 
southerly  direction  from  the  original  discovery. 
For  four  years  they  produced  liberally  and  of  a 
quality  of  ore  identical  with  that  of  the  Old 

Writing  in  1895  Mr.  John  B.  Slater  con- 
tinues the  description  of  the  Old  Dominion 
mine,  bringing  it  down  to  that  date.  It  will  be 
observed  by  the  reader  that  he  gives  credit  to 
W.  H.  Kearney,  A.  E.  Benoist  and  E.  E. 
Alexander  for  its  discovery  and  location.  He 

"Stevens  county  since  its  earliest  settle- 
ments were  made,  over  fifty  years  ago,  has  been 
known  as  a  mineral  country,  but  it  remained 
for  more  advanced  civilization  to  take  the  first 
steps  in  development  of  the  resources  in  that 
direction.  It  was  in  the  month  of  March,  1885, 
that  the  discovery  of  the  Old  Dominion  was 
made  by  W.  H.  Kearney,  .A.  E.  Benoist  and  E. 
E.  Alexander  upon  the  east  end  of  what  is  now 
known  as  Old  Dominion  mountain,  si.x  miles 
east  of  the  town  of  Colville.  They  had  traced  a 
limestone  and  granite  contact  over  the  country 
for  many  miles  in  search  of  mineral,  but  were 
attracted  to  a  spot  on  the  point  of  the  mountain 
where  the  snow  had  melted  from  the  ground. 
It  was  at  this  point  that  the  three  prospectors, 
while  discussing  the  lay  of  the  beautiful  pan- 
orama of  country  that  lay  to  the  south  and 
west,  saw  croppings  of  rich  ore  projecting  from 
the  crevices  along  the  brow  of  the  cliff  beneath 
their  feet.  The  trained  eye  of  the  experienced 
prospector  seized  the  fragments  of  the  precious 


metal  that  had  been  so  mysteriously  revealed, 
with  exultations  of  joy  that  knew  no  bounds. 
The  location  was  staked  off  and  named  the 
Old  Dominion.  With  their  own  hands  these 
prospectors  extracted  several  tons  of  the  ore, 
and  with  the  assistance  of  friends,  secured 
transportation  for  it  to  San  Francisco,  where  it 
was  given  a  thorough  test  and  netted  them 
nearly  $3,000. 

"This  discovery  attracted  the  attention  of 
the  whole  west  to  the  mineral  fields  of  Wash- 
ington for  the  first  time,  and  since  that  day  a 
steady  growth  has  characterized  the  industry; 
and  the  world  has  never  lost  interest  in  the 
merit  and  extent  of  its  development  and  pro- 
duction. As  has  teen  frequently  said,  the  Old 
Dominion  has  paid  from  the  grass  roots.  From 
the  day  of  its  discovery  it  has  been  in  active 
operation,  during  a  period  of  ten  years  (or 
since  1885).  It  had  not  one  dollar  of  capital 
to  start  with,  but  it  has  been  the  means  of  lay- 
ing the  foundation  for  the  fortunes  of  hun- 
dreds of  people  who  now  live  happily  and  con- 
tented with  themselves  beneath  the  shadow  of 
the  great  mountain  which  bears  its  name.  In 
1892  Mr.  G.  B.  Dennis,  one  of  the  best  known 
financiers  of  the  Pacific  slope,  who  has  had  vast 
€xperience  in  the  development  of  a  number  of 
the  greatest  mining  enterprises  in  the  country, 
examined  this  property  with  a  view  to  ascer- 
tain its  possible  extent  and  value,  hoping  that 
the  information  thus  obtained  might  serve  him 
to  great  advantage  in  making  investments  and 
developing  other  enterprises  in  the  country.  He 
was  so  much  pleased  with  it  that  he  resolved  to 
purchase  it.  After  repeated  efforts  Mr.  Dennis 
and  his  associates  in  the  transaction  succeeded 
in  effecting  a  purchase  of  the  property  for  a 
large  sum  of  money.  Mr.  Dennis,  through  his 
intimate  relations  with  the  money  centers  of 
the  east,  and  by  a  long  established  reputation 
for  integrity,  great  executive  ability  and  busi- 
ness foresight,  coupled  with  indomitable  energy 
and  unsurpassed  skill  in  the  management  and 
control  of  great  enterprises,   immediately  or- 

ganized the  Old  Dominion  Mining  &  Concen- 
trating Company,  with  a  capital  of  $1,000,000, 
with  G.  B.  Dennis  as  president  and  general 
manager;  Cyrus  Bradley,  secretary;  John 
Hanly,  superintendent.  The  Old  Dominion 
mine  was  at  once  transferred  to  the  ownership 
and  control  of  this  corporation.  No  sooner 
had  the  company  been  organized  than  the  capi- 
tal stock  was  all  subscribed  and  it  was  recog- 
nized as  one  of  the  most  substantial  institu- 
tions of  the  kind  in  the  country.  Many  thou- 
sands of 'dollars  were  at  once  expended  in  the 
construction  of  the  largest  concentrating  plant 
in  the  state  of  Washington.  The  machinery  is 
of  the  best  and  of  the  latest  improved  pattern. 
An  80-horse-power  compressed  air  plant  was 
built,  and  heavy  hoisting  machinery  placed  in 
position.  A  shaft  is  now  being  sunk  to  the 
600-foot  level  to  meet  the  face  of  a  1200-foot 
tunnel,  and  in  all  about  5,000  feet  of  develop- 
ment work  has  been  done.  Regardless  of  the 
low  price  of  silver  during  a  long  period  of  un- 
precedented financial  depression,  and  the  con- 
dition of  distrust  that  has  prevailed  through- 
out the  country,  this  mine  has  kept  a  large  force 
of  men  employed  continually,  and  under  its 
present  management  has  produced  over  $600,- 
000  of  high-grade  ore  from  its  vast  deposits 
near  the  original  discovery  that  have  been 
worked  from  a  depth  not  to  exceed  seventy-five 
feet  from  the  surface  of  the  ground  at  that 
point.  The  value  of  the  ore  is  carefully  esti- 
mated at  450  ounces  of  silver  per  ton,  and  33 
per  cent  lead.  Large  reserves  of  rich  ore  are  in 
sight.  The  company  will  not  ship  ore  at  pres- 
ent for  the  reason  that  it  possesses  the  capital 
to  push  development,  and  considers  it  a  prefer- 
able investment  to  store  the  product  in  waiting 
for  better  times  and  higher  prices  in  the  future. 
"The  Old  Dominion  Company  now  owns, 
in  addition  to  the  Old  Dominion  mine,  fifteen 
other  properties  adjoining  and  is  pursuing  a  ju- 
dicious, systematic  and  vigorous  policy  in  their 
development.  Mr.  Dennis  was  the  first  to  in- 
troduce heavy  capital  in   the  Coeur  d'   Alene 


mines  of  Idaho,  and  has  been  a  great  factor  in 
the  development  of  the  mining  of  the  North- 
west, and  will  continue  to  direct  the  same  force 
in  the  upbuilding  of  the  mining  interests  of 
Stevens  county,  which  he  recognizes  as  the 
richest  field  in  which  he  has  had  the  good  for- 
tune to  interest  himself." 

The  mining  interests  of  all  districts  have 
been  marked  with  alternate  prosperity  and  de- 
pression. In  this  respect  what  is  known  as  the 
Colville  district  has  not  differed  materially 
from  others.  Yet  the  fact  remains  that  it  has 
■  reached  a  more  advanced  stage  of  development 
and  produced  more  ore  than  any  other  silver 
district  in  the  state  of  Washington.  It  forms 
the  southern  half  of  a  belt  extending  about  ten 
miles  east  from  the  Columbia  river  across  the 
Colville,  and  from  the  headwaters  of  Cedar  and 
Deep  creeks,  which  debouch  into  the  Pend  d' 
Oreille  river  near  the  National  Boundry  line, 
southward  for  seventy-five  miles,  terminating 
in  that  direction  in  the  Cedar  Canyon  District. 
Like  all  other  pioneer  discoveries  it  has  had  its 
successive  periods  of  activity  and  torpor. 

The  formation  of  this  belt  of  country  is 
granite,  lime,  slate  and  quartzite,  and  is  veined 
with  a  belt  of  bodies  of  silver-lead  ores,  run- 
ning sometimes  north  and  south  and  others 
east  and  west.  These  occur  either  in  contacts 
between  granite  and  lime,  slate  and  lime,  or 
slate  and  quartzite,  or  in  fissures  in  the  slate  or 
lime.  Where  they  occur  in  the  lime  formation 
the  ledges  show  a  good  deal  of  surface  disturb- 
ance, but  at  depth  settle  into  permanent  bodies 
of  ore  either  in  chutes  or  veins.  In  the  slate 
formation  the  ledges  are  almost  invariably  in 

Although  there  are  hundreds  of  claims  and 
prospects  throughout  Stevens  county  in  various 
stages  of  development  the  following  is  a  list 
of  the  patented  mines,  the  person  or  persons  in 
whose  names  the  property  is  assessed  and  the 
full  value  of  each  mine,  as  assessed  with  im- 
provements, taken  from  the  1903  assessment 

Capitol  Lode — H.  A.  Armstrong,  $250; 
Bonanza  Mine — Deer  Trail  Consolidated, 
$5,000;  Cleveland  Mine — Cleveland  Mining 
Company,  Olympia,  $5,200;  Triangle  Fraction, 
$200;  Stuart  Fraction,  $200;  Lucky  Boy,. 
$200;  Copper  King,  $200;  Copper  Queen, 
$200;  Etta — Northwest  Development  Com- 
pany, $200;  Tom  Sawyer — ditto,  $200;  Cop- 
per Bell — ditto,  $200;  Ona — ditto,  $200; 
Cream  Tint  Kaolin  M.— E.  S.  Graham  estate, 
$250;  Bella  May— R.  B.  Merrill,  $100;  Dia- 
mond R.— R.  B.  Merrill,  $100;  Blue  Bucket— 
R.  B.  Merrill,  $100;  Friday— F.  W.  Billings, 
$1,500;  Saturday — ditto,  $1,000;  Friday 
Fraction — ditto,  $500:  Grand  View — ditto, 
$1,500;  Monta  Quartz — ditto,  $500;  Mill  Site 
— ditto,  $150;  Lost  Axe  (Placer) — ditto, 
$200;  Clifford  (Placer),  $200;  California, 
$750;  Daisy  Lode,  $600;  Buckeye  Mine — D. 
P.  Jenkins.  $100;  Eagle  Mine — Eagle  Cop., 
G.  M.  &  M.  Company,  $200;  Reeves— Old  Do- 
minion M.  &  M.  Company,  $50;  Old  Dominion 
— ditto.  $1,500;  Ophir  Boy^ditto,  $50;  Ella — 
ditto,  $250;  Tillie  P.,  $50;  Spaulding— ditto, 
$50;  Buda— ditto,  $50;  Airline— ditto,  $50; 
Walter — ditto,  $50;  Tres  Pinos — ditto,  $50; 
International — George  J.  Goodhue,  $177;  Sil- 
ver Crown,  $125;  Northern  Light,  $125;  En- 
terprise— Scotia  M.  &  M.  Company,  $150; 
Morning  Star — ditto,  $150;  Elephant — Cedar 
Canyon  C.  M.  Company,  $10,000;  Defiance, 
Victory  and  Challenge — F.  G.  Slocum,  $1,000; 
Crescent  >  and  Deadwood — Orient  M.  &  M. 
Company,  $2,500;  First  Thought,  Homestake 
and  First  Thought,  Fraction  and  Annex  Lodes 
— First  Thought  Mining  Company,  Limited, 

The  total  full  value  of  improvements  on 
these  mines  assessed  is  $900.  The  full  value 
of  these  mines  as  assessed  is  $86,377.  The  last 
named  mine  had  its  assessment  reduced  to 
$25,000  by  the  county  board  of  equalization, 
leaving  a  total  of  $61,377. 

The  original  silver-lead  discovery  was 
made  in  1883,  at  the  Embry  camp,  two  miles 



east  of  Chewelah.  It  was  made  by  a  party  of 
prospectors  sent  out  by  John  N.  Squire,  of 
Spokane.  In  that  section  the  ore  carries  gale- 
na, sulphide  of  silver,  some  carbonate  of  lead 
and  chloride  of  silver,  mixed  with  iron  and  cop- 
per pyrites.  Within  two  years  this  was  fol- 
lowed by  a  rush  of  prospectors.  Explorations 
continued  northward.  Following  the  location 
of  the  Old  dominion  came  discovei'ies  at  the 
heads  of  Deep  and  Cedar  creeks,  and  along  the 
range  east  of  the  Columbia  to  Little  Dalles. 
This  territory  was  included  in  the  Northport 
District.  The  Young  America,  at  Bossburg, 
is  fifteen  miles  south,  the  ore  being  entirely 
lead  and  silver.  The  Big  Bonanza  lies  five 
miles  from  this,  southeast.  Here  the  ore  is  a 
mixture  of  heavy  galena  and  iron  pyrites,  car- 
rying about  forty  per  cent  lead  and  ten  ounces 
of  silver.  Still  traveling  southward  we  come 
to  Gold  Hill,  two  miles  east  of  Marcus.  The 
ore  here  is  copper  pyrites  carrying  gold.  Five 
miles  more  to  the  south  is  Rickey  mountain 
where  there  is  a  large  quantity  of  gray  copper 
ore.  This,  however,  is  very  much  broken  and 
no  solid  bodies  are  found.  Summit  Camp  lies 
fifteen  miles  onward  where  the  ore  carries 
galena  and  lead  carbonates,  and  this  same  class 
of  ore  is  found  at  the  Wellington  five  miles  to 
the  southwest. 

One  of  the  most  important  mines  in  Stev- 
ens county  is  the  Cleveland,  discovered  in  June, 
1894,  by  Messrs.  France,  Finsley  and  Lingen- 
felter.  It  is  situated  five  miles  south  of  Wel- 
lington. The  ore  is  galena  carrying  about 
thirty  ounces  of  silver.  The  Cleveland  is  in 
the  western  portion  of  the  county,  in  what  is 
known  as  the  Huckleberry  range.  Here  is  a 
rich  deposit  of  silver-lead  from  twelve  to  fif- 
teen feet  wide  incased  in  a  well-defined  contact 
of  lime  and  granite.  Within  two  months  of 
the  date  of  its  location  the  Cleveland  was  sold 
for  the  round  sum  of  $150,000.  George  B. 
McAuley,  a  well-known  Coeur  d'  Alene  min- 
ing man,  James  Monaghan  and  C.  B.  King, 
two   Spokane  capitalists,   were  the  purchasers 

at  the  price  named.  So  early  as  1895  they  had 
thoroughly  tested  the  value  of  the  property  and 
closed  all  doubt  respecting  the  ore  deposits,  and 
at  that  period  the  property  was  not  for  sale  at 
any  price.  In  addition  to  the  silver  the  ore 
runs  40  per  cent  lead  to  the  ton.  Although  a 
large  sum  of  money  has  been  expended  in  de- 
veloping the  ore  bodies,  little  of  it  has  been 
spent  that  has  not  been  taken  in  value  from  the 
mine.  Nearly  thirty  miles  of  roadway  have 
been  constructed,  and  shipments  have  been 
large.  The  ledge  was  tapped  by  a  200-foot 
cross-cut,  from  which  a  drift  was  run  150  feet, 
a  winze  sunk  60  feet  and  an  upraise  made  for 
20  feet,  the  ore  then  being  stoped  out.  The 
ledge  occasionally  pinches  to  two  feet.  The 
main  ledge  was  struck  forty  feet  higher  up  the 
mountain  and  carries  25  ounces  of  silver  and 
59  per  cent  lead. 

On  what  is  probably  an  extension  of  the 
Cleveland  ledge  Dr.  J.  P.  Turney,  A.  W. 
Turner,  C.  G.  Snyder,  H.  H.  McMillan  and  C. 
E.  Richard,  of  Davenport,  located  the  Bland. 
It  is  six  to  eight  feet  between  lime  walls,  as 
shown  by  a  cross-cut  and  carries  antimonial  sil- 
ver, carbonates  of  copper  and  azurite,  assaying 
52  ounces  of  silver,  5  per  cent  lead  and  a  trace 
of  gold. 

The  Young  America  group  of  claims  is  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  northeast  of  Bossburg,  on  the 
Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railroad,  no  miles 
from  Spokane.  The  entire  property  is  covered 
with  float  and  a  ledge  cropping  from  twelve  to 
twenty  feet  wide  runs'  across  all  four  claims. 
The  Bonanza  is  also  reached  from  Spokane  by 
the  same  railway,  to  Bossburg,  and  from  there 
five  miles  in  a  southeasterly  direction.  Trav- 
eling southward  from  Bossburg  we  come  to 
the  Summit  group  of  five  claims,  owned  in 
1897  by  the  Summit  Mining  Company.  These 
claims  lie  ten  miles  by  wagon  road  from  Addy 
station,  on  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  rail- 
road. The  group  is  on  a  series  of  five  parallel 
ledges  of  sulphide  and  galena  ore,  one  of  which 
is  in  the  contact  between  slate  and  diorite,  while 



the  others  are  in  fissure  in  the  slate.  All  are 
dipping  into  the  mountain  at  such  angles  as  en- 
courage the  belief  that  they  will  unite  in  a  great 
contact  vein  at  a  depth  of  600  feet,  or  less. 

Three  and  one-half  miles  by  road,  north- 
east of  Chewelah,  in  the  Colville  Valley,  is  the 
Eagle  group  of  six  claims,  at  one  time  owned 
by  I.  S.  Kaufman,  C.  D.  Ide  and  C.  W.  Ide. 
The  croppings  show  large  deposits  of  galena 
and  sulphides  of  silver  in  a  limestone  forma- 
tion. Development  work  shows  ore  chutes 
ranging  from  eighteen  inches  to  eight  feet  in 
thickness,  connected  by  stringers.  The  ore 
ranges  in  value  from  25  to  100  ounces  of  sil- 
ver ;  40  to  70  per  cent  lead. 

The  Buck  Mountain  group  of  eight  claims 
is  controlled  by  the  Buck  Mountain  Mining 
Company.  It  lies  four  miles  north  of  Cedar 
Canyon  and  twelve  miles  by  road  from  Spring- 
dale,  which  latter  town  is  forty-seven  miles 
from  Spokane.  One  ledge  is  six  feet  wide  in  a 
22-foot  shaft,  and  in  tunnels  sixty  and  forty- 
five  feet,  which  show  eight  inches  of  solid 
galena  and  bunches  of  that  mineral  throughout 
the  ledges  increasing  in  solidity  with  depth. 
One  car-load  returned  61  ounces  of  silver,  TjYz 
per  cent  lead  and  assays  have  averaged  about 
that  figure.  Another  ledge  is  seven  and  one- 
half  feet  between  lime  and  granite  walls,  and  in 
a  3ofoot  shaft  shows  chloride  and  gray  cop- 
per ore  throughout,  assaying  64  ounces  of  sil- 
ver, $3  in  gold  and  8  per  cent  copper.  An- 
other large  ledge  crops  ten  feet  wide  and 
carries  chlorides  which  assay  36  ounces  silver, 
12  per  cent  copper  and  $5.20  gold.  Three 
claims  are  along  another  ledge  between  slate 
walls  which  a  40-foot  shaft  shows  to  widen 
from  three  and  a  half  to  seven  feet.  Assays 
from  samples  taken  at  increasing  depths 
showed  40,  52  and  64  ounces  of  silver  respec- 

Two  miles  southeast  of  Springdale,  by 
road,  is  the  Honest  Johns  group  of  three 
claims,  owned  by  the  Honest  Johns  Mining 
Company.   The  croppings  show  a  60-foot  ledge 

containing  iron  carbonates.  A  cross-cut  was 
driven  280  feet  to  tap  the  ledge  175  feet  below 
the  surface,  which  has  since  been  extended. 
This  cut  a  30-inch  stringer  carrying  41  ounces 
of  silver,  31  per  cent  lead  and  $2.20  in  gold, 
besides  20  per  cent  iron,  which  makes  it  a  good 
fluxing  ore. 

Aside  from  the  Deer  Trail  mine  to  the 
south  of  the  Old  Dominion,  there  is  the  Deer 
Trail  No.  2,  the  principal  one  of  twelve  adjoin- 
ing claims,  all  controlled  by  the  Deer  Trail  No. 
'2  Mining  Company.  It  consists  of  rich  min- 
eralized quartz,  decomposed  and  acted  upon  by 
fire  due  to  the  slaking  of  the  lime.  The  crop- 
pings carried  28  ounces  in  the  form  of  black 
sulphurets  and  galena.  The  flakes  of  silver  are 
sometimes  as  large  as  a  silver  dollar  and  thin 
as  tin  foil.  The  first  car-load  from  near  the 
mouth  of  the  tunnel  netted  $237  at  the  smelter, 
the  second  over  $600  and  the  third  $1,000,  in- 
creasing in  value  until  one  car  netted  over 
$2,900.  The  name  of  this  miners  consistent 
with  the  circumstances  of  its  discovery.  In 
August.  1894,  W.  O.  and  Isaac  L.  Vanhorn 
were  pursuing  two  deer  in  Cedar  Canyon.  W. 
O.  Vanhorn  stumbled  over  a  huge  quartz 
boulder  carrying  galena,  and  immediately  he 
began  prospecting  down  the  mountain.  They 
had  pieces  of  the  boulder  assayed  and  found 
between  70  and  80  ounces  of  silver  to  the  ton. 
W.  O.  Vanhorn  panned  down  some  of  the  red 
sand  for  gold,  but  found  strings  and  flakes  of 
native  silver.  He  sacked  two  and  one-half  tons 
which  he  hauled  to  Davenport,  Lincoln  county. 
After  enduring  much  ridicule  he  secured  suffi- 
cient money  to  pay  the  freight  and  received  a 
payment  of  $150  a  ton.  He  then  shipped  nine 
tons  which  netted  him  $1,360. 

In  an  impartial  mining  review  the  Kettle 
Falls  district  must  not  be  overlooked.  The 
promising  mineral  belt  on  Rickey  Mountain  is 
a  valuable  attestation  of  the  richness  of  the 
district.  It  is  fully  covered  by  locations,  the 
stakers  being  men  of  wide  experience  in  their 
line.     Its  low  altitude,  mild  climate  and  light 



fall  of  snow  afford  it  many  advantages  and  en- 
able the  properties  to  be  worked  all  the  year 
round.  It  has  excellent  transportation  facili- 
ties with  ample  timber  and  water  closely  con- 
tiguous. The  Acme  mine,  six  miles  south  of 
Kettle  Falls,  on  the  Columbia  river,  is  a  gold 
property  with  a  little  silver  and  lead  as  by- 
products. It  has  a  vein  of  sixty-four  feet  with 
no  walls,  assays  from  which  run  from  $60  to 
$88  a  ton.  The  original  owners  of  the  Acme 
were  Sig.  Dilsheimer,  of  Colville,  and  some 
Portland  and  New  York  capitalists.  They 
bonded  the  property  to  San  Francisco  parties 
and  the  new  owners  are  eminently  satisfied 
with  their  purchase. 

The  Vulcan  and  the  Fannie  are  two  prop- 
erties in  the  Kettle  Falls  district  in  which  min- 
ing men  have  great  faith.  They  are  owned  by 
the  Vulcan  Gold  Mining  and  Milling  Company, 
and  comprise  forty  acres  of  ground  located  on 
the  west  slope  of  Rickey  Mountain,  two  and 
one-half  miles  south  of  Kettle  Falls.  The 
Mayflower,  adjoining  the  Vulcan  is,  also,  a 
promising  property.  The  Mascot  adjoins  the 
Acme  mine  on  the  east.  It  is  developed  by  a 
tunnel  on  the  vein  which  is  from  three  to  ten 
inches  thick,  assaying  40  ounces  of  silver  and  a 
trace  of  gold.  There  is  a  road  across  the  foot 
of  the  property  making  it  easy  of  access.  The 
owners  of  the  Mascot  were  N.  B.  Wheeler  and 
A.  Curry,  of  Kettle  Falls. 

Perhaps  the  most  promising  property  in 
this  district  is  the  Silver  Queen  group  of  mines, 
the  property  of  the  Silver  Queen  Mining  and 
Milling  Company.  The  mines  consist  of  three 
full  claims  and  are  situated  about  two  and  a 
half  miles  south  of  Kettle  Falls  on  the  Colum- 
bia river.  The  claims  are  known  as  the  Silver 
Queen,  Last  Chance  and  Populist.  Develop- 
ment work  has  been  principally  done  on  the 
Silver  Queen,  ^^ery  high  grade  ore  has  been 
extracted,  some  selected  samples  assaying  the 
marvelous  values  of  3,000  ounces  of  silver  to 
the  ton  and  no  assay  from  the  lead  runs  less 
than  loi  ounces,  this  carrying  some  lead.     One 

half  mile  east  of  Kettle  Falls  is  the  Blue 
Grouse,  consisting  of  five  claims.  It  carries 
lead,  silver  and  copper,  and  assays  63  ounces  of 
silver,  45  per  cent  lead  and  a  large  trace  of 

The  Columbia  River  Gold  Mining  Com- 
pany owns  five  claims  lying  six  miles  southeast 
of  Kettle  Falls.  The  ledge  is  twenty-four  feet 
in  width  and  is  a  milk-white  quartz  carrying 
silver,  gold  and  copper.  Rich  values  are  shown 
by  assays.  The  Blind  Discovery  is  a  property 
that  is  but  two  claims  removed  south  from  the 
Silver  Queen  and  Vulcan  mines.  This  con- 
tiguity to  these  excellent  properties  is  a  most 
favorable  indication  for  it.  But  it  could  easily 
stand  on  its  own  merits  as  the  average  values 
'from  various  assays  is  72  per  cent  lead  and  four 
ounces  of  silver.  J.  F.  Sherwood.  P.  Larson 
and  others  are  the  owners. 

It  is  the  opinion  of  many  of  the  best  min- 
ing experts  that  the  Metaline  District  is  the 
coming  great  galena  camp.  That  this  is  ap- 
preciated by  the  national  government  is  attested 
by  the  fact  that  a  large  sum  of  money  has  been 
expended  in  blasting  at  Box  Canyon,  on  the 
Pend  d'Oreille  river,  widening  and  deepening 
that  stream  to  make  it  navigable  for  steamers 
to  Metaline,  in  order  that  its  rich  ores  may  be 
shipped  to  the  smelters  without  the  great  ex- 
pense entailed  in  hauling  to  Box  Canyon.  Ore, 
however,  has  been  packed  from  John  Betten- 
court's  mine  with  a  twenty-horse  train  to  Box 
Canyon,  a  distance  of  eleven  miles,  over  a  de- 
plorable road,  and  notwithstanding  this  ex- 
pense, smelted  at  a  profit.  The  following  are 
some  of  the  most  promising  properties  in  the 
district :  John  Bettencourt.  three  claims,  strict- 
ly galena ;  Doc  Done,  two  claims ;  Enoch  Carr, 
three  claims;  Tom  Murphy,  one  claim. 

The  Flat  Creek  sub-district,  for  it  is  lo- 
cated within  the  Northport  District,  is  really  a 
district  by  itself.  It  is  in  that  portion  of  the 
reservation  lying  east  of  Kettle  River,  and  may 
be  termed  the  Rossland  of  Stevens  county.  The 
character  of  its  ores  is  identical  with  that  of 



the  great  British  Columbia  camp.  There  are 
over  forty  good  properties  in  the  Flat  Creek 
District,  the  prevailing  character  of  the  ore  be- 
ing gold  and  copper.  One  of  the  most  promis- 
ing properties,  and  the  one  upon  which  has 
been  done  the  most  development  work  is  the 
Badger  Boy,  a  group  of  claims  on  Fifteen  Mile 
creek.  The  present  workings  assay  $56. 
Aside  from  this  is  the  Lottie,  the  Poorman,  tlit 
Triumph,  the  Lucky  Find,  the  Bucknorn,  the 
X  Ray,  the  Silver  Star  and  the  McKinley. 
Carlson  &  Colender  have  several  claims  on  Flat 
creek,  and  the  Badger  State  Mining  Company's 
mine  is  another  Flat  Creek  property.  The 
Bullion  Mining  Company's  properties  are  on 
Bullion  Mountain,  between  Crown  and  Rattle- 
snake creeks,  and  consist  of  several  claims. 
This  is  a  rich  property,  surface  ores  running 

The  vast  area  of  the  Piere  Lake  District  is 
almost  covered  by  mineral  locations.  Through- 
out the  entire  district  the  formation  is  granite 
and  porphyry,  indicative  of  true  fissures.  The 
great  mineralized  belt  on  Sulphide  Mountain, 
in  the  heart  of  the  district,  has  been  the  potent 
medium  in  bringing  fame  to  this  locality. 
That  it  is  rich  in  the  precious  metals  is  known 
to  every  prominent  mining  man  in  Washington, 
the  Sunday  Morning  and  Little  Giant  are  very 
valuable  properties,  and  their  officers  prominent 
in  mining  and  other  industrial  circles. 

The  Springdale  District  embraces  the 
southern  portion  of  Stevens  county.  Notable 
among  the  mines  of  the  district  are  those  in  the 
southern  portion  of  the  Huckleberry  range  of 
mountains  lying  between  the  Colville  and  Co- 
lumbia river  valleys.  Mention  has  been  made 
of  the  principle  mines  in  this  district,  notably 
the  Cedar  Canyon.  Cleveland  and  Deer  Trail 
No.  2.  The  property  of  the  Wells-Fargo,  Min- 
ing Company  consists  of  three  claims  situated 
three  miles  northeast  from  the  celebrated 
Cleveland  mine,  in  the  Huckleberry  Mountain, 
and  twelve  miles  from  Springdale.  the  princi- 
pal place  of  business  of  ihe  company.     While 

originally  prospected  as  a  precious  metal  mine, 
development  work  has  adduced  the  fact  that  it 
is  a  pure  antimony  property,  perhaps  the  only 
one  in  Stevens  county.  It  has  a  three-foot 
solid  ledge  of  this  valuable  metal  which  con- 
tains no  lead  or  any  other  product  that  would  be 
detrimental  to  the  successful  working  of  the 
antimony  metal.  The  value  of  this  property 
may  best  be  judged  from  the  fact  that  anti- 
mony is  largely  used  in  type-castings  and  al- 
loys, and  for  which  there  is  a  steady  and  per- 
manent demand.  It  is  worth  in  the  market  at 
all  times  from  nine  to  ten  cents  per  pound. 
The  Wells-Fargo  Mining  Company  is  capital- 
ized at  $1,000,000,  in  shares  of  $1  each.  Its 
officers  are  all  prominent  in  industrial  circles. 

The  Chewelah  District,  of  which  the  thriv- 
ing town  of  Chewelah  is  the  center,  has  a  con- 
siderable number  of  mining  claims  wiiich  are 
among  the  most  promising  in  Stevens  county. 
Embraced  in  the  Northport  District  are  numer- 
ous properties  of  undoubted  great  worth.  Pre- 
dominating ores  are  galena,  gold  and  copper  in 
the  order  named.  Red  Top  Mountain,  situated 
about  equally  distant  from  Northport  and 
Boundary,  and  east  of  the  Columbia  river, 
is  the  scene  of  a  great  amount  of  active  develop- 
ment work.  West  of  the  Columbia  river,  and 
on  the  reservation,  Sophia  Mountain  properties 
are  taking  a  front  place.  Considerable  capital 
is  being  invested  in  the  Northport  District  and 
many  mining  men  are  expressing  great  inter- 
est in  its  future. 

Aside  from  quartz  operations  placer  min- 
ing is  prosecuted  profitably  for  miles  on  Sulli- 
van creek  which  empties  into  the  Pend  d'  Ore- 
ille near  Metaline.  The  largest  operations  are 
conducted  by  the  Pend  d'  Oreille  Gold  Mining 
&  Dredging  Company,  a  syndicate  of  capital- 
ists of  Oil  City,  Pennsylvania.  The  largest 
stockholder  in  this  company  is  Daniel  Geary, 
one  of  the  leading  factors  of  the  Standard  Oil 
Company.  The  company  controls  seven  claims, 
is  stocked  for  $100,000  at  $1  a  share  and  the 
stock  has  been  freelv  sold  at  par  in  Oil  City.    It 



is  now  withdrawn  from  the  market.  Concern- 
ing the  question  of  placer  mining  Mr.  John  B. 
Slater  wrote,  in  1895  : 

"Mining  for  gold  in  quartz  in  Stevens 
county  has  not  been  followed  with  success,  and 
search  in  that  direction  for  the  yellow  metal 
does  not  attract  much  attention.  But  placer 
gold  is  abundant  on  the  shores  of  the  Colum- 
bia river,  where  it  is  deposited  in  the  sands  of 
the  beaches  and  bars  along  the  stream.  For 
years  the  Chinese  plied  their  quest  for  the  prec- 
ious substance  with  great  profit,  but  the  white 
population  have  driven  them  out  from  the  field 
and  more  substantial  work  and  improved  gold 
saving  machinery  has  brought  gold-mining  out 
to  an  admirable  degree.  Along  the  river  at 
Boundary  City  may  yet  be  seen  the  washed 

lands  that  were  worked  by  the  placer  miners  of 
'forty-nine.'  These  lands  are  still  rich  and  give 
up  a  goodly  supply  of  wealth  under  the  appli- 
cation of  improved  machinery.  All  along  the 
river  from  Northport  to  Fort  Spokane,  a  dis- 
tance of  100  miles,  are  hundreds  of  men  work- 
ing the  bars  and  flats  with  profit.  It  is  esti- 
mated that  one  man  with  a  rocker  can  take  out 
from  $25  to  $50  a  week.  The  gold  is  usually 
coarse,  ranging  from  the  size  of  a  mustard  seed 
to  that  of  a  few  cents.  A  fair  average  of  the 
pay  dirt  is  forty  cents  to  the  square  yard,  but  it 
is  more  likely  to  be  more  than  less.  During  the 
year  1894  there  was  taken,  in  a  round  sum, 
from  the  placer  grounds  of  Stevens  county 
nearly  half  a  million  dollars." 



The  present  territory  comprising  the  coun- 
ty of  Stevens  contains  no  city  entitled  to  rank 
as  a  metropolis.  Some  of  the  territory  which 
she  has  lost,  however,  particularly  Spokane 
county,  is  not  far  behind  the  coast  in  the  matter 
of  handsome  cities,  vyith  imposing  buildings 
and  grand  perspectives  of  substantially  paved 
streets.  But  it  can  be  truthfully  said  that  with 
■one  or  two  exceptions,  and  those  exceptions  dis- 
mal failures,  there  is  not  a  "boom"  town  within 
the  present  limits  of  Stevens  county.  Of  the 
twenty  or  more  platted  towns  within  her  terri- 
tory each  one  has  enjoyed  a  healthy  growth  de- 
void of  anything  approaching  the  abnormal, 
feverish  or  sensational.  Though  small  at 
pres,ent,  so  far  as  concerns  population,  the 
towns  of  Stevens  county  will  range  up  along- 
:side  those  of  any  other  county  in  eastern  Wash- 

ington, outside  of  Spokane  county.  The  ma- 
jority of  them  lie  along  the  line  of  the  Spokane 
Falls  &  Northern  railroad,  between  Clayton  on 
the  south  and  Boundary  to  the  extreme  north. 
One  cluster,  including  Scotia,  Penrith,  Camden 
and  Newport,  lie  along  the  few  utiles  of  Great 
Northern  trackage  in  the  southeastern  portion 
of  the  county.  A  few  others  are  located  on 
the  banks  of  the  Pend  d'Oreille  and  Columbia 
rivers,  between  which  is  the  inhabited  district 
of  Stevens  county,  with  its  vast  wealth  of  mar- 
ble and  mineral  deposits. 

A  brief  statistical  record  of  the  platted 
towns  of  Stevens  county,  giving  the  dates  of 
their  dedication  and  by  whom  platted,  will  not 
be  out  of  place  here : 

Colville  — February  28,  1883.  W.  F. 



Kettle  Falls — August  14,  1889,  Eugene  La- 
framboyse.  Eighteen  or  twenty  additions  to 
Kettle  Falls  were  platted  in  a  very  short  time 
after  this. 

Chewelah— March  28,  1884,  E.  J.  Web- 
ster, J.  S.  Kaufman,  Eugene  G.  Miller. 

Loon  Lake — February  18,  1890,  Cyrus  F. 

Meyers  Falls — September  18,  1890.  One 
townsite  by  L.  W.  Meyers,  September  18, 
1890;  one  townsite  by  Jacob  A.  Meyers  Sep- 
tember 29,  1890,  and  one  townsite  by  G.  B. 

Squire  City. — November  29,  1899,  Charles 
O.  Squire.  This  was  Springdale,  the  name 
being  changed  later.  See  account  of  Spring- 
dale  elsewhere. 

Marcus — ^June  27,  1890,  ^Marcus  Open- 
heimer,  James  Monaghan. 

Columbia — August  14,  1890,  Adel  Bishop. 

East  Marcus — August  5,  1890,  E.  D.  Mor- 
rison, O.  B.  Nelson. 

'Springdale — December   11,    1890,   Thomas 

D.  Schofield. 

Loon  Lake  Park — July  29,  1891,  Daniel 
C.  Corbin.  This  was  afterward  unplatted  and 
used  alone  for  park  purposes. 

Valley — July  29,  1891,  Daniel  C.  Corbin. 

Donald  Townsite — December  5,  1891,  Don- 
ald Mc  Donald. 

Northport — May  28,  1892,  Northport 
Townsite  Company:  by  E.  J.  Roberts,  presi- 
dent ;  A.  T.  Herrick,  secretary. 

Addy — January  23,  1893.  G.  Fatzer. 

Millington — May  i.  1893,  Consolidated 
Bonanza  Mining  &  Smelting  Company;  by  J. 

E.  Foster,  president;  C.  H.  Armstrong,  secre- 

Clayton — July  5,  1894.  Washington  Brick, 
Lime  &  Manufacturing  Company ;  by  H.  Brook, 
president ;  Joseph  H.  Spear,  secretary. 

Newport — August  14,  1897,  Joseph  H. 

Granite  Point — September  24,  1900.  John 
R.   Stnne.  John  W.  Chapman. 

Hunters — April  15,  1901,  W.  H.  Latta. 
Daisy — April  9,  1902,  Samuel  L.  Magee. 
Cusick — May  24,  1902,  J.  W.  Cusick. 
Usk — June  9,  1903,  George  H.  Jones. 

This  is  the  county  seat  of  Stevens  county, 
which  it  has  been  for  many  years,  and  at  periods 
when  its  jurisdiction  covered  a  vast  range  of 
territory,  nearly  the  whole  of  eastern  Wash- 
ington, and  at  one  time  Idaho  and  a  portion  of 
Montana.  The  town  is  most  eligibly  located 
on  a  slightly  plateau,  sitting  at  the  base  of 
Mount  Colville,  yet  overlooking  the  grand  per- 
spective of  the  famously  productive  valley  that 
bears  its  name.  The  census  of  1900  gave  Col- 
ville a  population  of  594,  but  during  the  past 
three  years  this  has  been  increased  to  over  800. 
The  altitude  of  Colville,  as  given  by  the  United 
States  Geological  Survey,  is  1,602  feet;  that  of 
Colville  Mountain,  by  the  North  Transconti- 
nental survey,  5,667  feet.  _It  is  an  incorpo- 
rated city  on  the  line  of  the  Spokane  Falls  & 
Northern  Railroad,  eighty-eight  miles  north  of 

In  many  respects  Colville  is  a  most  charm- 
ing place  of  residence.  To  the  north  rises  a 
gentle  declevity  shaded  by  handsome  groves, 
known  as  "Nob  Hill,"  commanding  from  its 
picturesque  eminence  a  full  view  of  the  beauti- 
ful Colville  valley,  through  which  winds  like 
a  silver  thread  in  a  cloth  of  green  the  Colville 
ri\er.  Clustered  among  the  shade  trees  of 
Nob  Hill  are  some  of  the  most  elegant,  com- 
fortable and  modem  residences  in  the  state.  To 
the  east  rise  in  successive  heights,  like  mam- 
moth terraces,  a  range  of  imposing  mountains, 
the  whole  north  and  east  forming  an  effective 
background  for  one  of  the  prettiest  townsites 
in  Washington.  To  the  southward  trends  the 
Colville  river  in  sinuous  convolutions,  fringed 
by  low  trees  and  bushes,  and  winding  through 
the  richest  and  most  productive  hay  land  in 
the  countrv. 



Although  a  comparatively  \-irgin  region 
Colville  is  one  of  the  oldest  towns  in  the  state. 
Much  of  its  earliest  history  has  already  been 
gi\-en  in  the  first  chapter  of  the  second  part  of 
this  work,  and  necessarily  so.  Therein  will  be 
read  how  the  original  town,  a  few  miles  distant, 
was  named  "Pinkney  City,"  and  the  conditions 
under  which  the  county  seat  was  removed  to 
its  present  site,  together  with  the  date  of  the 
same.  The  first  building  erected  on  the  site  of 
the  present  town  of  Colville  is  the  brewery 
which  is  still  in  existence  and  located  on  Main 
street.  This  edifice  was  erected  in  1874  by 
John  U.  Hofstetter.  For  a  period  of  eight 
years  it  remained  the  only  building  on  the  pres- 
ent townsite  of  Colville. 

In  1883  the  town  was  platted  by  Major 
Hooker  and  John  Still,  of  Cheney,  Spokane 
county.  Two  adjoining  ranches  were  owned 
at  that  time  by  Mr.  Hofstetter  and  John  Wynn. 
From  these  ranches  land  was  taken  for  the 
townsite.  But  it  was  not  until  1882  that  the 
present  town  of  Colville  began  to  evolve  into 
a  material  existence  and  the  old  town  of  Pink- 
ney City  fade  to  a  melancholy  landmark.  In 
that  year  the  military  post  at  Fort  Colville, 
which  had  been  established  in  1859,  was  aban- 
doned. The  greater  portion  of  the  business  of 
Pinkney  City  had  been  supported  by  the  garri- 
son at  the  fort.  When  the  soldiers  departed 
the  business  men  gathered  their  lares  and  pen- 
ates;  their  stocks  of  goods  and  household  ef- 
fects, and  hied  themselves  to' the  new  town  of 
Colville.  Aside  from  the  abandonment  of  the 
fort  there  were  other  cogent  reasons  why  Col- 
ville should  flourish  and  the  old  town  deterior- 
ate. Pinkney  City  was  an  out-of-the-way  place 
and  far  from  being  so  convenient  and  accessi- 
ble as  the  present  site  of  the  county  seat.  The 
first  man  to  change  his  location  from  the  old 
town  to  Colville  was  C.  H.  Montgomery.  He 
moved  his  store  and  goods  in  1882  to  a  point 
which  is  now  the  north  end  of  Main  street. 

Of  the  new  town  Mr.  Montgomery  was  the 
pioneer   merchant.      The   same   year   Mr.    F. 

Wolfif  removed  his  saloon  and  billiard  hall  from 
Pinkney  City,  and  he  was  the  second  person  to 
establish  business  relations  with  Colville.  He 
located  on  Main  street,  on  the  corner  now  occu- 
pied by  Goetter's  drug  store.  He  also  erected 
a  residence  for  himself  and  family  near  his 
place  of  business.  The  disintegration  of  the 
old  town  was  rapid.  The  same  year  Oppen- 
heimer  Brothers,  the  last  remaining  business 
men  in  Pinkney  City,  capitulated  to  the  stern 
logic  of  events,  struck  their  commercial  tents 
in  the  old  town,  came  in  to  Colville,  and  Pink- 
ney City  for  all  practicable  purposes  was  a  thing- 
of  the  past — a  tale  that  is  told.  It  remained 
but  a  country  of  reminiscences ;  a  historic  ruin ; 
a  veritable  "Deserted  Village." 

Following  the  departure  of  the  troops  from 
Fort  Colville  in  1882,  new  settlers  coming  into 
the  new  town  appeared  to  consider  the  aban- 
doned fort  and  barracks  as  public  property. 
They  literally  tore  the  government's  build- 
ings to  pieces,  utilizing  the  lumber  for  the  pur- 
pose of  building  shacks  for  themselves.  Not 
only  did  they  wantonly  remove  the  lumber  and 
brick  which  were  of  use  to  them,  but  their  van- 
dalism extended  to  the  abstraction  of  the  flag- 
staff and  other  articles  for  which  they  had  no 
need.  The  few  private  buildings  which  re- 
mained in  the  town  also  suffered  a  like  fate,  al- 
though the  greater  number  of  them  had  been 
removed.     In  this  connection  Mr.  Wolfif  says : 

"I  wish  to  say  that  not  one  of  the  old  set- 
tlers were  guilty  of  this  vandalism.  Colonel 
Merriam  came  up  from  the  fort  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Spokane  river  and  took  back  with  him 
the  doors  and  windows  of  the  government 
building  and  these  were  about  the  only  articles 
saved  from  the  wreckage  of  the  plant." 

For  seven  years  the  town  of  Colville  re- 
mained a  country  village  with  nothing  other- 
wise than  a  merely  nominal  organization.  In 
1889  John  U.  Hofstetter  and  other  citizens  of 
Colville,  by  their  attorney,  H.  G.  Kirkpatrick, 
petitioned  the  judge  of  the  district  court,  then 
holding  a  session  in  Col\-ille.  to  incorporate  the 



town  of  Colville.  The  signers  of  this  petition 
which  brought  about  the  first  incorporation  of 
the  town  were:  John  U.  Hofstetter,  Oliver 
Peone,  L.  Flugel,  M.  Cherette,  Frank  Habein, 
E.  Oppenheimer,  Joseph  Luckenbel,  J.  M.  Bew- 
ley,  Frank  B.  Goetter,  J.  H.  Young,  Fred  Hoss, 
A.  A.  Barnett,  F.  Barman,  T.  M.  McClure,  S. 
H.  Manly,  F.  Wolff,  John  Brook,  George  C. 
Schneider,  John  Leipp,  W.  H.  Kearney,  W.  H. 
Wright,  S.  F.  Sherwood,  Carl  Flugel,  Thomas 
L.  Savage,  Louis  F.  Scheifele,  M.  Seylor,  W. 
M.  Varker,  Louis  Perras,  C.  H.  Thompson,  E. 
L.  Swain,  W.  S.  Prindle,  David  T.  Stewart,  S. 
Douglas,  Court  Lousie,  J.  H.  McKenzie. 

Following  is  the  decree  of  the  court  which 
is  taken  from  volume  "A"  on  page  167 : 

"It  is  ordered  and  declared  that  said  town 
is  hereby  duly  incorporated,  and  the  metes  and 
bounds  thereof  are  hereby  designated  and  de- 
clared to  be  as  follows;  Commencing  at  the 
northwest  corner  of  section  9,  in  township  35, 
N.  R.  39,  E.  W.  M.,  thence  running  south 
along  the  west  line  of  said  section  to  the  south- 
west corner  thereof ;  thence  east  along  the  south 
line  of  said  section  to  the  southeast  corner  there- 
of ;  thence  north  along  the  east  line  of  said  sec- 
tion to  the  northeast  corner  thereof ;  thence  west 
along  the  north  line  of  said  section  to  the  point 
of  beginning. 

"And  the  name  of  said  town  is  hereby  or- 
dered and  declared  to  be  Colville.  It  is  further 
ordered  that  the  following  named  persons  be 
appointed  and  that  they  shall  constitute  the 
board  of  trustees  of  said  town  until  their  suc- 
cessors are  elected  and  qualified,  viz :  John  U. 
Hofstetter,  W.  H.  Wright,  Wm.  A^arker.  T. 
M.  McClure,  Thomas  L.  Savage. 

"It  is  further  ordered  that  petitioners  pay 
the  cost  of  this  proceeding." 

On  the  14th  day  of  June.  1889,  these  gen- 
tlemen took  the  oath  of  office  and  entered  upon 
the  discharge  of  their  duties.  John  U.  Hof- 
stetter was  elected  chairman  of  the  council  and 
William  Varker  temporary  clerk.  Samuel 
Douglas  was  elected  town  counselor.     .\t  the 

next  meeting  of  the  council  W.  L.  Davis  was 
appointed  town  clerk  and  A.  A.  Barnett  town 
marshal,  city  assessor  and  street  commissioner. 
F.  B.  Goetter  was  appointed  town  treasurer. 

Thus  municipal  matters  remained  until  Feb- 
ruary, 1890,  when  the  discovery  was  made  that 
the  incorporation  under  which  the  city  of  Col- 
ville had  been  transacting  business  was  void. 
The  process  of  incorporation  had  been  under 
the  territorial  laws.  Concerning  this  matter 
Mr.  John  B.  Slater  says  : 

"The  present  town  of  Colville  was  incorpo- 
rated in  1889  under  the  territorial  law.  This 
was  done  through  the  agency  of  the  district 
court.  In  February,  1890,  shortly  after  Wash- 
ington had  been  admitted  as  a  state,  the  state 
supreme  court  held  that  under  the  state  law  the 
court's  incorporation  of  towns  was  void.  The 
town  immediately  proceeded  to  reincorporate 
in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of  the 
state  law.  The  reincorporation  of  the  town  of 
Colville'brought  up  a  fine  point  of  law,  which 
was  not  decided  until  some  few  years  afterward. 
The  city  government  under  the  territorial  in- 
corporation had  contracted  a  number  of  debts. 
One  of  them,  an  item  of  indebtedness,  Avas  an 
account  of  $600  due  Mr.  A.  A.  Barnett  for  ser- 
vices as  town  marshal.  Under  the  ruling  of 
the  supreme  court  in  1890  the  former  incorpo- 
ration was  held  to  be  null  and  void  and  to  have 
no  legal  existence.  With  this  decision  staring 
them  in  the  face  the  new  town  authorities  did 
not  feel  like  assuming  the  responsibility  of  pay- 
ing the  debts.  The  matter  was  allowed  to  drag 
along  for  several  years,  and  the  case  finally 
was  decided  in  the  supreme  court,  having  been 
taken  up  by  M.  M.  Cowley  for  the  Traders' 
National  Bank  of  Spokane,  which  held  some  of 
the  warrants.  The  court  decided  that  while  the 
old  corporation  had  no  legal  connection  with 
the  new  corporation,  the  debts  were  contracted 
in  good  faith  by  practically  the  same  organiza- 
tion, and  Colville  was  ordered  to  pay  the  indebt- 
edness contracted  by  the  former  city  govern- 



A  brief  resume  of  the  reincorporation  of  the 
county  seat  made  necessary  by  the  decision  of 
the  state  supreme  court  will  not  l3e  out  of  place 
here,  as  it  is  valuable  historical  data.  When  the 
people  of  Colville  were  rudely  awakened  to  the 
fact  that  instead  of  being  a  full-fledged  city 
they  were  not  a  corporate  body  at  all.  a  petition 
was  presented  to  the  board  of  county  commis- 
sioners asking  for  incorporation  of  the  town 
of  Coh-ille  under  the  laws  of  the  state.  This 
petition  was  granted  and  Monday,  May  26, 
1890,  was  set  for  holding  a  special  election  to 
name  five  trustees  and  one  town  treasurer. 
June  2  the  vote  at  this  special  election  was 
canvassed  by  the  commissioners.  It  was  found 
that  the  total  number  of  votes  cast  was  76,  of 
which  76  were  in  favor  of  incorporation  and 
none  against  it.  The  trustees  elected  were  A. 
A.  Barnett,  Benjamin  P.  Moore,  John  B.  Sla- 
ter, O.  Peone  and  Lewis  Schifile.  Frank  B. 
Goetter  was  elected  town  treasurer.  Colville 
was  declared  to  be  a  town  of  the  fourth  class. 

June  12,  1890,  the  new  council  convened  in 
its  initial  session,  and  proceeded  to  organize. 
A.  A.  Barnett  was  chosen  mayor ;  John  U.  Hof- 
stetter,  street  commissioner;  F.  Wolff,  town 
marshall ;  J.  H.  Moyle,  town  clerk ;  H.  G.  Kirk- 
patrick,  town  attorney ;  R.  B.  Thomas,  engineer. 
J.  H.  Moyle  declined  to  serve  as  town  clerk, 
and  F.  H.  Fish  was  selected  for  that  position. 
Colville  was  now  on  a  firm  municipal  basis  and 
the  matter  of  indebtedness  contracted  by  the 
organization  under  the  territorial  law  drifted 
along,  got  into  court,  and  was  finally  adjusted 
as  previously  stated. 

May  26,  1 89 1,  a  special  election  was  held 
for  the  purpose  of  deciding  whether  or  not  to 
bond  the  town.  Seventy  votes  were  cast  and 
all  of  them  in  favor  of  bonding.  These  bonds 
were  voted  for  the  purpose  oS  establishing  a 
municipal  system  of  water  works,  but  they  were 
ne\'er  issued.  At  a  meeting  of  the  town  coun- 
cil held  February  3,  1891,  a  motion  prevailed  to 
instruct  the  town  attorney  to  draft  a  memorial 
to  the  legislature  of  the  state  of  Washington, 

asking  for  an  enabling  act  authorizing  the  pres- 
ent incorporation  of  the  town  of  Colville  to 
assume  all  indebtedness  contracted  by  the  orig- 
inal territorial  incorporation,  which  had  been 
declared  \ok\  by  the  state  supreme  court.  Ac- 
cordingly the  memorial  was  drawn  up,  a  few 
days  later,  and  a  copy  forwarded  to  the  state 
legislature  then  in  session  at  Olympia.  It  does 
not  appear  that  the  legislature  acted  upon  this 
petition,  as  we  find  the  case  subsequently  in  the 
state  supreme  court,  the  Traders'  National 
Bank  of  Spokane,  plaintiff^.  The  court's  decis- 
ion was  favorable  to  the  sentiments  of  the 
signers  of  this  memorial. 

Sunday,  March  i,  1891,  the  First  Congre- 
gational Church,  of  Colville,  was  dedicated. 
Of  these  services  the  Re  publican,  under  date 
of  March  7,  says : 

"The  sermon  of  Rev.  Walters  was  one  of 
the  ablest  ever  enjoyed  by  a  Colville  audience. 
After  the  sermon,  and  other  exercises,  includ- 
ing hymns  and  anthems  excellently  rendered, 
Mr.  Walters  made  an  appeal  for  contributions 
to  finish  paying  for  the  church.  His  words 
were  so  well  chosen  and  his  manner  so  winning 
that  the  whole  amount  was  made  up  in  a  short 
time,  the  donors  seeming  to  feel  it  a  privilege 
to  contribute.  One  of  the  special  features  of 
the  occasion  was  the  presentation  of  an  elegant 
pulpit  Bible  by  Mrs.  Fannie  Barman.  The 
gift  was  highly  appreciated.  The  church  is  a 
beautiful  edifice,  well  appointed  and  convenient. 
The  church  was  dedicated  free  of  debt,  $530.50 
being  raised  by  Mr.  Walters  and  Mr.  Clark." 

February  13,  1892,  Colville  suffered  its 
first  severe  loss  by  fire.  Although  the  total  of 
losses  was  not  great,  yet  they  were  severe  when 
the  size  of  the  town  is  taken  into  consideration. 
This  conflagration  was  quite  a  sensational 
event,  moreover,  as  it  developed  a  certain 
sturdy  heroism  in  the  handling  of  so  deadly  an 
explosive  as  dynamite.  The  fire  broke  out  at 
7  130  p.  m.,  in  the  Dominion  hotel.  Nearly  the 
entire  population  of  Colville,  at  that  time,  were 
gathered  at  Meyers'  Opera  House  witnessing  a 


play  presented  by  the  Ladies"  Aid  Society,  of 
Colville.     At  that  period  the  only  fire  depart- 
ment   possessed    by    the    municipality    was    a 
bucket  brigade.    But  it  proved  surprisingly  effi- 
cient and  accomplished  yeoman  service.     A  ro- 
tary pump  belonging  to  Joseph  Luckenbel  was, 
also,  brought   into   requisition  and  immediate 
action  by  attaching  to  it  the  hose  of  the  Meyers" 
block.     This  line  of  hose  was  laid  across  the 
street  and  within  a  remarkably  brief  space  of 
time  a  good  stream  was  brought  to  bear  on  the  \ 
Witham  building.     At  the  time  the  window 
frames  and  sash  of  this  edifice  were  already  j 
smoking  and  about  to  be  fanned  into  flames.   [ 
Across  the  windows  were  placed  blankets  and 
pieces  of  carpet,  and  these  were  saturated  with  ; 
water.     But  so  intense  was  the  heat  that  this  ' 
proved  useless.     All  glass  on  the  south  side  of 
the  Witham  block  cracked  into  flinders  and  fell 
to  the  ground.     It  now  looked  as  though  the 
Ribkey  store  building,   Charette's   saloon   and 
the   Hofstetter  barn,    and   a   place   called   the 
"Ark"  would  be  destroyed.     It  was  also  plain 
that  unless  some  immediate  and  effective  action  j 
could  be  taken  the  saloon  of  James  Durkin, 
Habrin's    stable,    the   postoffice   and,    possibly 
Perras  &  Lemery's  store  would  soon  burst  into 

At  this  critical  juncture  was  heard  the  cry 
of  "dynamite  and  giant  powder!"  rising  above 
the  tumult  of  the  crowd  and  the  roar  of  devour- 
ing flames  rapidly  eating  up  the  hotel.  Almost 
simultaneously  a  man  was  observed  running 
toward  the  Rickey  building  with  a  box  of  giant 
powder  on  his  shoulder.  At  once  an  order  rang 
out  for  everyone  to  fall  back  and  watch  for  fly- 
ing timbers.  The  crowd  required  no  urging  to 
act  upon  such  a  sensible  suggestion,  and  a  deaf- 
ening explosion  immediately  followed;  the 
Rickey  building  could  be  seen  in  the  air  flying 
in  all  directions :  it  was  plainly  evident  that  the 
courageous  parties  who  handled  the  powder 
were  experts  in  the  business.  This  was 
heroic  treatment  but  effective,  although  other 
buildings  in  the  \'icinit\'  did  not  escape  damage 

consequent  upon  the  force  of  the  explosion. 
All  the  glass  in  Durkin's  saloon  and  Habein"s 
stable  was  broken,  as  were  several  windows  in 
the  postoffice,  and  one  large  plate  glass  in  the 
Hotel  Colville,  besides  several  smaller  ones  in 
various  parts  of  the  building.  William  Hof- 
stetter sustained  quite  severe  bruises  caused  by 
a  portion  of  the  roof  of  the  Rickey  building- 
falling  upon  him. 

The  Dominion  hotel  was  built  in  the  fall  of 
the  year  1885  at  a  cost  of  about  $5,000.  It  was 
erected  when  material  was  very  high,  and  was 
composed  entirely  of  wood.  The  Rickey  build- 
ing was  built  about  the  same  period  and  cost 
about  $1,500,  but  was  valued  at  $1,000.  It  was 
a  total  loss  to  Mr.  Rickey  as  it  was  absolutely 
necessary  to  blow  up  the  building  to  save  adja- 
cent property.  The  losses  were  about  as  fol- 
lows:  Benoyse  estate,  $3,000;  John  Rickey, 
(no  insurance)  $1,000;  J.  J.  Cascadden,  furni- 
ture, $500;  F.  Barman,  $250;  C.  W.  Witham, 
$250;  Mattie  Charette,  $100;  I.  Luft,  $100;  A. 
Chandler,  $150;  D.  T.  Daniels,  $50;  James 
Durkin,  $150;  Frank  Habein,  $25;  Charles 
Fluegle,  $15;  John  U.  Hofstetter,  $15:  Court 
House,  $ia;  postoffice,  $5. 

It  is  necessary  to  revert  to  the  year  1 887  for 
the  purpose  of  calling  attention  to  the  fact  that 
Colville  at  one  time  had  a  smelter.  It  was 
erected  in  1887  by  the  Mutual  Mining  &  Smelt- 
ing Company  and  conducted  at  a  profit  for  two 
years,  being  located  on  the  hill  north  and  adja- 
cent to  the  city.  The  company  was  an  organi- 
zation of  New  York  capitalists,  the  stock  being 
$100,000,  in  shares  of  $1  each.  The  cost  of  the 
plant  was  $25,000.  Ore  was  hauled  by  teams 
from  various  parts  of  the  county,  principally 
Chewelah,  there  being  no  railway  line  to  Col- 
ville at  that  period.  It  was  necessary  to  haul 
the  coke  from  Spokane  by  team.  The  smelter 
finally  passed  into  the  hands  of  Receiver  John 
B.  Slater,  and  was  disposed  of  by  him. 

Following  the  disastrous  fire  of  February, 
1892,  steps  were  taken  in  the  following  March 
for  the  organization  of  the  Colville  Hook  and 



Ladder  Company.  This  organization  was  per- 
fected at  a  meeting  held  March  5th,  at  the  office 
of  J.  C.  Luckenbel.  The  following  officers  were 
elected:  S.  F.  Sherwood,  foreman;  F.  C. 
Hammond,  assistant  foreman ;  J.  B.  D.  Meeds, 
Jr.,  secretary ;  W.  H.  Kearney,  treasurer ;  J.  C. 
Luckenbel,  truckman. 

The  following  were  elected  as  charter  mem- 
bers :  S.  F.  Sherwood,  Joseph  C.  Luckenbel, 
J.  B.  D.  Meeds,  Jr.;  F.  B.  Goetter;  C.  S.  In- 
galls:  F.  C.  Hammond;  N.  J.  Klass;  H.  W. 
Sacher;  F.  H.  Fish;  S.  Dilsheimer;  F  S. 
Miller;  C.  D.  Coleman;  W.  S.  Prindle;  Tames 
Thomas ;  Ole  Olson ;  W.  Miller ;  W.  H.  Kear- 
ney ;  S.  Walsh :  A.  H.  Sperry ;  J.  Sacher ;  C.  W. 

March  15  the  town  council  appropriated 
$500  for  the  support  of  the  newly  organized 
fire  company,  having  rescinded  a  former  appro- 
priation of  $300  which  had  never  been  used. 

The  material  prosperity  and  social  condi- 
tions of  Colville  can  best  be  described  by  the 
following  extracts  from  local  journals.  Jan- 
nary  29,  1892,  the  Republican  said: 

"There  are  now  in  contemplation  five  hand- 
some business  houses,  the  building  of  which 
will  commence  in  the  early  spring.  The 
smelter  is  certain  to  become  the  property  of 
some  individual  or  company  who  will  run  it  for 
all  it  is  worth,  after  making  a  few  changes  in 
construction.  The  cause  of  its  lying  idle  was 
its  unfortunate  ownership  by  men  lacking  cap- 
ital and  devoid  of  business  ability.  There  have 
been  more  transfers  of  Colville  lots  within  the 
last  three  months — genuine  transactions  on  a 
business  basis — than  have  been  made  during 
the  same  time  by  all  the  rest  of  the  towns  in  the 
county  combined.  Do  not  misunderstand  us; 
we  are  not  crowing:  we  only  wish  that  every 
town  in  the  county,  as  well  as  this  place,  had 
been  blessed  with  a  brisk  trade  in  town  prop- 

"There  have  been  in  the  past,  and  we  pre- 
sume there  are  still  some  people  in  the  county 
Avho  have  an  unaccountable  prejudice  against 

the  county  seat.  We  will  say  to  those  people 
that  while  the  whole  county  is  growing,  Col- 
ville is  also  developing,  that  new,  modern  and 
artistic  residences  are  being  built,  that  it  has 
been  a  long  time  since  you  have  been  here ;  that 
you  should  come  and  see  these  substantial  im- 
provements that  you  may  realize  the  fact  that 
the  town  of  Colville  stands  on  the  ground  that 
will  be  covered  by  the  City  of  this  portion  of 
the  country  within  five  j-ears.  ***** 
Work  on  the  mines  in  this  vicinity  has  more 
than  doubled  within  the  last  six  months;  fifty 
men  are  at  work  building  the  Old  Dominion 
concentrator,  and  the  promise  is  that  so  soon  as 
it  is  at  work  a  large  number  of  mines  whose 
ores  will  assay  from  $60  to  $500  a  ton  will  be 
opened  up  in  good  shape.  Make  no  mistake: 
things  are  coming  our  way,  and  business  is 
picking  up;  spring  will  open  with  an  activity 
that  will  take  the  wind  out  of  the  sails  of  the 
chronic  kicker." 

February  28,  1895,  the  Index  said: 
"Notwithstanding  the  prevailing  hard  times 
and  g'cneral  depression,  Colville  does  not  pro- 
pose to  fold  her  hands  and,  like  Micawber,  wait 
for  'something  to  turn  up.'  She  is  not  built  that 
way.  The  season  will  open  in  Colville  by  the 
erection  of  several  buildings,  business  houses 
and  residences.  C.  W.  Winter,  of  the  Bank  of 
Colville,  has  purchased  ground  on  East  Still 
street  upon  which  he  will  erect  a  fine  residence 
to  be  ready  for  occupancy  this  summer. 
Charles  Thompson  will  also  build  a  residence 
in  the  eastern  part  of  the  town.  W.  H.  Wright 
will  soon  begin  the  erection  of  a  business  house 
on  the  corner  of  Still  and  Main  streets,  on  the 
site  of  his  old  store  which  was  burned.  Other 
improvements  will  be  made  in  the  near  future 
\\'hich  are  not  yet  sufficiently  developed  to  be 

September  3,  1897,  the  Index  said : 
"Colville  is  a  larger  town  that  even  in  the 
days  of  the  boom  of  many  years  ago.    At  pres- 
ent there  is  not  a  vacant  house  in  town  and 
many  families  are  occupying  rooms  in  blocks 



simply  because  there  are  not  enough  residence 
buildings  adequate  to  the  demand.  Real  estate 
is  held  at  normal  value  and  considered  cheap. 
Numerous  cottages  are  being  built  at  present, 
and  it  is  safe  to  presume  that  besides  these 
many  more  will  find  tenants,  especially  during 
the  school  terms,  at  good  rental  returns.  The 
steady  growth  of  Colville  is  largely  due  to  its 
being  the  natural  educational  center  of  a  large 
radius  of  agricultural  land.  At  present  Col- 
ville has  an  academy  which  accommodates  fully 
two  hundred  students.  The  capacity  of  our 
public  school  is  being  doubled,  giving  room  for 
two  hundred  more  pupils  than  heretofore." 

Commenting  upon  the  new  improvements 
made  by  Colville  up  to  1899  the  Statesman-In- 
dex of  August  18,  of  that  year,  said: 

"Colville  continues  to  enjoy  a  period  of 
healthy  growth  which,  however,  is  in  no  way 
to  be  classed  as  a  building  boom.  This  period 
of  growth  dates  from  1897  when  three  or  four 
citizens  concluded  that  Colville  was  a  pretty 
good  place  after  all  and  forthwith  built  them- 
selves elegant  and  comfortable  homes.  Last 
year  their  excellent  example  was  patterned  by 
others  who  likewise  built  homes.  The  court 
house  was  also  completed  last  year. 

"With  the  opening  of  spring  this  year  the 
good  work  was  resumed,  some  building  new 
residences,  others  remodeling  and  enlarging 
their  buildings.  None  of  the  structures  of  this 
year  equal  in  cost  the  best  building  erected  last 
season,  but  there  are  more  of  them  so  that  the 
aggregate  this  season  will  exceed  that  of  last 
year.  The  buildings,  or  improvements  already 
completed  this  season  or  now  in  progress,  will 
amount  approximately  to  $16,000,  and  there 
is  more  than  a  possibility  that  at  least  three  or 
four  more  good  residences  will  be  commenced 
during  the  fall  season.  Below  is  a  list  of  the 
building  improvements  now  complete  or  in 
progress  at  the  present  time,  with  the  approx- 
imate cost  of  each : 

"J.  Pohle,  malting  establishment,  $4,000: 
residences:  M.  R.  Peck.  $2,300:  Hershberger. 

$1,600;  John  Cowling,  $800;  Mrs.  Cameron, 
$1,000;  George  Reynolds,  $800;  Dick  Fry, 
$800;  Ed  Sherwood,  $550;  Thomas  Williams, 
$550;  W.  H.  Wright,  store,  $500;  C.  W.  Hall, 
store,  $400;  S.  A.  Chamberlain,  residence, 
$400;  W.  Moorhead,  addition  to  residence, 
$400;  L.  B.  Harvey,  addition  to  residence, 
$350;  Colville  Paint  Company,  office  and  ware- 
house, $350;  L.  W.  Meyers,  improvements, 
$300;  G.  B.  Ide,  addition  to  residence,  $225  ;  W 
E.  Parmelee,  addition  to  residence,  $200 ;  A.  W. 
Miles,  residence,  $200 ;  Louis  Perras,  brick  root 
house,  $150;  Gardner  &  Baker,  improvements, 
$75;  A.  J.  Lee,  improvements,  $500;  A.  A. 
Bamett,  'improvements.  $150;  H.  G.  Kirk- 
patrick,  improvements,  %J$." 

In  1900  the  Spokane  Galvanized  Wire  Pipe 
Company,  of  which  H.  Orchard  was  the  head, 
was  granted  a  franchise  to  install  and  operate 
a  system  of  waterworks  in  the  town  of  Colville. 
The  town  council  contracted  with  this  company 
for  the  use  of  the  water  for  fire  purposes,  and 
on  August  14  the  water  was  accepted  by  the 
council.  Later  there  was  considerable  dis- 
agreement between  the  council  and  the  com- 
pany as  to  the  price  to  be  paid  by  the  town  for 
its  water,  the  council  claiming  that  $25  per 
month  was  the  stipulated  price,  while  the  water 
company  demanded  $30  per  month.  Thus  mat- 
ters drifted  along  until  1902  when  \\\  B. 
Hewes  secured  a  controlling  interest  in  the 
company,  and  changed  the  name  of  the  corpor- 
ation to  the  Colville  Water  Power  &  Develop- 
ment Company.  The  system  is  now  in  success- 
ful operation  and  giving  universal  satisfaction. 
The  water  is  obtained  from  a  spring  situated 
about  one  mile  southeast  of  the  business  por- 
tion of  the  town,  and  is  piped  to  all  parts  of 
the  city  from  the  company's  reservoir. 

Colville  has  a  post  ofiice  of  the  third  class, 
and  in  addition  to  receiving  two  mails  a  day,  it 
is  the  distributing  point  for  two  rural  free  de- 
livery systems.  One  route  is  to  the  Narcease 
country,  eleven  miles  southeast,  the  trip  being 
made  dailv.    The  other  is  a  star  route  to  Echo, 



eleven  miles  north,  and  the  trip  is  made  on 
Tuesdays,  Thursdays  and  Saturdays. 

The  first  commencement  exercises  of  the 
public  schools  held  in  Colville  ocurred  Satur- 
day evening,  May  18,  1900.  In  the  educational 
affairs  of  Stevens  county  this  occasion  marked 
an  important  period.  The  members  of  the 
grammar  school  class  of  1900  were,  mainly  resi- 
dents of  Colville,  and  they  received  the  hearty 
congratulations  of  friends  for  having  so  success- 
fully and  satisfactorily  completed  their  work  in 
the  eighth  grade.  The  exercises  were  conducted 
at  the  Olympic  Theatre,  which  had  been  taste- 
fully and  appropriately  decorated  for  this  schol- 
astic occasion.  There  were  present  the  board  of 
directors  of  the  Colville  schools.  Professor  Say- 
lor,  superintendent  of  the  city  schools  of 
Spokane,  Professor  J.  E.  M.  Bailey,  and  all  of 
these  gentlemen  were  seated  near  the  graduat- 
ing class.  To  Miss  Mary  Suig  was  accorded 
the  honor  of  delivering  the  salutatory  address ; 
Masler  George  Zent  was  the  valedictorian. 
President  Rickey,  of  the  board  of  directors,  pre- 
sented the  diplomas.  There  were  fourteen 
members  in  the  class  and  the  event  reflected 
high  credit  upon  their  efforts  and  the  conscien- 
tious work  of  their  teachers. 

September  3  the  public  schools  of  Colville 
reopened  with  the  addition  of  a  ninth  grade,  or 
more  properly,  high  school  "first  year."  This 
advanced  course  included  work  in  algebra, 
philosophy  literature,  rhetoric,  word  study  and 
physical  geopraphy.  Ample  facilities  were 
also  provided  for  such  as  desired  to  take  up 
courses  in  bookkeeping,  shorthand  and  type- 
writing in  addition  to  the  elementary  studies  of 
the  high  school.  No  tuition  fee  was  charged 
for  any  of  these  special  lines  of  work.  On  the 
day  named  the  school  opened  with  an  excellent 
enrollment,  there  being  a  number  of  students 
from  out  of  town,  including  one  from  Ross- 
land,  B.  C. 

Friday  evening,  May  24,  1901,  was  held  the 
second  annual  commencement.  This  class 
numbered    six    member  s^Gertrude    Bashaw, 

Etta  Zent,  Olive  Bryan,  May  Cameron,  Mig-  ' 
non  Jones  and  Bird  Nelson.  County  Superin- 
tendent W.  L.  Sax  delivered  an  appropriate 
address  to  the  large  audience  assembled,  the 
central  thought  of  which  was  confined  to  the 
work  of  a  district  high  school.  He  expressed 
the  hope,  as  well  as  the  conviction,  that  when 
the  question  came  before  the  people  that  it 
would  receive  the  unanimous  support  of  the 
electors.  At  that  period  it  was  proposed  to 
build  a  high  school  structure.  The  Stevens 
County  Reveille  of  May  30,  said : 

"Much  credit  is  due  Prof.  J.  E.  M.  Bailey 
for  the  able  manner  in  which  he  has  conducted 
the  school  for  the  past  two  years,  and  he  has 
been  ably  assisted  by  the  efficient  corps  of 
teachers  under  him,  and  also  by  the  patrons  of 
the  schools." 

Saturday,  July  27,  a  special  election  was 
held  for  the  purpose  of  voting  upon  a  proposi- 
tion to  levy  a  ten-mill  tax  to  build  an  addition 
to  the  school  house.  It  was  in  the  nature  of  a 
dual  proposition  and  resulted  as  follows :  For 
new  building,  40 ;  against  building,  62 ;  for 
ten-mill  tax,  33 ;  against  tax,  yy.  The  total 
enrollment  of  the  Colville  public  schools  in 
1903  was  215.  A  ninth  and  tenth  grade  were 
maintained,  the  former  comprising  five,  and  the 
latter  four  pupils.  The  course  of  studies  was 
raised  in  order  to  unite  the  two  grades  in  the 
study  of  European  history  and  rhetoric,  there- 
by lessening  the  number  of  daily  recitations. 
The  eighth  grade  consisted  of  twenty-two 

The  Colville  fire  department  has  been  not- 
able for  a  number  of  reorganizations.  March 
16,  1901.  was  the  occasion  of  one  of  them, 
when  a  preliminary  meeting  was  held  which 
w^s  followed  on  the  evening  of  the  i8th  by  an- 
other at  which  a  permanent  organization  was 
effected.  Dr.  Harvey  was  elected  chief,  Charles 
Wingham,  assistant,  and  R.  E.  Lee  secretary 
and  treasurer.  The  same  month  a  hose  cart 
was  purchased  by  the  city,  which  had,  prev- 
I  iously,  in  June,   1900,  bought  five  hydrants  at 



$30  each,  and  700  feet  of  hose  costing  $391. 
During  the  spring  of  1903  the  Colville  depart- 
ment was  again  reorganized.  James  Petty  was 
appointed  chief.  Prior  to  this  period  there  had 
been  no  fire  house,  and  interest  in  the  organiza- 
tion had  waned  perceptibly.  Following  the 
election  of  Mr.  Petty  as  head  of  the  department 
the  city  council  erected  a  new  hose  house  at  a 
cost  of  $300  and  authorized  the  purchase  of 
new  apparatus.  At  present,  owing  to  the  ex- 
cellent water  pressure,  the  town  is  afforded  the 
best  possible  protection  against  fire.  Hydrants 
are  situated  in  convenient  places  in  different 
portions  of  the  town,  and  the  esprit  du  corps  of 
the  department  is  above  reproach. 

There  are  in  the  town  of  Colville  the  fol- 
lowing fraternal  societies :  A.  F.  &  A.  M.,  Col- 
ville Lodge  No.  57;  R.  A.  M.,  Colville  Chapter 
No.  20;  Order  of  the  Eastern  Star,  Colville 
Chapter  No.  57;  Independent  Order  Odd  Fel- 
lows, Colville  Lodge  No.  109;  Rebecca,  Faith- 
ful Lodge  No.  90 ;  Modern  Woodmen  of  Amer- 
ica. Tamarack  Camp  No.  9215;  Grand  Army 
of  the  Republic,  General  John  M.  Corse  Post, 
No.  98,  Department  of  Washington  and 
Alaska ;  and  the  Woodmen  of  the  World. 

May  20,  1886,  a  dispensation  was  granted 
to  the  A.  F.  &  A.  M.,  and  the  first  meeting  was 
held  June  23,  1886.  The  lodge  received  its 
charter  June  3,  1887.  The  initial  officers  were 
Christopher  K.  Gilson,  W.  M.,  A.  A.  Barnett, 
S.  W.,  A.  M.  Anderson,  J.  W.  Colville  Chap- 
ter No.  57,  Order  of  the  Eastern  Star,  was  or- 
ganized February  5,  1900,  with  nineteen  mem- 
bers and  the  following  officers :  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
Brouilett,  Matron ;  John  B.  Slater,  Patron  and 
Mrs.  Delva  Smith,  Associate  Matron.  The 
chapter  was  chartered  in  June,  1900,  and  was 
organized  under  the  charter  July  13,  1900. 
Colville  Chapter  No.  20,  Royal  Arch  Masons, 
was  organized  May  21,  1900,  and  established 
under  its  charter  July  28,  1900. 

In  March,  1899  a  meeting  was  held  at  the 
law  office  of  Judge  King  for  the  purpose  of 
organizing  a  jiost  of  the  C-and   Army  of  the 

Republic.  D.  C.  Ely  was  chosen  chairman 
and  Thomas  King  secretary.  A  number  of  the 
veterans  present  signed  a  petition  to  depart- 
ment headquarters  asking  that  a  G.  A.  R. 
post  be  established  at  Colville.  They  were  A. 
F.  Perkins,  William  Day,  John  O'Brien,  Ed- 
ward Cox,  Hugh  Weir,  John  Salvage,  Samuel 
A.  Chamberlain,  Austin  Prouty,  David  Fisher, 
and  Thomas  J.  Baldaidge.  The  name  of  Gen- 
eral John  M.  Corse  was  selected  for  the  new 
post,  and  the  members  were  formally  mus- 
tered in  during  the  May  following.  A.  F.  Per- 
kins was  elected  commander,  C.  W.  Campbell, 
adjutant  and  Mr.  Cox.  quartermaster. 

There  are  four  church  societies  in  Colville, 
Congregational,  Baptist,  Free  IMethodist  and 
Catholic.  All  have  comfortable  and  commo- 
dious church  edifices  with  the  exception  of  the 
Baptists,  and  that  organization  is  now  erecting 
a  handsome  place  of  worship. 

The  electric  lights  of  the  Northwestern 
Light  &  Power  Company  were  first  turned  on 
in  Colville  Saturday,  August  22,  1903.  The 
result  was  satisfactory  in  every  particular,  and 
it  was  one  of  the  important  events  in  the  devel- 
opment of  the  industrial  side  of  Stevens  county 
history.  The  promoters  of  the  enterprise  leased 
from  L.  W.  Meyers,  owner  of  the  falls  in  the 
river,  at  Meyers  Falls,  a  minimum  of  3,000 
horse  power,  with  a  privilege  of  increasing  the 
supply  as  the  business  of  the  company  should 
demand.  The  plant  was  installed  by  the  Wag- 
ner-Bullock Company  of  Cincinnati  and  St. 
Louis.  The  power  at  present  is  furnished 
through  the  medium  of  a  three-hundred  horse- 
power Lafelle  water  wheel.  This  operates  a 
generator  with  a  capacity  of  2,600  lines  of  16- 
candle  power  each.  The  electricity  is  trans- 
mitted over  high  tension  wire  from  Meyers 
Falls  to  Colville,  twelve  miles,  and  here  it 
passes  through  transformers  which  furnish  the 
incandescent  and  arc  lights  from  the  same  cir- 
cuit. This  system  will  include  the  towns  of 
Colville,  Meyers  Falls,  Kettle  Falls,  Marcus, 
Bossburg    and     Northport.      The    Northport 



smelter  will,  also,  be  supplied  with  light  and 
power,  and  its  owners  have  contracted  with  the 
company  for  a  period  of  five  years.  The  North- 
western Light  &  Power  Company  was  organ- 
ized early  in  May,  1903,  and  the  enterprise  has 
"been  promoted  entirely  by  local  capitalists.  The 
officers  of  the  company  are :  President,  F.  G. 
Finucane,  manager  of  the  Bank  of  Montreal, 
at  Spokane;  vice  president,  C.  W.  Winter, 
cashier  and  manager  of  the  Bank  of  Colville; 
secretary  and  treasurer,  T.  A.  Winter,  assistant 
cashier  of  the  Bank  of  Colville.  The  principal 
place  of  business  is  Colville. 


Northport,  the  "Smelter  City,"  and  the 
port  of  entry,  is  the  most  populous  town  in 
Stevens  county.  It  was  so  named  by  the  town- 
site  company  that  located  it,  because  the  topo- 
graphy of  the  country  between  Nortlrport  and 
the  boundary  line  between  the  United  States 
and  British  Columbia,  demonstrated  the  fact 
that  it  was  destined  to  be  the  most  northern 
town  on  the  line  of  the  Spokane  Falls  &  North- 
ern railway.  True,  the  little  town  of  Boundary 
was  established — a  town  of  practically  one 
family — but  events  have  sustained  the  wisdom 
of  establishing  Northport  as  the  port  of  entry. 

In  the  spring  of  1892  the  present  site  of  the 
city  of  Northport.  now  the  metropolis  of  Ste- 
vens county,  was  simply  a  prettily  wooded  flat. 
Three  log  cabins  were  to  be  found  in  the  vicin- 
ity occupied  by  homesteaders.  These  home- 
steads constitute  the  present  townsite.  They 
ivere  held  by  A.  V.  Downs.  Fred  Farquhar  and 
Frank  George,  the  latter  at  one  time  superin- 
tendent of  construction  of  the  Spokane  Falls  & 
Northern  railway.  These  men  became  spon- 
sors for  the  permanency  of  the  future  townsite. 
Within  the  space  of  a  few  short  months  the 
primeval  woods  were  converted  into  a  lively 
city.  May  28,  1892,  the  town  was  dedicated, 
by  the  Northport  Townsite  Company,  E.  J. 
Roberts,  president;  A.   F.   Herrick.  secretary. 

The  initial  enterprise  established  was  a  general 
store  by  T.  L.  Savage.  At  this  period  Mr. 
Savage  was  collector  of  the  port.  Previously 
he  had  been  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business 
at  Kettle  Falls.  But  that  particular  "boom" 
town  was  waning ;  falling  into  municipal  inepti- 
tude and  decrepitude,  and  Mr.  Savage,  aware 
of  the  fact  that  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern 
railroad  was  headed  this  way,  decided  to  re- 
move his  stock  of  goods  to  Northport.  W.  A. 
F.  Case,  present  postmaster  of  Northport,  was 
manager  of  the  new  enterprise,  and  about  June 
I,  the  store  was  opened  in  a  small  log  cabin  on 
the  present  site  of  Mr.  Savage's  big  store. 

The  second  business  house  erected  in  the 
young  metropolis  was  built  by  W.  P.  Hughes. 
This  was  occupied  by  the  post  office  and  the 
Northport  News,  of  which  Mr.  Hughes  was 
editor  and  proprietor.  The  latter  came  under 
a  contract  with  D.  C.  Corbin,  promoter  and 
constructor  of  the  railroad,  to  build  the  town  of 
Northport.  The  establishment  of  the  News  by 
Mr.  Hughes,  where  there  was  practically  only 
a  "paper  town,"  was  considerable  of  a  venture 
and  it  was,  in  reality,  a  "country  newspaper." 
At  the  time  the  plant  was  installed  there  was 
no  railroad,  or  even  wagon  roads — nothing  save 
a  trail  through  the  mountains  could  be  traced 
to  the  present  town  of  Northport.  But  over 
this,  after  surmounting  innumerable  difficulties, 
Mr.  Hughes  and  his  printer,  C.  F.  Murphy, 
now  editor  of  the  Northport  Republican,  suc- 
ceeded in  bringing  in  the  plant  with  ox  teams. 
On  the  nation's  birthday,  July  4,  1892,  the 
Northport  Nezvs  made  its  first  appearance.  At 
this  early  period  a  dozen  souls  could,  probably, 
be  numbered  as  inhabitants  of  the  "town" — 
consisting  of  two  buildings  and  a  few  tents. 
Doubtless  the  most  interesting  item  of  news  in 
the  paper  was  the  one  giving  currency  to  a  re- 
port that  there  was.  actually,  a  town  of  North- 
port;  establishing  "a  local  habitation  and  a 
name."    The  News  said : 

"Seldom  in  the  annals  of  journalism  has  it 
been  necessary  for  a  new  paper  to  explain  for 



the  benefit  and  enlightenment  of  its  contempor- 
aries where  it  exists  and  who  are  its  expected 

"Yet,  save  within  a  circumscribed  area,  one 
may  presume  that  a  certain  ignorance  anent 
Xorthport  exists,  and  the  reasons  for  such  a 
presumtion  are  as  various  as  they  are  plausible. 
The  most  recently  published  map  of  the  United 
States ;  the  most  comprehensive  atlas ;  the  very 
latest  gazeteer,  none  of  them  indicate  the  loca- 
tion of  Northport;  none  of  them  recognize  its 
existence.  The  census  taker  has  passed  it  by; 
it  has  so  far  enjoyed  no  place  in  history;  a 
month  or  two  ago  it  was  a  beautiful  wooded 
flat:  today  it  is  already  a  town;  tomorrow— a 
few  tomorrows  hence,  at  any  rate — it  will  be  a 

Tuesday,  August  9,  the  young  town  had  a 
narrow  escape  from  destruction  by  fire.  Con- 
cerning this  event  the  News  says  : 

"The  entire  fire  brigade  was  called  out 
Tuesday  afternoon  to  fight  a  fire  in  the  timber 
at  the  southern  portion  of  the  townsite.  A  fire 
had  been  burning  around  that  neighborhood 
for  about  two  weeks,  but  little  attention  was 
paid  to  it,  as  it  was  thought  it  would  die  out 
of  its  own  accord.  About  noon,  Tuesday,  a 
stiff  wind  sprung  up  from  the  south  fanning 
the  blaze  until  a  fire  commenced  to  run  toward 
the  business  part  of  the  town,  causing  wide- 
spread alarm.  A  large  crowd  of  men  then 
turned  out  and  fought  it  by  making  a  path  and 
back-firing.  Fortunately  about  this  time  the 
wind  changed  to  the  north  and  the  fighters  won 
the  victory  by  sucessfully  stopping  the  fire  from 
reaching  any  building." 

August  5.  1892.  the  Northport  saw  mill 
began  operations.  William  Smith,  R.  L.  Bar- 
low, W.  R.  Lee  and  H.  Viet  were  the  proprie- 
tors. The  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railroad, 
which  had  been  built  to  the  Little  Dalles  in 
1900,  and  upon  which  for  nearly  two  years 
work  had  been  suspended,  in  the  fall  of  1892 
was  extended  to  Xorthport.  In  the  language 
of  the  Northport  Nezvs : 

"Sunday,  September  18,  was  the  eventful 
day  the  railroad  reached  Northport,  and  the 
sight  of  E.  J.  Roberts,  the  energetic  chief  en- 
gineer of  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  rail- 
road, clothed  in  a  long  duster  and  a  regulation 
broad-brimmed  army  hat,  walking  with  slow 
and  majestic  tread  and  commanding  mien,  giv- 
ing his  orders  in  a  clear  and  forcible  voice  to  a 
large  crowd  of  men  who  were  following  him, 
putting  ties  in  their  proper  places  and  laying 
rails,  with  the  construction  train  slowly  moving 
along  behind  the  whole,  was  a  pleasing  and 
astonishing  sight,  and  one  that  will  never  be 
forgotten  by  tlje  pioneers  of  Northport,  the 
future  mining,  milling,  smelting  and  agricul- 
tural city  of  northeastern  Washington."' 

The  first  passenger  train  ran  into  the  town 
two  days  later.  A  box-car  was  utilized  as  a 
depot  until  a  suitable  structure  could  be  erected. 
The  arrival  of  this  railroad  signified  much  to 
the  new  town,  and  prosperous  times  resulted. 
For  a  few  months  Northport  was  the  terminus 
of  the  railroad.  Then  work  was  recommenced 
and  the  road  extended  to  Nelson,  B.  C,  the 
following  year.  Northport  was  headquarters 
for  this  railroad  work  for  many  months,  about 
one  thousand  men  being  employed  in  construc- 
tion, and  they  making  the  town  their  temporary 

At  the  period  the  railroad  had  Little  Dalles 
for  a  terminus  there  was  a  line  of  boats  plying 
the  Columbia  river  between  that  point  and 
Ravelstoke,  B.  C.  This  was  the  Kootenai 
Steamship  Company.  The  boats  in  commission 
were  the  Columbia,  a  passenger  boat  having  a 
capacity  of  two  hundred  people.  The  Kootenai 
was  the  first  boat  constructed.  The  IlUciUa- 
zvaet  was  a  small  freight  boat.  At  Ravelstoke 
the  boats  connected  with  the  Canadian  Pacific 
Railway.  After  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern 
road  reached  Northport  the  boats  plied  be- 
tween this  point  and  Ravelstoke.  The  steam- 
ship line  was  discontinued  when  the  road  was 
built  to  Nelson.  The  boats  herein  named  were 
the  first ;  others  were  built  later. 



October  8  an  interesting  meeting  was  held 
for  the  purpose  of  organizing  a  mining  district. 
There  was  an  attendance  of  twenty-five  people, 
and  it  was  unanimously  decided  to  organize  a 
district  with  the  following  boundary- lines :  Be- 
ginning at  the  international  boundary  line  of 
the  United  States  and  British  Columbia,  on 
Kettle  River;  thence  southerly  along  said  river 
to  a  point  west  of  the  "Young  America"  mine; 
thence  east  to  the  Metaline  District,  or  mines; 
thence  north  to  the  international  boundary  line ; 
thence  west  along  said  line  to  the  place  of  be- 
ginning to  Kettle  Falls,  the  district  to  be  known 
as  the  "Northport  Mining  District."  The  rea- 
sons for  desiring  to  organize  this  particular  dis- 
trict were  that  it  would  save  miners  consider- 
able trouble,  expense  and  delay  in  recording 
their  location  and  other  notices.  W.  P.  Hughes 
was  elected  recorder  of  the  district. 

During  the  fall  of  1892  a  school  was  estab- 
lished at  Northport.  At  this  period  the  coun- 
ty's finances  were  not  in  condition  to  warrant 
much  aid  to  a  school  at  this  place.  There  were, 
however,  about  30  children  of  school  age  in 
Northport  and  vicinity,  and  a  meeting  was  held 
October  8,  at  which  Thomas  Nagle,  County 
Superintendent  of  Schools,  was  present.  He 
decided  to  form  a  district  with  the  following 
boundaries ;  commencing  on  the  Columbia 
river,  and  international  boundary  line; 
thence  along  said  line  to  a  point  at 
the  northwest  comer  of  the  Metaline  Dis- 
trict: thence  south  to  the  southeast  corner  of 
the  Metaline  District;  thence  west  to  a  point 
just  below  "Pete's,"  (or  the  Little  Dalles  on 
the  Columbia;)  thence  northerly  along  the 
Columbia  river  to  the  place  of  beginning. 
Messrs.  F.  E.  Seriver,  A.  Bishop  and  W.  M. 
Blake  were  elected  trustees  and  W.  F.  Case, 
clerk.  Mr.  Nagle  informed  the  people  of 
Northport  that  the  county  could  at  this  time 
spend  only  money  to  pay  the  teachers,  and  that 
the  citizens  would  be  compelled  to  provide  a 
building  for  the  proposed  school.  The  people 
immediately  raised  $235  by  popular  subscrip- 

tion, and  erected  a  building  at  a  cost  of  $150. 
School  was  opened  Monday,  December  12,  with 
twelve  pupils.  Miss  Hogg  was  installed  as 
temporary  teacher,  and  within  a  short  time  was 
succeeded  by  Mrs.  William  Haven,  the  first 
regularly  employed  teacher  in  Northport.  At 
this  period  all  but  a  very  small  portion  of  the 
townsite  was  covered  by  a  dense  forest,  and  in 
the  shadows  of  these  woods  the  school  building 
was  erected  but  a  short  distance  from  the  "busi- 
ness part"  of  the  town.  Many  considered  it  a 
rather  unwise  plan  to  locate  the  school  so  far 
away,  but  the  logic  of  subsequent  events  proved 
that  it  was  an  eligible  location,  for  with  the 
steady  growth  of  the  town  the  residence  portion 
extended  a  mile  beyond  the  school  house. 

The  post  office  that  supplied  Northport  and 
vicinity  with  mail  during  these  pioneer  days 
possesses  quite  an  interesting  history.  This 
office  was  established  at  Little  Dalles,  some  six 
miles  below  Northport,  in  1901,  Cy  Town- 
send  was  postmaster.  When  the  railroad  was 
built  through  there  a  terminus  was  made  four 
miles  below  the  present  townsite  of  Northport. 
To  accommodate  the  people  Mr.  Townsend 
placed  the  post  office  building  on  a  flat  car  and 
removed  it  to  the  end  of  the  road.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1892,  the  road  was  pushed  on  through  to 
Northport,  which  left  the  former  terminus  "out 
in  the  cold."  Consequently  Mr.  Townsend 
again  moved  the  building  and  business  to  this 
end  of  the  line,  locating  near  the  steamer  land- 
ing. Shortly  afterward  it  was  again  removed, 
this  time  to  Columbia  avenue,  where  mail  was 
regularly  distributed  to  the  people  of  North- 
port,  although  the  post  office  was  officially  lo- 
cated at  Little  Dalles.  While  this  primitive 
post  office  was  at  the  end  of  the  railroad,  a  few 
miles  below  Northport,  the  government's 
affairs  were  conducted  in  a  manner  that  would 
have  caused  consternation  at  Washington,  ac- 
cepting some  of  the  narratives  of  the  old  tim- 
ers. Mr.  Townsend,  also,  conducted  a  saloon 
at  this  place.  When  the  mail  pouch  was  deliv- 
ered it  was  his  custom  to  open  it  in  the  saloon, 


spread  the  mail  on  the  bar,  and  invite  the  in- 
habitants to  "step  up  and  select  their  mail." 
One  day  a  post  office  inspector  dropped  into 
town,  without  immediately  revealing  his  iden- 
tity, and  witnessed  a  proceeding  of  this  kind. 
After  the  saloon  was  empty  the  inspector  made 
himself  known,  and  the  following  colloquy  is 
said  to  have  taken  place: 

"Is  this  your  customary  way  of  distributing 
mail?"  inquired  the  inspector. 

"Yes,"  replied  Mr.  Townsend,  "that's  about 
the  way  we  work  it  here." 

"Well,  don't  you  know  that  this  is  irregu- 
lar? You  should  never  open  the  pouch  in  the 

"I  don't  know  whether  it's  regular  or  not, 
but  I  guess  people  around  here  are  satisfied." 

"Where  do  you  keep  your  registered  let- 
ters? Under  lock  and  key?" 

"No :  I  got  them  back  here  under  the  bar, 
and  when  anybody  comes  in  who  has  a  regis- 
tered letter  I  give  it  to  him." 

"Well,  this  is  very  irregular  and  must  be 
stopped.  You  are  working  for  the  govern- 
ment, and  if  you  expect  to  hold  your  position 
you  must  conduct  affairs  differently  in  the  fu- 

"Now,  see  here;  you  may  be  a  post  office 
inspector,  all  right,  and  be  privileged  to  come 
around  here  asking  questions  and  telling  me 
what  to  do,  but  I  want  you  to  understand  this : 
I  never  asked  for  this  position,  and  am  simply 
acting  as  postmaster  to  accommodate  the  people 
around  here.  They  are  satisfied  with  the  way  I 
run   things,  and   if  they  are  the  government 

ought  to  be.     You  can  take  your  d — d  post 

office  any  time  you  want  to,"  and  the  post  office 
which  consisted  of  a  pasteboard  shoe  box,  in 
which  were  a  few  letters,  landed  in  the  street 
in  front  of  the  saloon. 

It  is  a  matter  of  record,  however,  that  Mr. 
Townsend  continued  to  act  as  postmaster  until 
an  office  was  established  at  Northport  and  there 
was  no  material  change  in  the  manner  of  con- 
ducting the  delivery  of  the  mails. 

January  i,  1893,  ^^  office  was  established 
at  Northport,  and  W.  P.  Hughes  was  made 

Although  the  beginning  of  the  year  1893 
witnessed  the  arrival  of  about  one  thousand 
railroad  workmen,  and  in  their  wake  hundreds 
of  other  people,  the  order  maintained  in  North- 
port  was  excellent.  Speaking  of  this  feature 
the  News  of  January  5,  says:  "Notwithstand- 
ing the  roar  and  rush  and  bubble  and  life  of 
Northport,  there  has  not  been  a  shooting  scrape 
nor  highway  robbery  so  far." 

Monday,  May  8,  1893,  occurred  North- 
port's  first  great  fire.  "That  date  will  ever  be 
held  in  remembrance  with  horror  by  present 
citizens  of  Northport,"  said  the  Nczi<s.  speak- 
ing of  the  disaster,  "on  account  of  the  terrible 
fire  that  fastened  its  remorseless  fangs  on  the 
best  business  buildings  of  the  town,  and  laid 
them  and  their  contents  on  the  ground,  a  huge 
mass  of  ruins." 

The  fire  broke  out  at  about  3  :30  o'clock  p. 
m.,  in  the  small  building  in  the  rear  of  William 
Eaton's  saloon.  It  was  discovered  by  Fred 
Johnson,  of  the  Silver  Crown.  He  at  once 
raised  the  alarm,  and  with  several  others  ran 
to  the  scene.  They  found  the  door  securely 
fastened,  but  proceeded  to  break  it  down.  So 
soon  as  this  was  accomplished  a  vast  cloud  of 
smoke  rolled  forth,  and  nothing  in  the  room 
was  visible.  No  water  was  at  hand,  and  conse- 
quently it  was  next  to  impossible  to  combat  the 
fiery  element.  The  small  building  was  soon 
a  mass  of  flames,  and  within  a  few  minutes 
from  the  discovery  of  the  fire,  the  ceiling  of 
the  main  building  of  Mr.  Eaton  was  in  flames. 
They  spread  to  both  sides  of  Mr.  Eaton's  build- 
ing, taking  the  Big  Bend  Company's  store,  Mrs. 
M.  Eagan's  restaurant.  Jerry  Spellman's  sa- 
loon, Cy  Townsend's  saloon  and  lodging  house 
O'Hare  &  Kellerman's  restaurant  and  meat 
market  building,  and  Col.  Pinkston's  lodging 
house.  By  extra  exertions  the  new  building -of 
John  Bum  and  two  or  three  smaller  buildings 
were  saved.     Within  two  hours  from  the  time 


the  flames  were  first  discovered  nothing  could 
be  seen  but  a  smoking  mass  of  ruins.  The  fam- 
ily and  guests  of  Col.  Pinkston,  who  conducted 
a  lodging  house,  barely  had  time  to  escape  with 
their  clothes,  and  many  lost  money  and  jewelry 
which  they  had  no  time  to  secure. 

The  heaviest  losers  by  this  fire  were:  Big 
Bend  Company  (C.  D.  Hampton j  two-story 
building  and  general  merchandise,  $8,500;  in- 
surance, $7,000;  William  Eaton,  two-story 
building  and  saloon,  stock,  $2,500,  insurance, 
$2,000;  Jerry  Spellman,  one-story  building  and 
saloon,  stock,  $1,200,  no  insurance;  J.  W. 
Townsend,  two-story  building,  saloon  and 
lodging  fixtures,  $2,000,  no  insurance ;  O'Hare 
&  Kellerman,  restaurant  and  butcher  shop, 
building,  $400,  no  insurance ;  Col.  W.  M.  Pink- 
ston, furniture,  etc.,  of  Columbia  lodging 
house,  $1,000,  no  insurance;  smaller  losses  by 
a  number  of  others.  The  safe  in  Mr.  Eaton's 
contained,  among  other  things,  $1,000  in  cur- 
rency belonging  to  Mr.  Eaton,  and  about  the 
same  amount  in  currency  and  coin  belonging  to 
C.  D.  Hampton.  So  soon  as  possible  after  the 
fire  the  safe  was  pulled  out  from  the  ruins,  and 
when  opened  the  property  within  was  found 
uninjured.  The  fire,  it  is  stated,  was  of  incen- 
diary origin,  but  no  cause  was  ever  assigned  for 
it.  With  the  exception  of  the  Big  Bend  Com- 
pany's store  all  the  edifices  were  immediately 
rebuilt.      Says  the  Au'ic? : 

"In  one  way  the  fire  has  proven  a  benefit 
in  the  fact  that  it  shows  Northport  to  be  a  per- 
manent town.  Most  of  the  people  who  w^ere 
burned  out  came  here  in  December  and  Janu- 
ary, thinking  business,  on  acount  of  the  rail- 
road work  would  be  good  for  about  three 
•  months.  The  fact  of  their  rebuilding,  and  their 
evident  determination  to  remain  here  shows 
that  the  place  is  solid." 

In  June,  1893,  a  depot,  costing  about 
$2,000  was  built  by  the  Spokane  Falls  &  North- 
ern Railway  Company. 

Friday   night,    June   9,   occurred   the  first 

birth  recorded  in  Northport,  a  baby  girl  being 
born  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  L.  Olmstead. 

Early  Thursday  morning,  August  10,  1893, 
just  three  months  and  two  days  following  the 
other  fire,  Northport  was  again  called  upon 
to  suffer  from  a  disastrous  conflagration, 
and  this  time  one  life  was  lost.  Of  this  disaster 
the  News  said : 

"About  half  past  twelve  o'clock,  Thursday 
morning,  the  people  of  Northport  were  aroused 
from  their  slumbers  by  the  cry  of  'fire' !  and 
of  course  all  responded  by  jumping  into  their 
clothes  and  hurrying  to  the  scene  to  give  what 
assistance  they  could  to  their  neighbors  and 
save  the  town  from  ruin.  The  fire  originated 
in  the  front  room  of  the  northwest  corner  of 
the  Hepp  &  Anderson  building,  known  as  the 
International  Hotel.  The  entire  building  was 
soon  in  flames,  and  as  there  was  no  practicable 
way  to  fight  them,  except  with  buckets  of 
water,  the  flames  rapidly  spread  to  surrounding 
buildings.  Seven  were  consumed,  and  then  the 
wind  fortunately  changed  to  the  south  and 
saved  the  balance  of  the  town  from  destruction. 
Those  suffering  losses  were  William  Smith,  a 
small  frame  building ;  L.  A.  Clark  &  Company, 
store,  residence  and  livery  stable ;  Hepp  &  An- 
derson, hotel  and  saloon  building;  Remble's 
butcher  shop,  Brandt's  laundry ;  James  Bailey's 
residence  and  G.  O.  Mayer's  restaurant. 
Smith's  loss  was  about  $100;  L.  A.  Clark  & 
Company's  loss  about  $3,000,  insurance  $400 
on  store  building,  $1,000  on  stock,  $200  on  the 
barn  and  $300  on  the  contents  of  the  barn; 
Hepp  &  Anderson's  loss  was  about  $4,000,  in- 
surance, $3,000;  Remble's  loss  $200,  no  insur- 
ance; Brandt's,  $300,  no  insurance;  Mayer's 
$300  in  furniture,  $70  or  $80  in  money  and 
three  watches.  James  Bailey's  loss  is  un- 

"So  soon  as  the  fire  was  over  it  was  seen 
that  a  human  being  had  burned,  and  upon 
closer  investigation  it  was  found  to  be  the 
body  of  George  Schild,  who  was  well  known 


here  as  a  mine  owner  and  an  old  friend  of 
Charley  Hepp.  Deceased  had  recently  returned 
from  a  trip  up  Sheep  Creek,  where  he  had  be- 
come interested  in  a  promising  gold  claim,  and 
he  had  intended  to  leave  to-day  with  his  imple- 
ments for  that  mine.  The  prevailing  theory  of 
the  origin  of  the  fire  is  that  George  Schild  went 
to  his  room  about  midnight  under  the  influence 
of  liquor,  and  either  upset  the  lamp  or  per- 
mitted a  lighted  cigar  to  fall  on  his  bed.  He  oc- 
cupied the  room  where  the  fire  broke  out,  and 
his  body  now  lies  on  the  wire  mattress,  face 

Mr.  Hughes  says  that  this  part  of  the  town 
did  not  immediately  rebuild.  There  were  a 
number  of  vacant  buildings  farther  to  the  east, 
and  those  who  were  burned  out  and  engaged  in 
business  again  moved  there  and  occupied  those 

Sunday,  June  3,  1894,  Northport  and  vicin- 
ity were  visited  by  the  most  severe  wind  and 
rain  storm  that  ever  afflicted  the  county.  The 
day  had  been  exceedingly  sultry,  and  about 
noon  dark  clouds  began  to  fleck  the  brassy  sky. 
This  phenomena  was  soon  followed  by  thunder 
and  lightning.  Soon  afterward  citizens  look- 
ing down  the  river  saw  terrific,  frowning,  black 
clouds,  while  volumes  of  dust  arose  from 
mountain  sides,  and  soon  the  falling  of  crash- 
ing timber  and  the  dull  roar  of  wind  was  heard. 
Within  a  short  period  the  storm  reached  North- 
port,  and  then  trees  and  signs  were  scattered 
by  the  violence  of  the  wind.  It  continued  to 
blow  thus  fiercely  but  a  few  moments,  but  its 
subsidence  was  followed  by  a  deluge  of  rain 
which  continued,  increasing  in  violence  at  in- 
tervals, for  three  hours.  There  were  many 
narrow  escapes  from  death  by  falling  trees,  but 
fortunately  no  one  was  injured.  Following 
this  war  of- the  elements  came  the  high  water 
of  the  Columbia  which  did  much  more  damage 
than  the  storm.  The  railroad  track  from  Mar- 
cus to  Waneta  was  covered  by  water,  trees  and 
debris,  the  damage  from  which  cost  several 
hundred  thousand  dollars  to  repair.     In  time 

the  water  subsided,  and  on  June  14,  in  review- 
ing the  flood  the  News  said  : 

"The  worst  scare  that  Northport  ever  had 
is  now  over,  and  we  are  breathing  easier.  The 
highest  flood  known  in  this  section  for  seventy- 
five  years  has  pas.sed,  and  Northport,  except  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  mill,  stood  high  and  dry 
during  the  terrible  ordeal.  The  flood  reached 
a  portion  of  our  lowest  (business)  flat,  and 
the  water  came  within  a  foot  of  the  top  of  the 
floor  of  the  Northport  Trading  Company's 
store,  the  News  office,  the  Peerless  Saloon,  \Y. 
M.  Blake's  news  stand,  Olmstead's  drug  store, 
and  the  custom  house.  The  other  business 
houses  on  Columbia  avenue,  were  from  one  to 
three  feet  higher.  No  one  ever  before  thought 
there  was  such  a  difference,  as  the  flat  has  the 
appearance  of  being  the  same  height  from  one 
end  of  the  street  to  the  other.  W^ater  was 
never  thought  of  in  the  matter,  anyhow,  as  it 
never  before  rose  so  high  in  the  memory  of  the 
oldest  inhabitant  who  happens  to  be  Indian  , 
Isaac,  who  lives  on  the  reservation  opposite 
and  a  little  below  Northport.  Isaac  says  he 
came  here  when  a  little  boy,  and  he  is  now 
about  eighty  years  old.  The  highest  water 
was  twenty  years  ago,  and  it  was  almost  as 
high  as  this  year.  *Savy,'  who  was  here  at  the 
same  time,  thinks  it  was  two  or  three  feet 

"One  good  proof  that  the  flood  was  higher 
than  ever  before  is  the  fact  that  Marcus  Op- 
penheimer's  store  in  old  Marcus,  was  built  by 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  in  1869.  and  has 
stood  undisturbed  by  high  water  ever  since. 
This  year  the  water  was  a  few  inches  on  the 
floor.  Under  the  circumstances  we  think  it 
will  be  safe  to  build  sky  scrapers  on  the  North- 
port  business  bench. 

"The  highest  point  reached  by  the  water 
was  at  about  7  o'clock,  on  Saturday  evening, 
June  9,  when  it  was  probably  about  seventy-five 
feet  above  low  water  mark.  Sunday  morning 
it  was  seen  that  the  water  had  receded  about 
two  inches.    It  then  began  to  fall  a  little  faster. 



and  as  the  weather  has  continued  cool  it  would 
be  next  to  impossible  to  raise  again.  Back  of 
Columbia  avenue,  but  on  the  same  bench,  the 
restaurant  portion  of  the  Silver  Crown,  and 
Mrs.  Case's  residence  were  flooded  to  such  an 
extent  that  they  were  vacated  for  a  few  days. 
With  these  exceptions,  and  the  mill  portion, 
every  building  was  from  twenty  to  forty  feet 
above  the  water.  The  heaviest  losers  in  the 
vicinity  are  W.  R.  Lee,  barn,  a  few  thousand 
feet  of  lumber  and  damage  to  buildings  and 
machinery;  John  Tyman,  house,  chicken  coop, 
etc. ;  William  Katchum,  house  containing  pow- 
der, etc. ;  W.  O.  Johnson,  house ;  R.  M.  Stod- 
dard, damage  to  house;  A.  Presslar,  house;  T. 
J.  Hamilton,  house;  A.  Bishop,  damage  to 
house,  barn,  crops,  etc. ;  Jack  Reynolds,  dam- 
age to  crops;  Fred  Scriver,  same;  Moser 
Brothers,  two-story  house,  chicken  coop,  crops 
and  everything  except  their  chickens,  land  and 
camping  outfit.  Dr.  Frank  Miller  and  Michael 
Jegke,  damage  to  fences  and  crops.  There  were 
no  other  losses  worth  mentioning." 

July  I,  1895,  the  county  commissioners 
were  called  upon  to  grant  a  petition  from  the 
citizens  of  Northport  for  incorporation.  This 
petition  was  rejected  for  the  reasons  that  the 
proposed  boundaries  were  not  sufficiently  and 
clearly  defined,  and  that  the  consent  of  the 
parties  owning  unplatted  lands  were  not  filed 
with  the  board. 

Thus,  until  1898  the  town  of  Northport 
drifted  along  unincorporated.  June  3  another 
petition  for  incorporation  was  presented  to 
the  commissioners  asking  that  Northport  be 
made  a  city  of  the  third  class.  The  petition 
further  set  forth  that  there  were  within  the  de- 
sired limits  fifteen  hundred  inhabitants.  A 
special  election  was  ordered  for  June  23.  On 
the  27th  inst.,  the  county  commissioners  can- 
vassed the  result  of  this  election,  finding  228 
votes  in  favor,  and  five  against,  incorporation. 
The  city  was  declared  incorporated  with  the  ex- 
ception of  the  smelter  .site.  The  following  city 
officials  were  also  declared  elected :  William  P. 

Hughes,  mayor;  A.  T.  Kendrick,  A.  K.  Ogil- 
vie,  J.  W.  Townsend,  J.  Frank  Harris,  J.  J. 
Travis,  A.  Almstrom,  T.  L.  Salvage,  coun- 
cilmen;  J.  A.  Kellogg,  city  attorney;  D.  S. 
Hammond,  city  clerk ;  F.  G.  Slocum,  treasurer ; 
J.  J.  Travis,  health  officer. 

With  the  opening  of  the  north  half  of  the 
Colville  Indian  Reservation  to  mineral  entry, 
in  February,  1896,  Northport  began  to  as- 
sume an  air  of  general  prosperity.  Miners  and 
prospectors  poured  into  the  town.  Placer  and 
quartz  mines  were  located  across  the  river,  and 
only  a  short  distance  from  the  young  city. 
Within  one  week  several  hundred  claims  were 
located.  March  18,  1896,  Northport  suffered 
from  the  third  disastrous  conflagration.  The 
News  said : 

The  fire  fiend  has  again  visited  us,  and  many  of 
our  worthy  citizens  have  met  with  heavy  losses.  About 
7:30  o'clock  last  night  as  some  one  opened  the  door 
leading  upstairs  in  S.  F.  Bradbury's  restaurant,  oppo- 
site the  depot,  flames  were  seen  slowly  licking  down  the 
stairway.  Those  who  were  at  the  tables  jumped  up,  and 
seeing  they  could  do  nothing  in  the  building,  ran  out  on 
the  street  and  gave  the  alarm.  Strange  to  relate,  at 
this  early  period  the  whole  roof  and  upstairs  were  in 
flames.  The  entire  populace  turned  out  and  each  did 
his  best  to  subdue  the  flames,  but  with  no  water  system, 
and  the  only  water  to  be  had  from  barrels  and  some 
adjacent  wells,  small  headway  could  be  made.  A  gentle 
northerly  breeze  was  blowing,  which  caused  the  principal 
fight  to  be  made  on  the  north  side. 

The  Bradbury  building  was  soon  a  mass  of  fire. 
Next  Cy  Townsend's  two-story  building,  on  the  north, 
and  A.  E.  Allraan's  Club  saloon  on  the  south  (being 
the  corner  building),  were  on  fire.  Then  several  small 
buildings  in  the  rear  were  rapidly  consumed.  By  a 
determined  fight  with  wet  blankets  and  buckets  of  water 
the  large  music  hall  building  across  Fifth  street,  belong- 
ing to  Charles  Litchfield,  and  occupied  by  A.  Tabor  Si 
Company,  as  a  music  hall,  and  I.  H.  Stevens  as  a 
restaurant,  was  almost  miraculously  saved.  From  Cy 
Townsend's  the  flames  crawled  to  R.  G.  Field's  grocery 
store,  thence  to  Mr.  Halbeis'  harness  shop ;  next  to  the 
Crandall  Brothers'  general  merchandise  store;  and 
thence  to  T.  R.  O'Connor's  saloon,  where  the  flames 
were  stayed  after  entirely  gutting  the  building.  This 
was  adjoining  Mrs.  Eagan's  Gem  restaurant.  The  fire 
originated  from  a  defective  flue  in  Mr.  Bradbury's 
kitchen.  It  was  merely  a  stove-pipe  from  the  range, 
going  through  the  roof,  with  nothing  but  a  tin  to  protect 
it  from  the  boards.     The  principal  losers  are: 

A.    E.    Allman,    Club    saloon    building,    which    was 


newly  papered  and  painted,  ready  for  business,  $1,200; 
S.  F.  Bradbury,  building  and  contents,  $2,000 ;  Cy  Town- 
send,  two-story  building,  three  smaller  buildings,  saloon 
fixtures,  furniture  and  stock,  $3,000;  R.  G.  Fields, 
grocery  stock,  building,  etc.,  $1,000;  William  Halbeis, 
only  $200,  as  he  saved  almost  everything ;  Crandall 
Brothers,  stock,  $1,500;  T.  R.  O'Connor,  saloon  build- 
ing, fixtures,  etc.,  $300;  M.  R.  Golusha,  three  buildings, 
$1,000;  Tom  Miller,  residence  and  personal  effects,  $200; 
Robert  Meyerhoff,  blacksmith  shop,  $100;  Mrs.  M. 
Eagan,  damage,  200;  Mrs.  J.  H.  Moyle,  damage,  $100; 
Tabor  &  Company,  damage,  $25.  There  was  no  in- 
surance   on    any    of    the    property    destroyed. 

During  the  spring  and  summer  of  1S96  ma- 
terial conditions  in  Northport  presented  a  most 
flattering  outlook.  From  March,  of  this  year, 
until  August,  forty-five  new  residences  were 
erected,  and  fifteen  business  houses  were  built 
to  supply  the  constantly  increasing  demand. 
In  addition  to  these  structures  fifteen  tents  were 
in  commission  during  the  month  of  August. 
Following  were  the  business  enterprises  in 
Northport  in  August,  1896,  twenty  of  which 
had  been  established  during  the  preceding  five 
months :  General  merchandise  stores,  3 ;  groc- 
eries, 3 ;  commission  house,  i ;  saw  mills,  2 ; 
shoe  shops,  2 ;  planing  mill,  i ;  harness  shops, 
2 ;  tin  shops,  i  ;  hotels,  3 ;  lodging  houses,  7 ; 
saloons,  1 1 ;  meat  markets,  2 ;  blacksmith  shops, 
2 ;  livery  stables,  2 ;  barber  shops,  2 ;  bath 
houses,  i;  bakeries,  2;  dance  hall,  i;  photo- 
graph gallery,  i ;  printing  office,  i  ;  drug  store, 
I ;  jewelry  store,  i ;  restaurants,  5 ;  fruit,  con- 
fectionery, etc.,  3;  news  stand,  i;  laundrys,  2; 
lime  works,  i ;  brick  yard,  i ;  ferry,  i. 

The  year  1897  was  marked  by  a  vigorous 
growth  numerically,  and  healthy  business  con- 
ditions. It  had  been  definitely  settled  during 
the  summer  of  that  year  that  the  prospective 
smelter  was  to  be  located  at  Northport  and  this, 
naturally,  aided  materially  in  furthering  the 
interests  of  all  local  enterprises.  In  the  fall 
work  on  the  smelter  was  begiin.  Several  hun- 
dred men  were  employed  in  its  construction. 
At  the  same  time  the  big  bridge  across  the 
Columbia  river,  for  the  Nelson  and  Fort  Shep- 
ard  road,  was  constructed,  giving  employment 

to  one  hundred  more  people  for  several  months. 
This  structure  was  begiui  January  25,  1897, 
and  was  not  completed  owing  to  the  high 
water  in  May,  until  October.  This  bridge  is  an 
immense  fabric,  having  1,200  feet  of  spans, 
three  of  which  are  250  feet  in  length,  each,  with 
three  others  of  150  feet  to  the  span.  The 
"trestle  approaches  are  500  feet  in  length,  mak- 
ing an  aggregate  of  1,700  feet  in  length,  be- 
sides the  heavy  dirt  fill  at  the  east  approach, 
several  hundred  feet  in  length.  The  rail  is 
sixty-nine  feet  above  low  water  gauge.  The 
highest  pier  is  eighty  feet.  The  piers  are  of 
concrete  cased  in  heavy  boiler  iron.  Tuesday, 
October  12,  1897,  the  first  passenger  train 
passed  over  the  bridge.  Previous  to  the  com- 
pletion of  this  bridge  trains  were  conveyed 
across  the  river  by  a  railroad  ferry. 

The  controversy  over  the  location  of  the 
smelter  was  of  three  years'  duration  and  hotly 
contested.  The  company  owning  the  Le  Roi 
mines  and  who  erected  the  smelter,  were  Eng- 
lishmen, and  Canadians  were  very  anxious  to 
have  the  plant  located  on  Canadian  soil.  Ow- 
ing to  the  immense  supply  of  lime  rock  at 
Northport,  the  better  transportation  facilities, 
on  account  of  grades,  etc.,  Northport  was 
selected  as  the  site  for  the  smelter,  the  company 
estimating  that  the  plant  could  be  operated 
here  at  an  expense  of  many  thousands  of  dol- 
lars yearly  less  than  on  Canadian  soil. 

It  appears  that  the  smelter  property  tempor- 
arily, at  least  passed  into  the  hands  of  Ameri- 
cans. In  the  winter  of  1897-8  the  North- 
port  smelter  was  completed  and  operations  be- 
gun. It  was  built  by  American  capitalists  who 
owned,  also  the  Le  Roi  mines  at  Rossland. 
The  cost  of  the  smelter  is  said  to  have  been 
about  $250,000.  It  opened  out  with  a  force 
of  about  200  workmen,  but  this  number  was 
gradually  increased  until  between  500  and  600 
men  found  steady  employment.  This  number 
is  now  employed  when  the  smelter  is  running 
on  full  time,  which  is  the  usual  condition.  In 
1899   the   Le   Roi    mines   and    the    Northport 



smelter  were  disposed  of  to  an  English  com- 
pany, and  the  enterprise  at  Northport  became 
known  as  the  Northport  Refining  &  Smelting 
Company.  The  entire  product  of  the  Le  Roi 
group  of  mines,  the  Kootenai  and  the  Velvet 
mines,  are  smelted  at  this  point,  and  it  also  does 
considerable  custom  smelting  for  other  mines. 
During  the  first  few  years  of  its  existence 
Northport  suffered  severely  from  three  disas- 
trous fires.  But  the  fourth  and  heaviest  of 
them  all  was  yet  to  come.  Early  Monday  morn- 
ing, May  3,  1898,  almost  the  entire  business 
portion  of  the  town  went  up  in  smoke.  Busi- 
ness houses  in  three  blocks  were  entirely  de- 
stroyed, entailing  a  loss  of  about  $100,000. 
Following  is  the  Ne^vs'  story  of  this  confla- 
gration : 

At  4:20  o'clock,  Monday  morning  four  shots  rang 
out  on  the  air  to  arouse  the  town  from  its  slumbers,  and 
call  them  forth  to  battle  for  the  protection  of  their 
property,  their  hard  earned  savings  and  their  homes. 
Apparently  the  alarm  was  not  well  understood,  for  the 
people  were  somewhat  slow  in  responding  to  the  call. 
The  fire  was  first  discovered  breaking  through  the  roof 
of  Madden  &  Riley's  new  building  at  the  rear  of  their 
saloon,  the  fire  apparently  coming  from  the  south  roof 
over  the  barber  shop  occupied  by  Robert  E.  Stout.  Many 
rumors  were  rife  regarding  the  origin  of  the  fire,  some 
saying  that  it  first  broke  out  in  the  tailor  shop  occupied 
by  Hattran ;  others  that  it  started  in  the  blacksmith  shop, 
while  a  few  were  of  the  opinion  that  it  had  originated 
between  the  barber  and  tailor  shops.  We  have  made 
careful  inquiry,  and  there  is  little  doubt  but  that  it 
originated  in  R,  E.  Stout's  barber  shop.  It  seems  that 
Mr.  Stout  has  an  assistant  who  sleeps  in  the  shop,  and 
on  this  night  in  question  he  did  not  retire  until  after 
two  o'clock,  and  then  in  an  inebriated  condition. 
Whether  he  left  a  lamp  burning,  which  exploded,  or 
whether  a  smouldering  cigar  stub  was  so  thrown  that 
it  ignited  combustible  matter,  or  just  how  it  started  may 
never  be  known,  but  it  is  certain  that  the  fire  broke  out 
in  the  barber  shop  in  question. 

Help  came  so  slowly,  and  without  organization  when 
it  did  arrive,  that  the  fire  secured  a  start  that  soon  made 
it  clear  that  the  building  could  not  be  saved.  A  de- 
termined fight  was  made  to  keep  it  from  spreading  either 
way.  The  blacksmith  shop  to  the  south  was  partially 
torn  down,  but  the  flames  rushed  past  there  and  caught 
the  building  across  the  alley  owned  by  William  P. 
Hughes,  and  occupied  by  Mr.  Dahl  Strom  with  a  stock 
of  goods.  The  fire  also  escaped  from  the  workers  to 
the  north,  and  caught  into  the  Madden  &  Riley  saloon 
building  on  the  corner.     Dynamite   was   freely  used   to 

blow  up  buildings  in  the  path  of  the  roaring  flames, 
but  with  little  avail,  and  in  some  instances  this  heroic 
treatment  served  to  hasten  the  onward  march  of  the 
flames.  When  the  fire  started  there  was  but  little  wind, 
and  that  was  blowing  to  the  east  and  away  from  Fourth 
street.  But  little  fear  was  felt  that  the  fire  would  cross 
the  street  to  the  west,  but  when  the  flames  reached  the 
Alberta  house  the  wind  suddenly  changed,  blowing  to 
the  west.  Soon  the  fire  caught  the  large  Broderius  build- 
ing, when  all  hope  was  abandoned  and  the  whole  town 
surrendered  to  satiate  the  appetite  of  the  fiery  monster. 
Teams  were  in  great  demand  to  haul  goods  and  per- 
sonal effects.  Everyone  worked  as  though  his  life  de- 
pended upon  saving  the  goods  and  personal  belongings 
of  the  sufferers.  In  the  main  the  larger  proportion  of  the 
stocks  of  goods  and  personal  effects  were  saved,  al- 
though it  would  take  several  thousand  dollars  to  replace 
those  sacrificed  to  the  flames. 

As  is  usual  at  fires  a  great  many  took  more  liquid  re- 
freshments than  decency  and  good  manners  would 
countenance,  and  there  was  considerable  complaint  of 
stolen  property.  We  could  not  think  of  favorably  men- 
tioning those  who  worked  and  fought  valiantly  to  save 
property  and  to  feed  those  who  were  working,  for  space 
will  not  permit.  The  fire  was  awful.  It  swept  away  the 
whole  business  portion  of  the  town  except  the  brick 
building  of  A.  T.  Kendrick  &  Co.,  located  in  the  center 
of  the  burned  district  at  the  corner  of  Fourth  street  and 
Columbia  avenue.  There  was  no  loss  of  life  so  far  as 
can  be  ascertained.  The  losers  by  the  fire,  their  losses 
and  the  insurance  are  about  as  follows : 

Thomas  L.  Savage,  building,  $1,900,  stock  of  goods, 
$15,000,  loss  of  goods,  $2,500,  insurance,  $6,000.  Charles 
Weaver,  house,  livery  stable  and  effects,  $500,  no  in- 
surance. F.  Gribi,  restaurant,  $250,  no  insurance.  C.  C. 
Anderson,  building  and  effects,  $350,  no  insurance. 
Bartlett  &  Trullinger,  cigars  and  store,  $450,  insurance, 
$250.  Mrs.  Wallace,  lodging,  $400,  no  insurance. 
George  Thomas,  Peerless  building,  $3,000,  no  insurance. 
Perdue  &  Thomas,  building,  meats  and  lard,  $900,  no 
Otis  Arnold,  building  and  goods,  $1,200,  no 
Mrs.  Vance,  merchandise.  $100,  no  insurance. 
Amanda  Swanson,  restaurant  and  building,  $350,  no  in- 
surance, Laura  D.  Blake,  building,  $250,  no  insurance. 
Hugo  Moser,  saloon  and  outfit,  $300,  no  insurance. 
P.  J.  Lyons,  building  and  stock,  $750,  no  insurance. 
Harris  &  Haven,  meat  market  and  stock,  $2,400,  no 
insurance.  A.  H.  Dawson,  merchandise,  $750,  insurance, 
$250.  Charles  Trullinger,  jewelry,  insured  to  cover  loss. 
Pat  Devine,  saloon,  $450,  no  insurance.  Macy  Brothers, 
building  and  restaurant,  $750,  no  insurance.  Floyd 
Smith,  barber  shop  and  bath  room,  $150,  no  insurance. 
Madden  &  Riley,  two  buildings,  $2,000.  no  insurance. 
Hattran,  tailor,  loss  nominal.  Ferguson  &  Company, 
saloon  stock,  $100,  no  insurance.  Billy  Moore,  bowling 
alley,  $250,  no  insurance.  Northport  State  Bank,  saved 
all  effects.  Mrs.  Newland,  lodging,  $100,  no  insurance. 
R.  G.  Field,  building  and  groceries,  $800,  no  insurance. 
William   Halbeis,   harness   shop   and   building.  $800,   no 



insurance.  S.  Sline,  saloon  building  and  stock,  $2,500, 
insurance,  $600.  A.  S.  Sanderlin,  barber,  loss  nominal. 
Cy  Townsend,  building,  $1,200,  no  insurance.  Parker  & 
Brown,  building  and  stock,  $2,000,  no  insurance.  M.  R. 
Galusha,  three  buildings,  no  insurance.  John  A.  Finch, 
two  buildings,  $1,400,  insurance  $500.  A  King,  build- 
ing. $200,  no  insurance.  Robert  Remble,  two  houses, 
$400.  no  insurance.  Neil  McGinnis,  Wigwam  saloon, 
stock  and  fixtures,  $900.  Mrs.  Eagan,  hotel  building. 
$1,500,  insurance,  $700.  O'Connor  &  Cunningham, 
building,  $900.  no  insurance.  Thomas  A.  Parrot,  two 
buildings,  $500,  no  insurance.  William  Sluthour,  build- 
ing and  all  effects,  $600,  no  insurance.  Jennie  Crow, 
house  and  furniture,  $500.  E.  Black,  stock  of  goods, 
$1,600,  insurance,  $900.  Deyarden  &  Cameron,  black- 
smiths. $200.  Adel  Bishop,  livery  barn,  $300.  Mrs. 
Jean  Harris,  lodging  house,  $800.  Almstrom  Brothers, 
three  buildings,  barn,  ice  house,  saloon  stock,  lodging 
house,  $5,000,  insurance,  $750.  Columbia  Hardware 
Company,  stock  and  buildings,  $1,560.  S.  F.  Davis, 
building  and  stock,  $1,400,  insurance  $500.  Albert 
Loiselle,  Alberta  House,  $3,000,  insurance,  $600.  Henry 
Hicks,  tinner,  $200.  Theresa  Klepsch,  two  buildings, 
$1,100.  Charbenneau  &  Brassard,  injury  to  stock.  $250. 
A.  K.  Ogilvie,  three  buildings,  $1,000,  insurance.  $250. 
A.  A.  Batterson,  improvements,  $75.  A.  W.  Calder, 
dentist,  loss  of  instruments,  $100.  W.  L.  Webb,  loss 
on  second  hand  goods,  $100.  Miss  Stark,  lodging,  $150. 
Mrs.  Ahlman,  restaurant,  $100.  Dr.  G.  G.  Travis,  five 
cottages  and  partial  loss  on  stock  of  drugs,  $2,000. 
T.  R.  Welch,  building  and  loss  on  drugs,  $1,500,  insured. 
Dr.  Armstrong,  furniture,  instruments  and  books,  $1,000. 
John  and  Henry  Broderius,  building,  $1,500.  Joseph 
Warsnict.  buildings,  $300.  J.  C.  Harkness,  $450.  Will- 
iam P.  Hughes,  four  buildings,  $4,500,  insurance  $700. 
Miss  Waters  and  Mrs.  Honey,  millinery,  $75. 

Following  this  appalling  disaster,  such  was 
the  enterprise  and  energy  of  the  citizens  of 
Northport,  that  nearly  all  of  the  business 
houses  at  once  opened  up.  some  in  private 
houses,  and  some  in  tents.  In  a  more  limited 
sphere  the  indomitable  spirit  exhibited  after  the 
great  Chicago  fire  was  exhibited  in  Northport. 
The  city  was  prosperous  at  the  time,  and  the 
people  quickly  rallied  and  set  to  work  to  re- 
build the  town.  The  reason  that  there  was  so 
little  insurance  carried  is  that  the  town  was  a 
veritable  fire-trap  and  insurance  rates  were  held 
at  ten  per  cent. 

In  1900  the  office  of  the  United  States  Im- 
migrant Inspector  was  located  at  Northport, 
with  Major  S.  C.  Walker  as  inspector.  He 
was  succeeded  by  C.  E.  Dooley,  who  at  present 

holds  the  position.  This  office  concerns  itself 
with  all  immigrants  coming  to  the  United 
States  at  this  point,  and  more  especially  China- 
men, many  of  whom  have  been  ordered  de- 
ported to  China  from  this  port  by  the  United 
States  Commissioner,  W.  P.  Hughes.  Con- 
nected with  this  office  is  an  inspection  commit- 
tee consisting  of  J.  E.  Daniels,  W.  H.  Hutchin- 
son and  A.  J.  Ferrandini. 

The  year  1901  was  accentuated  in  North- 
port  by  a  strike  in  the  smelter.  It  soon  devel- 
oped into  one  of  the  memorable  strikes  of  the 
country,  and  continued  in  force  and  varying 
intensity  for  nine  months.  The  underlying 
cause  of  this  trouble  was  simply  the  customary 
objection  of  the  smelter  company  to  the  forma- 
tion of  a  union  among  the  workmen.  The  lat- 
ter, however,  insisted  on  the  organization,  and 
accordingly  the  Northport  Mill  and  Smelter- 
men's  Union  was  formed.  Although  not  of- 
ficially announced,  it  had  been  freely  given  out 
by  the  smelter  company  that  a  connection  with 
the  union  would  be  considered  equivalent  to  an 
invitation  for  a  discharge  from  the  company's 
service.  Despite  this  announcement  a  large 
majority  of  the  company's  employes  associated 
themselves  with  the  union.  When  the  com- 
pany's officials  came  to  survey  the  field  it  was 
discovered  that  a  wholesale  discharge  of  all 
the  men  affiliated  with  the  new  union  would 
seriously  cripple  their  business.  So  matters 
were,  for  a  period,  permitted  to  remain  in 
statu  quo,  and  the  smelter  work  continued  to 
be  carried  on  alongside  the  Mill  and  Smelter- 
men's  Union.  Still,  there  was  constant  fric- 
tion. On  one  side  were  arrayed  hearty  oppo- 
nents of  all  forms  of  unionism;  on  the  other 
a  body  of  determined  men  led  by  a  few  agita- 
tors with  whom  nearly  every  industrial  center 
in  the  United  States  is  familiar.  The  press  of 
the  county,  too,  was  divided,  and  each  side  to 
the  controversy  had  its  journalistic  organ  car- 
rying weekly  inflammator\-  articles  into  the  two 
opposing  camps. 

Then  it  was  that  the  members  of  the  Mill 



and  Smeltermen's  Union  discovered  that  their 
ranks  in  the  smeUer  were  being  gradually,  but 
surely  decimated  by  periodical,  yet  significant, 
discharges  of  men,  and  the  substitution  in  their 
places  of  non-union  workmen.  They  at  once 
grasped  the  situation,  and  contrived  to  check- 
mate this  move,  for  a  period,  at  least,  by  union- 
izing the  new  recruits  from  the  far  east.  As 
fast  as  men  could  be  imported  they  were  in- 
duced to  cast  their  lot  with  the  Mill  and  Smel- 
termen's Union.  As  stated  by  the  Stevens 
County  Reveille,  "It  soon  became  a  question  as 
to  who  could  master  the  situation  the  quickest, 
each  playing  at  his  own  game." 

In  July  the  smelter  company  made  a  whole- 
sale discharge  of  carpenters  and  the  strike  en- 
sued. Following  this  demonstration  the  smel- 
ter company  immediately  became  active  in  se- 
curing skilled  labor  from  the  mills  and  fur- 
naces of  the  east.  In  this  connection  it  should 
not  be  overlooked  that  the  local  authorities, 
well  aware  of  conditions  prevailing  at  North- 
port,  regarding  labor  troubles,  refused  to  inter- 
fere in  behalf  of  either  the  smelter  company  or 
the  union.  Accordingly  the  company,  which 
was  an  English  organization,  transferred  its 
property  to  a  corporation  organized  in  the  state 
of  Idaho,  ostensibly  for  the  purpose  of  seek- 
ing protection  from  the  United  States  courts. 
Necessary  affidavits  were  procured  in  support 
of  a  petition  for  relief  in  the  federal  courts. 
The  result  was  an  injunction  issued  against 
those  who  were  presumed  to  be  the  most  active 
in  opposition  to  the  interests  of  the  smelter  com- 
pany. The  order  was  issued  by  Judge  Haii- 
ford,  restraining  the  Mill  and  Smeltermen's 
Union  at  Northport  from  interfering  with  the 
management  of  the  smelter,  or  their  employes. 
Following  is  the  text  of  the  injunction  : 

111  the  meantime  and  until  further  order  of  the 
court  herein,  said  defendants,  and  each  of  them,  their 
aiders,  attorneys,  officers,  agents,  servants,  and  em- 
ployes, be,  and  they  are  severally  restrained  and  en- 
joined from  in  any  manner  interferring  with  the  com- 
plainant herein  in  and  upon  and  about  its  said  smelting 
plant,  or  in  any  part  thereof,  and  from  in  any  manner. 

by  force  or  threats  or  otherwise,  making  any  attempt  or 
attempts,  openly  or  covertly,  to  intimidate  any  employe 
of  complainant  herein,  or  from  attempting  to  prevent  in 
any  manner  any  employe  of  said  complainant  and  North- 
port  Smelting  &  Refining  Company,  Ltd.,  from  proceed- 
ing to  work  for  said  complainant  in  a  peaceful,  quiet 
and  lawful  manner,  in  and  upon  any  part  of  aforesaid 
smelting  plant,  or  upon  any  works  of  complainant  there- 
in or  thereabouts,  or  at  all,  and  that  they,  the  said 
parties  aforesaid,  be,  and  they  are  hereby  further  en- 
joined from  sending  any  agents  or  any  persons  whatever 
to  any  of  the  employes  of  complainant  herein,  and  from 
intimidating  and  threatening,  enticing  or  persuading,  or 
in  any  manner  trying  to  prevent  any  employe  of  com- 
plainant herein,  from  working  in  or  about  aforesaid 
smelting  plant  and  property,  or  any  other  property  of 
complainant,  or  from  preventing  in  a:iy  manner  any  one 
from  entering  the  service  of  complainant  herein,  or  in 
any  manner  interfering  with  the  business  of  said  com- 
plainant in  employing  persons  to  work  upon  and  about 
its  property,  or  from  going  upon  any  part  of  com- 
plainant's property  without  permission  from  com- 
plainant, or  its  agents,  or  employes  so  to  do,  or  in  any 
manner  entering  the  works  of  complainant  without  its 
consent  or  consent  of  its  manager,  agents  or  employes. 

To  this  injunction  there  was  filed  an  answer 
by  the  Northport  Mill  and  Smeltermen's 
Union.  It  was  drawn  by  its  attorneys,  Robert- 
son, Miller  &  Rosenhaupt.  The  answer  in  part 
was  as  follows : 

That  the  Northport  Smelting  &  Refining  Company 
claims  to  be  capitalized  in  the  sum  of  $1,000,000,  which 
is  divided  up  into  1,000,000  shares  of  stock,  at  the 
par  value  of  $1  per  share;  that  a  majority  of  the  stock 
is  owned  by  aliens  who  are  citizens  and  residents  of 
England  and  British  Columbia,  which  places  are  foreign 
territories  over  which  the  state  of  Washington,  nor  the 
United  States,  have  any  control,  and  the  persons  and 
stockholders  are  subjects  of  his  Majesty,  King  Edward 
VII,  who  is  now  the  reigning  king  of  the  country. 

That  the  holding  of  lands  by  aliens  is  contrary  to 
the  constitution  of  Washington,  and  that  the  parties  are 
by  a  few  American  abettors  endeavoring  to  set  the  laws 
of  Washington  at  naught  and  to  do  indirectly  what  they 
could  not  do  directly  in  their  attempt  to  hold  lands  in 
said  state.  The  defendants  admit  that  the  Northport 
Mining  &  Smeltermen's  Union  is  a  branch  of  t;he 
Western  Federation  of  Miners,  and  also  they  admit 
that  they  and  each  of  them  who  have  joined  in  this 
answer  are  members  thereof. 

And  as  the  complainant,  comes  into  court  with  un- 
clean hands  in  this  and  other  respects ;  that  one  of  its 
officers,  Bela  Kadish,  a  superintendent,  called  one  of  the 
members  and  officers  of  the  union  into  his  office,  and 
sought  by  unlawful  use  of  money  to  corrupt  and  bribe 
said   member,   and   officer,   for  the  purpose  of   securing 



his  services  and  the  services  of  other  members,  for  the 
sum  of  $^000,  to  disintegrate  and  disorganize  the  union, 
and  not  succeeding  in  this  purpose  the  management  of 
the  smelter  closed  one  furnace  after  another  until  all 
of  the  employes,  or  nearly  all,  were  locked  out,  and  these 
defendants  did  not  engage  in  any  strike  or  any  other  act 
to   prevent   complainant   from  operating   its   works. 

That  the  union  and  the  members  thereof  only  claim 
the  right  to  whomsoever  is  willing  to  hear  them  and  tell 
the  exact  facts  concerning  the  action  of  complainant 
toward  them,  and  to  persuade  any  and  all  persons  by 
peaceable  means  that  they  are  not  in  the  wrong,  qnd  that 
the  complainant  locked  them  out  after  years  of  accept- 
able and  faithful  service,  through  either  malice,  whim 
or  caprice,  and  that  it  is  likely  to  do  the  same  to  un- 
suspecting persons  taking  the  places  which  the  defend- 
ants formerly  occupied.  Defendants  do  not  claim  the 
right  to  trespass  upon  the  premises  of  the  complain- 
ant or  to  intimidate  the  employes  thereof.  Defendants 
inform  the  court  that  they  do  not  know,  nor  have  they 
ever  believed  since  they  were  locked  out,  that  the  com- 
plainant could  get  experienced  men  to  fill  their  places, 
and  that  they  have  been  desirous  of  not  creating  any 
cause  for  ill-feeling  or  friction  between  the  manage- 
ment of  the  plant  and  the  members  of  the  union,  and  for 
the  accomplishment  of  this  purpose  and  end,  as  well  as 
to  conforni  to  law  and  order,  they  have  counseled  all 
of  their  members  to  be  peaceable  and  law-abiding,  and 
this  they  expect  to  continue  to  do. 

It  must  be  frankly  granted  that  the  course 
of  the  smelter  strike,  on  the  part  of  the  work- 
men, was  almost  above  reproach  so  far  as  re- 
gards riots  and  disorderly  conduct.  At  times 
conditions  were  gloomy  and  the  fringe  of  riot 
was  reached,  but  the  record  shows  that  at  no 
time  were  the  slumbering  embers  of  riot  fanned 
into  the  flames  of  lawlessness  and  crime.  The 
first  approach  to  such  a  deplorable  condition 
occurred  Septemljer  2.  It  appears  that  in  the 
afternoon  (jf  that  day  sixty-two  men  were 
brought  in  from  the  east  by  one  Oliver  Lamb 
to  fill  places  in  the  smelter  deserted  by  strikers. 
At  the  depot  they  were  accosted  by  a  number 
of  union  men  who  endeavored  to  persuade  them 
to  refrain  from  work,  and  the  union  men  were 
successful  to  the  extent  of  sidetracking  thirty- 
five  of  the  new  arrivals.  While  marching  from 
the  depot  to  the  smelter  one  of  the  union  men 
was  accidentally  hit  by  a  gun  in  the  hands  of 
Deputy  United  States  Marshal  Guyton.  In- 
stead of  proceeding  to  personal  retailiatinn  the 

union  men  sought  redress  at  the  hands  of  the 
court  and  a  warrant  was  issued  for  the  arrest 
of  Guyton.  The  document  was  placed  in  the 
hands  of  Deputy  Sheriff  Anderson.  Guyton 
came  quietly  enough  down  town  with  the  dep- 
uty sheriff,  but  when  the  latter  attempted  to 
disarm  him  he  resisted.  An  altercation  ensued 
during  which  six  shots  were  fired,  but  without 
serious  result.  Guyton  succeeded  in  effecting 
his  escape  and  returned  home.  Anderson  wer.t 
after  him  a  second  time,  but  was  kept  away 
from  the  premises  by  a  \\'inchester  in  the 
hands  of  Guyton.  Word  was  sent  to  Colville 
of  the  existing  conditions,  and  Sheriff  Ledger- 
wood  was  asked  to  repair  to  Northport  for  the 
purpose  of  "quelling  a  prospective  riot"  be- 
tween the  union  and  the  smelter  employes.  The 
sheriff  arrived  on  the  scene  and  with  little  dif- 
ficulty disarmed  two  forces  who  were,  ostensi- 
bly, "on  guard."  Of  the  sixty-two  men  who 
came  to  Northport  from  Joplin,  Missouri, 
forty-five  of  them  declined  to  work  for  the 
sinelter  company  and  sought  other  employ- 

Another  incipient  riot  was  broken  up  in  its 
early  stages  Saturday,  November  9.  Shots 
were  exchanged  in  a  saloon  on  that  day  be- 
tween union  and  non-union  men,  and  one  man 
named  Kennedy  was  seriously  injured.  Four 
men  were  accused  of  disorderly  conduct  and 
landed  in  jail.  Prosecuting  Attorney  Bailey 
and  Sheriff  Ledgerwood  came  up  from  Colville 
and  succeeded  in  bringing  about  a  more  peace- 
ful state  01  affairs,  and  subsequently  Deputy 
Sheriff  Graham  appeared  on  the  scene  and  dis- 
armed both  contending  forces. 

The  Northport  smelter  strike  was  declared 
off  Wednesday,  March  12,  1902.  An  inter- 
esting account  nf  the  causes  which  led  up  to  this 
denouement,  written  evidently,  from  a  non- 
partisan view  point,  was  published  in  the 
Xorthport  Kepnhlican  of  March  1 5  : 

"At  a  meeting  of  the  Northport  Mill  & 
Smeltermen's  Union  Tuesday  night,  March  11. 
a  unanimous  \-ote  declared  in  favor  of  continu- 



ing  the  fight  to  the  bitter  end,  but  hardly  had 
the  echo  died  from  the  loud  cheering  that  fol- 
lowed the  announcement  of  the  ballot  when  it 
was  learned  that  the  Western  Federation  of 
Miners,  with  headquarters  at  Denver,  had  de- 
cided to  cut  off  the  weekly  allowance  of  the 
Northport  Mill  &  Smeltermen's  Union.  This 
sudden  and  very  unexpected  announcement 
nearly  paralyzed  the  boys,  and  some  could 
hardly  believe  that  the  federation  would  give 
them  the  cold  shoulder  so  soon,  but  the  follow- 
ing morning  when  the  free  eating  house,  con- 
ducted by  the  Western  Federation,  closed  its 
doors  they  began  to  realize  their  predicament 
and  a  mass  meeting  was  called  for  Wednesday 
night.  At  this  meeting  the  question  of  declar- 
ing the  strike  ofif  was  brought  up.  *  *  *  A 
vote  was  taken,  but,  alas,  it  did  not  correspond 
with  the  vote  of  the  previous  evening  worth  a 
cent.  To  cut  off  the  rations  made  all  the 
difference  in  the  world,  and  when  the  ballots 
were  counted  it  was  found  that  a  majority  had 
voted  to  declare  ofif  the  strike.  The  report  of 
the  vote  caused  dissension  in  the  ranks,  and  a 
lively  time  ensued  which  at  times  looked  threat- 
ening. It  was  with  difificulty  that  order  was 
preserved  and  when  at  last  the  storm  subsided 
it  was  decided  advisable  to  abandon  the  union 
altogether  and  surrender  the  charter.  This 
ends  the  life  of  the  Northport  Mill  &  Smelter- 
men's Union." 

Northport  is  a  bonded  port  of  entry  of  the 
United  States  custom  service.  This  sub-port 
of  entry  was  first  established  in  northeastern 
Washington  in  the  8o's,  and  Little  Dalles, 
which  was  then  a  postoffice  a  few  miles  down 
the  river  from  where  Northport  now  stands, 
was  the  port.  In  1893,  shortly  after  the  rail- 
road was  completed  to  Northfield,  that  growing 
town  became  the  port  of  entry.  The  following 
year  it  was  removed  to  Marcus  on  account  of 
a  large  wagon  traffic  between  that  point  and 
points  in  British  Columbia.  In  1895.  however, 
Northport  again  became  the  port  of  entry  and 
has  remained  so  since.     Officials  at  this  port 

have  proved  quite  efficient  in  checking  the 
smuggling  of  opium  and  the  importation  of  un- 
licensed Chinamen. 

The  public  schools  of  Northport  are  of  a 
high  class  and  merit  the  evident  appreciation  of 
the  people.  The  total  enrollment  is  over  two 
hundred  ?nd  fifty.  There  are  five  teachers  oc- 
cupying two  temporary  buildings.  A  new  and 
commodious  brick  edifice  was  erected  during 
the  summer  of  1903.  The  ninth  grade  is  com- 
posed of  four  students;  the  eighth  grade  will 
have  a  class  of  eight  or  nine  to  write  in  the 
spring  examination  of  1904.  The  teachers, 
with  their  grades,  are  these:  Prof  W.  C.  M. 
Scott,  9th,  8th  and  7th  grades ;  Miss  M.  Link, 
6th  and  5th;  Miss  June  Jackson,  4th  and  3d; 
Miss  Belle  Nesbitt,  2d  and  high  first;  Miss 
Mary  Shields,  ist  grade. 

At  present  the  city  of  Northport  contains 
about  one  thousand  population.  It  is  lively, 
and  the  business  portion  has  more  of  the  ap- 
pearance of  a  city  than  most  country  towns. 
One  can  not  gainsay  the  apparent  fact  that 
Northport  has  a  future,  and  with  a  fuller  de- 
velopment of  adjacent  mines  the  prospects  of 
the  town  will  be,  indeed,  flattering.  The  people 
are  energetic  and  show  their  faith  by  their 
works,  putting  all  of  their  surplus  earnings  into 
mine  developments.  The  smelter,  of  course,  is 
the  central  enterprise  of  the  town,  and  at  pres- 
ent is  employing  about  three  hundred  men. 
Wages  range  from  $2.75  to  $5  per  diem.  The 
lime  rock  in  this  vicinity  is  a  valuable  resource ; 
a  large  amount  of  it  is  utilized  in  the  local 
smelter  and  much  of  it  is  shipped  to  the  smelter 
at  Trail.  Two  marble  quarries  are  located  in 
the  vicini<;y  of  Northport.  They  have  been  de- 
veloped to  a  considerable  extent,  but  so  far  no 
shipments  have  been  made.  These  quarries  are 
the  Chewelah  Marble  Company,  seven  miles 
southeast,  on  Deep  Creek,  and  the  Allen  Mar- 
ble Company,  two  miles  south  of  Northport. 
Several  thousand  dollars  have  been  expended 
in  developm.ent  and  machinery. 

While  there  are  no  developed  mines  in  the 



immediate  vicinity  of  Northport,  some  of  the 
richest  prospects  in  the  country  are  located  here. 
Eight  miles  from  Northport,  on  Deep  Creek,  is 
a  galena  mine  from  which  two  thousand  tons  of 
ore  has  been  shipped,  and  the  mine  is  now  be- 
ing more  extensively  developed.  One  mile 
north  of  the  city,  on  the  bank  of  the  Columbia 
river,  is  located  another  rich  mine  from  which 
shipment  has  already  commenced.  Northport 
is  frequently  referred  to  as  the  "Terminal 
City,"  it  being  the  division  point  for  three  rail- 
roads, all  of  which  belong  to  the  Great  North- 
ern system.  These  roads  are  the  Spokane  Falls 
&  Northern,  between  Spokane  and  Northport, 
built  into  Northport  in  1892;  the  Nelson  & 
Fort  Shepard,  from  Northport  to  Nelson,  com- 
pleted in  1893.  ^nd  the  Columbia  &  Red  Moun- 
tain, tetween  Northport  and  Rossland,  built 
in  1807.  The  railroad  machine  shops  and 
round  house  are  located  at  Northport,  which  is, 
at  present,  headquarters  for  about  seventy-five 
railroad  men. 

Secret  societies  are  well  represented  in 
Northport,  there  being  the  following  orders: 
Foresters  of  America ;  Improved  Order  of  Red 
Men;  Women  of  Woodcraft;  Ancient  Order 
United  Workmen;  Independent  Order  of  Odd 
Fellows,  Eagles  and  Masons.  Three  church 
societies  hold  regular  meetings,  Presbyterian, 
Catholic  and  Episcopalians. 

The  four  serious  conflagrations  which  vis- 
ited Northport,  the  last  and  most  damaging  in 
1898,  signified  in  no  unmistakable  terms  the 
pressing  need  of  a  suitable  fire  department. 
One  was  organized  in  1899.  The  efficiency  of 
this  organization  is  amply  attested  by  the  fact 
that,  although  a  number  of  fires  have  secured  a 
threatening  opening  since  that  time,  in  e\ery 
instance  the  flames  have  been  confined  to  the 
buildings  in  which  they  originated. 

United  States  Commissioner  W.  P.  Hughes 
resides  at  Northport,  where  he  holds  his 


CITIES  AND    TOWNS— Continued. 

The  little  town  of  Marcus,  with  its  possibly 
two  hundred  people,  located  at  the  confluence 
of  the  Columbia  and  Kettle  rivers,  is  the  oldest 
town  in  Stevens  county.  To  the  south  of  the 
town  is  what  is  known  as  Marcus  Flat,  a  rich 
agricultural  tract  of  three  or  four  square  miles 
surrounded  on  all  sides  by  high  hills.  In  the 
center  of  this  tract  are  the  old  buildings  of  the 
Hudson's  Bay  Company.  Here  in  the  early 
days  of  the  19th  century  the  post  known  as 
"Fort  Colville"  was  established,  and  from  this 
point  the  company  governed  absolutely  a  ter- 

ritory comprising  hundreds  of  sc|uare  miles. 
They  exercised  autocratic  ownership  and  con- 
trolled completely  all  the  contiguous  Indian 
tribes  and  monopolized  their  trade. 

The  Hudson's  Bay  Company's  fort  at  the 
Kettle  Falls  was  named  after  Lord  Colvil.  an 
English  nobleman  high  in  the  councils  of  the 
company.  While  it  is  not  generally  known  the 
name  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company's  fort  was 
spelled  Cok'il,  from  the  period  of  its  founding 
until  its  abandonment.  With  the  establishment 
of  the  United  States  military  post,  or  fort,  at 
Pinkney  City  the  orthography  of  the  name  was 
clianged  to  Coh'ille.   and   has  since  remained 



so,  and  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company's  fort  is 
at  present  generally  referred  to  as  Colville. 

The  name  Colville  has,  since  the  establish- 
ment of  the  old  fort,  been  given  to  river,  valley, 
mining  district,  Indian  tribe,  military  post  and 

The  date  of  the  establishment  of  Fort  Col- 
ville, near  Marcus,  is  still  a  matter  of  specula- 
tion. Most  historians  give  the  date  as  1825  or 
1826.  There  are  grounds,  however,  for  the  be- 
lief that  it  may  have  been  built  at  an  earlier 
date.  Donald  McDonald,  who  is  the  present 
owner  of  the  old  fort  building,  says  that  he  has 
every  reason  to  believe  that  the  fort  was  estab- 
lished in  1816.  Mr.  McDonald  is  the  son  of 
Angus  McDonald,  the  chief  trader  of  the  fort 
from  1854  to  1 87 1,  and  he  has  made  his  home 
at  this  old  post  since  he  was  a  boy,  fifty  years 
ago.  His  information  is  gained  from  conver- 
sation with  former  employees  of  the  fort  and 
ancient  Indians.  A  visit  to  this  old  landmark 
is  replete  with  interest.  Perhaps  the  most  at- 
tractive edifice  in  the  little  group  is  the  main 
building  or  officer's  quarters,  although  the 
house  now  standing  was  not  built  until  1863. 
It  was  erected  at  that  time  to  replace  the  former 
one  which  was  located  just  north  of  the  present 
site.  It  is  a  fairly  large  building,  and  has  two 
rooms.  Upon  entering  either  room  the  first 
thing  that  attracts  the  eye  is  a  fireplace.  These 
are  composed  of  clay,  and  a  space  in  the  floor 
at  the  bottom,  about  three  feet  square,  is  made 
of  stone  and  brick.  Two  huge  chimneys,  built 
entirely  of  stone,  protrude  from  the  roof.  The 
floor  is  laid  with  two-inch  hardwood  strips, 
manufactured  at  the  company's  "whip-saw" 
mill.  Standing  in  one  of  the  rooms  is  a  large 
hard  wood  desk,  of  ancient  design,  undoubt- 
edly brought  from  England  nearly  a  century 
ago.  The  other  room  is  embellished  with  a 
monstrous  home-made  writing  desk.  The  sills 
of  this  house,  of  12x12  timber,  are  still  in  an 
excellent  state  of  preservation. 

A  few  steps  from  the  officer's  quarters  is 
what  was  known  as  the  "store  house."     This 

building  was  erected  in  1858.  Here  the  com- 
pany carried  their  stock  of  whiskey  and  other 
merchandise,  which  was  traded  to  the  Indians 
for  furs.  An  iron  56-pound  weight,  used  in 
weighing  furs,  may  still  be  seen  in  this  build- 
ing. Adjoining  the  "store"  building  is  the  fur 
house  where  the  stock  of  furs  and  pelts  received 
from  the  savages  in  trade  was  stored.  The 
present  fur  house  was  not  erected  until  1862. 
This  building,  as  well  as  the  store  building, 
was  quite  solidly  built,  the  walls  being  made  o£ 
ten-inch  tamarack.  Large  doors,  made  of 
hea\'y  plank  and  fastened  with  hand-forged 
spikes,  guard  the  entrance  to  these  buildings. 
The  hinges  are  also  of  home  construction. 
There  still  stands  also  a  building  that  was 
known  as  the  clerk's  house,  and  this  is  one  of 
the  oldest  structures  at  the  fort,  having  been 
erected  doubtless  at  the  time  the  company  lo- 
cated there.  The  powder  magazine  proves  not 
the  least  interesting  of  the  sights  at  the  fort. 
This  is  an  underground  room  not  unlike  a  cy- 
clone cellar,  and  one  might  easily  imagine  that 
ammunition  would  be  quite  likely  to  dampen  in 
such  a  subterranean  apartment.  The  whole 
of  the  room  is  curbed  by  flat  stones,  the  inter- 
stices being  filled  with  clay. 

The  block-house  is  the  oldest  structure  at 
the  fort,  having  been  built  by  the  company 
upon  the  establishment  of  the  post.  It  is  con- 
structed of  ten-inch  tamarack  and  has  stood  the 
test  of  time  well.  It  is  about  ten  feet  square. 
Several  rifle  port  holes,  beveled  from  the  in- 
side, command  a  good  view  of  the  surrounding 
country — or  a  possible  enemy.  Larger  port- 
holes on  the  east  side  of  the  building  were  cal- 
culated for  the  artillery,  which  consisted  of  one 
brass  cannon.  This  implement  of  destruction 
is  still  one  of  the  relics  of  the  fort.  It  is  so 
small  that  it  can  easily  be  picked  up  and  carried 
in  one  hand,  and  resembles  a  toy  gun.  It  is  a 
matter  of  history  that  there  was  never  an  attack 
on  this  fort  and  the  little  howitzer  was  never 
called  into  play  in  actual  warfare.  Sometime 
in  the  6o's,  however,  during  a  celebration  at  the 



fort,  the  muzzle  of  this  gun  was  blown  off 
owing  to  an  overcharge  of  powder. 

Surrounding  the  principal  buildings  of  the 
fort,  about  eighty  or  one  hundred  yards,  in 
former  days  was  a  stockade  sixteen  feet  high 
made  of  trunks  of  trees,  and  some  of  these  are 
still  plainly  in  evidence.  These  are  all  of  the 
buildings  now  in  existence,  but  just  south  of 
the  group  is  pointed  out  to  the  visitor  the  site 
of  a  row  of  houses  which  were  once  occupied 
by  the  employees  of  the  fort.  Time  has  de- 
stroyed these  ancient  structures,  but  there  still 
remain  on  the  spot  numerous  small  flat  stones 
which  formed  the  chimneys  of  these  houses. 
Another  spot  is  pointed  out  where  once  stood  the 
bakery.  A  slight  depression  in  the  ground 
shows  where  in  the  long  ago,  stood  the  com- 
pany's brewery,  presided  over  by  Thomas 
Stranger.  A  trifle  northwest  of  the  group  of 
buildings  which  were  surrounded  by  the  stock- 
ade, is  a  pit  where  stood  the  historic  whip-saw 
mill  where  trees  were  rudely  fashioned  into 
lumber  for  the  buildings.  A  short  distance 
north  of  the  fort  a  circular  depression  locates 
the  spot  where  stood  a  wind-mill  that  provided 
the  power  for  grinding  grain. 

A  feeling  of  awe  steals  over  the  visitor  as 
he  gazes  at  these  ancient  landmarks,  beyond  a 
doubt  the  oldest  buildings  now  standing  in  the 
state  of  \\'ashington.  What  pages  of  historical 
detail  could  they  record  were  they  animate  and 
voluble!  Chief  Factor  John  Work  established 
this  historic  fort,  and  was  the  first  officer  in 
charge.  He  was  followed  by  Archibald  Mc- 
Donald, granduncle  of  Angus  McDonald;  An- 
derson. Lewis.  Desce  and  Angus  McDonald, 
who  had  associated  with  him  part  of  the  time 
Chief  Trader  George  L.  Blenkinsop.  A  mem- 
orable occasion  in  the  history  of  the  fort  was 
the  consultation  held  here  in  1855  between  the 
Hudson's  Bay  people  and  Governor  Isaac  Ste- 
vens and  George  B.  McClellan,  the  latter  then  a 
lieutenant  in  the  engineer  corps  of  the  United 
States  army.  Stevens  and  McClellan  remained 
at  the  fort  two  days. 

,  In  1866  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  sold 
out  all  their  rights  in  this  vicinity  to  the  United 
States  government.  The  purchase  price  is  said 
to  have  been  $800,000.  In  1871,  when  the  fort 
was  abandoned,  the  buildings  and  land  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  became  the  property  of  An- 
gus McDonald,  and  his  son,  Donald  McDonald, 
and  they  are  still  owned  by  the  latter. 

The  history  of  the  present  town  of  Marcus 
dates  from  the  year  i860.  In  that  year  the  Brit- 
ish Boundary  Commission,  comprising  a  large 
party  of  men  from  the  engineer  corps  of  the 
English  army,  in  charge  of  Colonel  Hawkins, 
came  to  this  part  of  the  country.  They  first  es- 
tablished themselves  at  a  point  a  short  distance 
south  of  the  present  town.  In  the  autumn  of 
this  year  the  party  moved  to  the  banks  of  the 
Columbia  river  where  Marcus  now  stands. 
Here  they  built  a  village  of  log  huts,  and  some 
of  them  can  still  be  seen.  In  1862  the  commis- 
sion completed  its  labors  and  retired  from  the 

The  same  year  the  initial  store  was  estab- 
lished at  Marcus  by  a  man  named  Ferguson. 
He  soon  encountered  opposition,  for  shortly 
afterward  ^Villiam  Vernon  Brown  opened  a 
second  store.  Marcus  Oppenheimer,  the  home- 
steader of  the  site  of  Marcus,  soon  purchased 
Mr.  Ferguson's  interests  at  this  point,  and  sub- 
sequently took  his  two  brothers,  Samuel  and 
Joseph,  into  partnership  with  him.  The  Op- 
penheimers  and  Mr.  Brown  continued  to  con- 
duct their  respective  mercantile  establishments 
at  Marcus  for  many  years,  and  the  town  devel- 
oped into  quite  a  lively  trading  point.  Their 
stocks  of  goods  were  brought  in  by  freighters 
from  Walla  \A^alla.  Communication  with  the 
north  was  had  by  means  of  the  steamer  "49," 
which  was  built  in  1865.  This  boat  navigated 
the  Columbia  river  from  IMarcus  to  Canadian 
points  above  Revelstoke  for  twelve  or  fifteen 

June  27,   1890,  Marcus  Oppenheimer,  for 

whom  the  place  was  named,  and  Joseph  Monag- 

'  han  platted  the  town.     Two  ntlier  town  sites 



Near  Marcus,  as  they  appear  to-day.    The  building  on  the  left  was  the  officers'  quarter 

The  one  in  the  center  was  the  storehouse.       Directly  behind  this  was 

the  fur  house.     To  the  right  is  the  Block  House. 


Erected  in   1872.  replacing  one  built  by 

the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  in  1830, 

which  had  taken  the  place  of 

one   erected   in    1816. 



have  also  been  platted  in  this  vicinity,  but  no 
towns  resulted.  East  Marcus,  a  short  distance 
up  the  Columbia  river,  was  platted  August  5, 
1890,  by  E.  D.  Morrison  and  O.  B.  Nelson. 
Donald  township,  at  the  Kettle  Falls  of  the 
Columbia,  was  platted  by  Donald  McDonald 
December  5,  1891.  Marcus  continued  to  be  a 
small  trading  post  only,  with  its  two  stores, 
until  1896.  Then  the  opening  of  the  north 
half  of  the  Colville  reservation  to  mineral  entry 
■caused  a  stampede  to  this  point  and  the  town 
began  to  build  rapidly  and  attained  to  consider- 
able importance. 

At  Marcus  is  an  immense  railroad  bridge 
built  by  the  Washington  &  Great  Northern  rail- 
road Company  in  1901  when  that  road  was  ex- 
tended from  Marcus  to  Republic.  One  hun- 
dred men  were  employed  in  its  construction, 
which  occupied  a  period  of  eight  months.  Mar- 
cus is  located  at  the  confluence  of  the  Kettle  and 
Columbia  rivers  fourteen  miles  northwest  from 
■Colville.  It  is  on  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern 
railroad  and  is  the  eastern  terminus  of  the 
Washington  &  Great  Northern.  Its  elevation 
is  1,263  f^et.  It  has  a  population  of  about  200 
people,  a  good  school  with  an  attendance  of  50 ; 
no  churches;  one  lodge,  the  Red  Men;  and  a 
■cable  ferry.  Across  the  river  are  fine  forests — 
sufficient  timber  to  supply  saw  mills  for  many 
years.  None  has  been  located  here  as  yet,  but 
it  is  only  a  question  of  time  when  lumbering 
will  become  the  principal  industry.  There  are 
a  number  of  promising  mines  on  the  west  side 
■of  the  river. 


Beautiful,  historic  Meyers  Falls. 

And  the  material  advantages  of  the  town 
are,  in  their  way,  fully  equal  to  the  picturesque- 
Tiess  of  its  location.  With  the  possible  excep- 
tion of  Spokane  Falls,  ]\Ieyers  Falls,  about  one 
mile  south  of  the  town  of  the  same  name,  are 
the  greatest  falls,  so  far  as  concerns  commer- 
■cial  value,  in  the  state  of  Washington.  This 
immense  power  is,  at  present,  following  humble 

lines.  It  simply  drives  a  saw  mill  and  an  elec- 
tric light  plant.  At  the  lowest  water  stage 
3,000  horse-power  is  available  from  the  falls. 
The  falls  and  surrounding  land  are  o-wned  ex- 
clusively by  L.  W.  Meyers,  who  homesteaded 
the  property. 

But  it  is  not  only  the  beauty  of  the  falls  and 
their  possible  utility  that  are  to  be  considered 
in  this  work.  The  history  connected  with  this 
romantic  spot  dates  back  as  far,  and  possibly 
farther,  than  any  point  in  Stevens  county.  On 
this  subject  the  earlier  pioneers  of  the  country 
differ.  Here  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  per- 
ceiving the  advantages'  offered  by  the  powerful 
falls,  established  a  post  and  built  a  grist  mill  in 
1 81 6,  which  they  operated  for  fourteen  years. 
Then,  about  1830,  it  was  torn  down  and  a  new 
mill  erected  in  its  place.  November  19,  1866, 
Mr.  L.  W.  Meyers,  who  came  here  from  east- 
ern Canada,  secured  control  of  the  mill  and 
operated  it  in  this  building  until  1872  when  the 
structure  becoming  rotten,  he  razed  it  to  the 
ground  and  erected  the  present  mill,  using  the 
floor  and  some  of  the  timbers  of  the  old  edifice. 
Mr.  Meyers  operated  this  mill  until  about  1889 
when  it  was  discontinued.  In  1876  Mr.  Meyers 
opened  a  store  on  his  ranch,  three  miles  due 
east  from  the  falls,  which  he  conducted  until 

Another  historical  institution  near  the  town 
of  Meyers  Falls  is  the  Goodwin  Mission,  two 
miles  east  of  the  town.  This  was  established 
about  1870,  the  original  site  being  a  trifle  south- 
east of  the  present  place.  Its  official  title  is  St. 
Francis  Regis  Mission.  On  the  first  site  se- 
lected the  Catholic  principals  held  their  school 
for  three  years  and  then  removed  it  to  the  pres- 
ent beautiful  location.  The  priests  in  charge 
were  Fathers  Militry,  De  Grasse  and  Louis. 
Nine  teachers  were  employed  in  1902,  the 
period  of  the  last  report,  and  there  was  an  at- 
tendance of  1 50  scholars.  The  expenses  for  the 
yean  1902  were  $8,500.  There  are  two  build- 
ings, commodious  structures,  one  for  boys  and 
the  other  devoted  to  girls. 



In  1889  D.  C.  Corbin  extended  his  railroad 
to  Meyers  Falls.  It  was  his  original  intention 
to  build  the  road  along  the  Colville  river  past 
the  falls  and  locate  the  town  at  the  falls.  Mr. 
Meyers  offered  to  cede  a  large  tract  of  land  for 
this  purpose.  The  company  demanded  a  part 
interest  in  the  water  power,  but  this  Meyers  re- 
fused and  the  road  was  finally  built  through  the 
present  townsite  of  Meyers  Falls.  There  is, 
however,  some  talk  of  changing  the  present  line, 
a  survey  having  been  made  at  the  falls,  one  mile 
south.  This  change  is  contemplated  owing  to  a 
heavy  grade  between  Meyers  Falls  and  Marcus, 
which  is  2.5  per  cent,  the  distance  being  five 
miles.  By  the  contemplated  change  the  distance 
would  be  twelve  miles  and  the  grade  .6  per  cent. 

The  town  was  named  after  L.  W.  Myers, 
who  has  been  a  resident  of  the  county  since 
1862.  The  first  building  erected  within  the 
limits  of  the  townsite  was  for  store  and  resi- 
dence purposes.  It  was  erected  in  the  winter 
of  1890  by  Mrs.  L.  E.  Blackmore,  and  in  Jan- 
uary, 1 89 1,  she  opened  a  store  there.  The  post- 
office  was  established  the  same  year  and  G.  B. 
Ide,  now  a  resident  of  Colville,  was  made  post- 
master. Mr.  Ide  built  a  small  real  estate  office 
and  utilized  a  portion  of  the  space  for  postal 
purposes.  In  1892  this  building  burned  and 
only  the  Blackmore  store  remained  in  the  town. 
June  16,  1893,  the  Blackmore  building  also 
burned  and,  until  she  could  erect  a  new  edifice, 
there  was  no  town  of  Meyers  Falls.  In  1897 
the  second  store  was  established  by  George  E. 
Meyers,  son  of  L.  W.  Meyers,  the  pioneer. 
The  former  is  still  in  business,  as  is  Mrs.  Black- 
more,  now  Mrs.  White,  but  still  conducting  the 
business  under  the  name  of  Blackmore. 

Meyers  Falls  is  a  town  of  about  300  souls, 
picturesquely  located  and  is  a  good  shippping 
point.  There  are  no  organized  churches.  The 
Woodmen  of  the  World  and  the  Modern 
Woodmen  of  America  both  have  local  camps. 
The  town  is  provided  with  an  excellent  school, 
employing  two  teachers  with  an  average  attend- 
ance of  seventy.     A  stage  line  runs  to  Kettle 

Falls  and  other  points  south,  a  distance  of  sev- 
enty miles. 


At  the  opening  of  the  year  1888  only  one 
small  and  humble  log  cabin  stood  among  the 
sombre  pines  on  the  present  site  of  Kettle  Falls. 
The  cabin  had  been  erected  by  the  Hon.  Marcy 
H.  Randall.  This  man  was  convinced  that  such 
a  massive  water  power  must,  sooner  or  later, 
be  utilized  and  he  squatted  on  the  picturesque 
bluff  overlooking  it  determined  in  his  convic- 
tion that  "everything  comes  to  the  man  who 
waits."  The  little  cabin  still  stands,  moss- 
grown  and  weather  beaten.  The  writer,  while 
visiting  the  falls,  climbed  the  bluff  to  this  pio- 
neer residence.  The  walls  are  of  logs,  the 
joints,  inside  and  out,  being  "pointed"  with 
clay.  Rough  boards  cover  the  roof ;  spaces  be- 
tween them  are  overlaid  with  tar  paper.  The 
site  is  picturesque — a  bit  of  charming  western 

Soon  others  saw  the  possibilities  of  a  loca- 
tion in  this  vicinity.  Mr.  Randall  was  joined 
by  John  Kinzie,  Captain  James  McCormick, 
Vernon  Glass,  Louis  Blue,  Christ  McDonald 
and  others.  They  secured  homesteads,  or 
rather  squatted  upon  land  on  this  level  plateau 
o\erlooking  the  mighty  Columbia,  near  which 
the  town  of  Kettle  Falls  is  now  built.  Others 
who  secured  locations  here  were  Mrs.  L.  C.  P. 
Haskins,  w-ho  built  a  cabin  lower  down  at  the 
confluence  of  the  Colville  and  Columbia  rivers ; 
James  Budd  and  Peter  Hacking,  who  took  land 
on  which  the  original  townsite  was  platted. 
Doubtless  the  country  in  the  immediate  vicinity 
of  the  Kettle  Falls  of  the  Columbia  would  have 
been  thickly  settled  before  now  but  for  a  certain' 
ruling  of  Land  Commissioner  Sparks  in  March,. 
1888.  At  that  period  the  whole  of  the  country 
tributary  to  Kettle  Falls,  twenty-two  townships 
in  all,  was  thrown  out  of  the  market  as  a  fraud- 
ulent survey.  It  was,  however,  accepted  by  a 
later  administration  as  correct,  thus  giving  the 



squatters — for  they  were  nothing  more  than 
squatters — an  opportunity  to  prove  up  and  se- 
cure titles  to  their  lands.  This  was  done  in  the 
fall  and  winter  of  1889. 

"Why  D.  C.  Corbin  did  not  build  his  rail- 
road by  way  of  the  Kettle  Falls  ?"  is  a  question 
that  will  probably  never  be  answered.  A  sur- 
vey had  been  run  to  include  the  falls,  and  close 
to  the  site  of  the  present  town.  But  this  plan 
was  changed  and  a  much  more  unsatisfactory 
route  selected  owing  to  the  heavy  grade  to  be 
overcome.  Whatever  the  reason  for  this 
change  the  fact  remains  that  Kettle  Falls  was 
left  to  one  side  and  as  a  consequence  the  town 
suffers.  The  first  sign  of  activity  in  Kettle 
Falls  was  manifested  in  the  autumn  of  1889 
when  the  townsite  was  platted.  The  Spokane 
Falls  Revieiv  of  January  i,  1890.  said  :  "Three 
months  ago  about  forty  souls  could  be  counted 
within  a  radius  of  three  miles,  while  today 
there  is  a  population  of  four  hundred  inhabi- 
tants." While  the  change  had  been  wonderful 
in  these  three  months  what  a  greater  change 
was  witnessed  in  the  growth  of  the  town  dur- 
ing that  year!  Where  a  few  months  before 
there  was  nothing  but  gloomy,  sighing  forests, 
in  1 89 1  appeared  a  city!  Pines,  spruce,  firs 
and  tamaracks  disappeared.  In  their  places  the 
most  enterprising  town  in  the  western  part  of 
the  United  States  made  its  magical  appearance. 
Broad  streets  and  avenues  lined  on  either  side 
by  handsome  business  blocks,  public  buildings 
and  princely  residences  sprung  up  to  attract  the 
attention  of  an  entire  state.  Twelve  miles  of 
twelve-foot  plank  sidewalk  were  constructed. 
The  handsomest  and  best  appointed  hotel  west 
of  Helena,  Mont.,  was  located  where  a  few 
months  before  the  foot  of  man  had  not  trod. 
This  hotel  was  constructed  at  a  cost  of  $18,000. 
The  furnishings,  which  are  described  as  magni- 
ficent, were  purchased  in  Saginaw,  Mich.,  at  a 
cost  of  $9,200.  Two  houses  of  worship  and  a 
public  school  building  of  handsome  architect- 
ural design  were  built.  A  public  library  build- 
ing of  brick,  containing  several  hundred  vol- 

umes, was  located  in  the  central  portion  of  the 
town.  A  system  of  water  works  was  estab- 
lished. An  electric  lighting  system,  conducted 
on  a  magnificent  scale,  was  in  operation.  Hugh 
Monro,  one  of  the  pioneers  of  this  magic  town, 
in  conversation  with  the  writer,  said  that  one  of 
the  most  picturesque  sights  he  ever  witnessed 
was  the  town  of  Kettle  Falls  at  night  during  the 
"boom"  times.  Standing  on  the  bank  of  the 
Columbia  ri\-er  the  view  that  met  his  eyes  was 
one  never  to  be  forgotten.  The  forests  on  the 
mountains  formed  a  background,  and  for  miles 
and  miles  the  scene  was  illuminated  by  electric 
lights.  On  every  corner  of  the  business  section 
of  the  city  (and  the  business  section  included 
no  small  amount  of  territory)  was  an  arc  light, 
and  throughout  the  residence  portion  of  the 
town,  which  included  about  one  thousand  acres, 
every  other  corner  was  supplied  with  an  arc 
light.  On  the  ridge  to  the  north  and  east  of  the 
town  was  a  row  of  electric  lights  which  formed 
a  quadrant  around  the  city.  A  newspaper  was 
established  and  for  one  week  a  daily  paper  was 

Here  then,  was  a  city  of  perhaps  one  thous- 
and people  sprung  up,  it  might  be  said,  in  a 
night,  supplied  with  all  the  conveniences  and 
luxuries  of  a  metropolis.  Here  was  civilization 
in  its  most  pronounced  effects.  Across  the  river 
and  within  a  few  hundred  rods  of  the  brilliantly 
illumed  city  were  howling  savages  from  the 
Colville  reservation,  who  gazed  in  wonder  at 
the  spectacular  transformation  of  the  wilder- 
ness. Coyotes  howled  at  the  tresspassers  on 
their  territory. 

But  what  was  the  reason  for  the  appearance 
of  this  municipal  blossom  in  the  wilderness? 
There  had  been  many  "boom"  towns  in  the 
west,  especially  in  mining  camps,  which  had 
sprung  up  luxuriantly  and  acquired  a  large  pop- 
ulation in  a  remarkably  short  time.  But  there 
had  never  been  anything  in  history  to  equal  the 
spontaneity  of  this  coltish  town  in  the  magni- 
ficence of  its  planning  and  the  elaborateness  of 
its  buildings.    To  John  W.  Goss,  who,  in  1889, 



was  a  member  of  the  wholesale  hardware  firm 
of  Holly,  Mason,  Marks  &  Company,  of  Spo- 
kane, and  who  was  also  interested  in  banking 
in  that  city,  belongs  the  honor  of  originating 
the  idea  of  building  the  metropolis  of  the  north- 
west at  Kettle  Falls.  He  had  visited  the  place 
and  recognized  the  value  of  the  falls  as  a  source 
of  driving  power  for  manufacturing  industries. 
Mr.  Goss  had  formerly  been  engaged  in  the 
wholesale  hardware  business  at  Rochester,  N. 
Y..  and  he  decided  to  interest  his  friends  in  the 
formation  of  a  company  to  build  a  city  at  this 
point.  With  this  end  in  view  he  corresponded 
with  Mr.  W.  B.  Aris,  who  had  formerly  been 
a  traveling  salesman  for  his  company,  and  in 
whom  he  recognized  a  suitable  man  to  promote 
the  scheme.  Mr.  Aris  became  interested  in  the 
proposition,  visited  the  site  with  Mr.  Goss,  and 
returned  to  New  York  with  glowing  accounts 
of  the  possibilities  of  the  state  of  Washington 
and  the  Columbia  river — Kettle  Falls  in  par- 

Mr.  Aris  found  no  difiSculty  in  financing 
the  enterprise  and  organizing  the  Rochester  & 
Kettle  Falls  Land  Company,  which  was  capi- 
talized at  $500,000.  It  may  be  well  to  state 
here  that  the  company  was  formed  from  friends 
of  Mr.  Aris  and  that  after  organization  Mr. 
Goss,  who  was  the  originator  of  the  scheme, 
never  had  a  controlling  interest  in  the  company, 
and  had  very  little  to  do  with  it.  It  had  been 
Mr.  Goss's  intention  to  interest  Spokane  capi- 
tal, but  this  did  not  eventuate.  The  officers  and 
members  of  the  Rochester  &:  Kettle  Falls  Land 
Company  were : 

George  Walter  Weaver,  president:  Horace 
C.  Brewster,  vice  president :  William  C.  Wait, 
secretary ;  William  B.  Aris,  treasurer  and  gen- 
eral manager.  The  trustees  were  George  Wal- 
ter Weaver,  Rochester;  Horace  C.  Brewster, 
William  C.  Wait,  William  B.  Aris,  H.  P.  Ran- 
ger, George  S.  Morley,  Arthur  Luetchford, 
Bernard  Felock.  Conrad  Eckhardt,  L.  C.  Hu- 
ber.  all  of  Rochester,  N.  Y. ;  F.  D.  Sherwood, 
Hnrnellsville,  N.  Y. :  Harvey  Hoag,  Medina, 

N.  Y.;  W.  H.  Dick,  Dansville,  N.  Y.  The 
executive  committee  comprised  W.  B.  Aris, 
Horace  C.  Brewster,  H.  P.  Ranger  and  George 
S.  Morley,  all  of  Rochester,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Aris,  as  general  manager,  became  the 
practical  head  of  the  concern,  and  it  was  prin- 
cipally through  his  instrumentality  that  Kettle 
Falls  bloomed  into  existence,  and  under  his  di- 
rection that  all  these  marvelous  improvements 
were  made.  Forty  acres  each  were  donated 
from  the  ranches  of  Mrs.  L.  C.  P.  Haskins, 
James  Budd  and  Peter  Hacking  to  the  Roches- 
ter company  for  townsite  purposes  and  the  com- 
pany acquired  in  all  about  one  thousand  acres 
of  land.  It  was  the  first  intention  of  the  organi- 
zation to  locate  the  town  at  the  falls,  but  this 
land  was  owned  by  the  Jesuits  and  could  not  be 
procured  at  any  price.  It  was  then  decided  to 
plant  the  city  on  the  present  site. 

More  funds  were  required  by  the  company 
to  further  the  elaborate  plans  for  the  building 
of  the  city.  Mr.  Aris  concluded  to  interest 
other  eastern  capitalists  in  the  enterprise.  He 
repaired  to  New  York  for  the  announced  pur- 
pose of  procuring  an  excursion  train  of  possible 
investors  to  visit  the  new  town  and,  also,  to 
bring  out  those  who  had  already  invested.  IMr. 
Aris  did  not  meet  with  the  success  that  he  ex- 
pected, but  he  induced  most  of  those  already 
interested  and  a  few  others  to  form  a  party  ami 
make  the  trip  to  Washington.  Two  special 
cars  were  chartered  and  in  the  spring  of  1891 
they  arrived  in  Kettle  Falls.  Following  their 
arrival  the  Kettle  Falls  Pioneer  issued  a  daily 
edition — for  a  week.  To  these  easterners  the 
town,  as  viewed  from  handsome  half-tone  cuts, 
and  imagined  from  the  perusal  of  flamboyant 
booklets,  as  they  sat  in  their  comfortable  homes 
in  the  Empire  State  and  the  town  of  Kettle 
Falls  as  it  really  was  in  1891,  were  two  entirely 
different  propositions.  They  were  fatigued 
with  the  long  ride,  sore  and  disgusted.  A  meet- 
ing of  the  stockholders  was  held  at  the  Roches- 
ter hotel,  where  the  different  parties  interested 
voiced  their  views.     They  appeared  ready  to 



throw  up  the  sponge,  and  unequivocally  de- 
clared that  they  would  invest  no  more  money 
in  the  enterprise.  In  vain  did  Mr.  Aris  elo- 
quently voice  his  belief  and  enthusiasm.  Those 
who  had  already  invested  in  the  town  could  see 
no  possible  future  benefit  in  contributing  more ; 
those  who  had  come  looking  for  investment 
could  not  but  be  influenced  by  the  others.  The 
Rochester  party  remained  but  a  few  days  and 
then  turned  their  faces  toward  Genessee  Falls, 
New  York. 

The  effect  of  this  visit  was  depressing. 
Town  lots  which  sold  for  $1,500  on  the  day  of 
the  arrival  of  this  distingiiished  party,  could  on 
the  following  day  be  purchased  for  from  $300 
to  $400  apiece.  During  the  fall  of  1903  Ste- 
vens county  held  a  sale  of  property  acquired  by 
delinquent  tax  proceedings  and  lots  in  Kettle 
Falls  sold  at  from  fifty  cents  to  $10  each. 

For  a  short  period  the  town  was  at  a  stand- 
still; then  began  retrogression.  The  sumptu- 
ous Hotel  Rochester  was  closed  and  the  gorge- 
ous upholstery  removed.  Many  residence 
houses  which  had  sprung  up  in  the  thriving 
town  now  became  vacant.  Some  of  the  owners 
of  these  houses  to  prevent  them  from  going  to 
waste,  and  in  order  to  realize  something  on 
them,  disposed  of  them  at  great  sacrifice  to  new 
settlers  and  they  were  removed  to  ne^r-by 
ranches.  It  is  said  that  at  least  forty  houses 
were  thus  taken  from  this  once  glorious,  but 
ephemeral  city. 

Kettle  Falls  is  four  miles  from  Meyers  Falls 
and  twelve  miles  from  Colville.  Its  elevation 
is  1,200  feet  above  sea  level,  the  climate  mild 
and  dry.  The  town  derives  its  name  from  the 
falls  which  have  always  been  known  as  Kettle, 
which  name  originated  from  the  hollows 
formed  in  the  rocks.  These  depressions  were 
caused  by  boulders  brought  down  by  the  current 
of  the  river,  and  rotating  rapidly,  wearing  a 
number  of  wells  in  the  rocks,  each  of  which  is 
about  three  feet  in  diameter  and  ten  feet  deep. 
These  are  technically  known  as  "pot-holes,"  the 
natives   giving   them   the   name   of   "kettles." 

The  river  is  nearly  half  a  mile  wide  at  this  point 
and  in  some  places  one  hundred  feet  deep,  with 
islands  in  the  center.  A  vast  body  of  water 
passes  over  these  falls  and  the  power  facilities 
are  almost  incalculable. 

Following  the  granting  of  a  petition  for  in- 
corporation, signed  by  seventy-two  electors  of 
Kettle  Falls,  a  special  election  was  called  for 
December  8.  1891.  Although  the  result  of  the 
vote  was  in  favor  of  incorporation  the  election 
was  declared  void,  and  another  one  was  called 
for  May  20,  1892.  The  result  was  favorable  to 
incorporation,  and  the  town  was  declared  to  be 
in  the  fourth  class.  The  following  officials 
were  elected :  Robert  Ledgerwood,  mayor ; 
Peter  Hacking,  James  J.  Budd,  Henry  D. 
Quinby,  Charles  A.  Phipps  and  S.  M.  Hinman, 
councilmen ;  George  W.  Washburn,  treasurer. 

As  one  wends  his  way  from  the  present 
town  of  Kettle  Falls  to  the  falls  in  the  Columbia 
he  encounters  a  large  frame  building  situated 
in  the  heart  of  the  woods.  This  structure  is 
all  that  remains,  or  in  fact  all  that  ever  was,  of 
the  town  of  Stevens  which  was  intended  to 
have  become  the  metropolis  of  the  northwest, 
and  of  which  a  historical  sketch  is  given  in 
another  portion  of  this  work. 

The  site  of  the  old  Jesuit  chapel  is  a  most 
beautiful  spot.  A  grassy  field  surrounded  by 
open  timber  near  the  end  of  a  high  promontory, 
and  commanding  a  magnificent  view  of  the 
Columbia  Valley,  the  great  river  stretching 
away  to  the  north  and  the  valley  dotted  with 
farms  and  skirted  by  mountain  ranges ;  this  is 
the  view  from  the  ancient  site.  This  historic 
landmark  is  situated  a  few  hundred  yards  back 
from  the  eastern  bank  of  the  falls.  The  mission 
was  known  as  St.  Paul's  Chapel,  and  was 
erected  in  1858.  A  former  building  once  stood 
on  the  same  site,  erected  as  early  as  1846.  The 
present  chapel  is  built  entirely  of  logs  and  not  a 
nail  was  used  in  its  construction,  wooden  pegs 
being  utilized  instead.  Therein  can  be  seen 
a  huge  fireplace,  and  outside  a  chimney  made 
of  sun-dried  brick. 



The  first  fair  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Stevens  County  Industrial  Association  was  held 
at  Kettle  Falls  in  September,  1895.  The  dis- 
play of  fruits,  vegetables  and  other  agricultu- 
ral products  was  excellent.  Many  of  these  ex- 
hibits were  taken  to  the  Spokane  Fruit  Fair  of 
that  year  where  they  captured  prizes. 

The  present  Kettle  Falls  is  a  town  of  about 
350  inhabitants.  It  lies  scattered  over  an  exten- 
sive territory  extending  from  the  confluence  of 
the  Colville  and  Columbia  rivers  up  the  latter 
stream  for  a  distance  of  at  least  a  mile.  The 
immense  and  ornate  Hotel  Rochester  building 
stands,  like  "Tara's  halls."  deserted,  the  melan- 
choly scene  of  the  Rochester  &  Kettle  Falls 
Land  Company's  Waterloo.  Thanks  to  the 
boomers  the  town  has  now  a  handsome  school 
iDuilding,  two  commodious  church  edifices  and 
a  public  library.  As  a  rule  the  citizens  are  firm 
in  their  conviction  that  the  town  has  a  future, 
and  there  is  no  reason  to  gainsay  this  hope. 
There  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  Spo- 
kane Falls  &  Northern  Railroad  Company  will, 
within  a  short  time,  change  the  course  of  its 
road  to  avoid  the  heavy  grade  between  Meyers 
Falls  and  Marcus.  Should  this  eventuate  the 
line  will  strike  within  a  short  distance  of  Kettle 
Falls.  The  town  has  a  bank.  Presbyterian  and 
Seventh  Day  Adventist  churches,  one  hundred 
and  one  pupils  enrolled  in  the  public  schools 
which  employ  two  teachers;  W.  O.  W.,  Odd 
Fellows  and  Masonic  lodges,  the  latter  having 
a  fine  new  hall  erected  in  1903,  and  an  O.  E. 
S.  chapter  recently  organized.  There  are  stage 
lines  to  Meyers  Falls  and  all  points  along  the 
Columbia  river. 


The  first  white  man  who  ever  looked  upon 
the  site  upon  which  the  town  of  Chewelah  is 
located  was,  beyond  a  doubt.  Solomon  Pelcher. 
The  date  of  his  arrival  here  is  uncertain.  To 
some  of  the  settlers  who  came  to  this  point  in 
T8S2    Pelcher   made   the   surprising  statement 

that  he  had  first  visited  the  site  of  Chewelah 
forty  years  previous  to  that  date,  which,  if  true, 
would  fix  the  date  of  his  advent  in  1842.  Mr. 
Pelcher  died  several  years  since  and  is  buried 
near  Chewelah.  To  Mr.  Tom  Brown,  of  Chew- 
lah,  belongs  the  honor  of  being  the  surviving 
pioneer  of  this  town.  Outside  of  the  employees 
of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  there  are  only 
one  or  two  white  men  whose  arrival  in  Stevens 
county  antedates  that  of  Mr.  Brown. 

In  1854  a  party  comprising  Brown,  his 
wife,  three  daughters  and  one  son,  and  James 
Sickler,  entered  Stevens  county.  They  were 
of  Scottish  birth,  on  their  way  from  Canada 
to  the  gold  fields  of  California.  Brown  had 
with  him  a  number  of  head  of  stock.  The  win- 
ter was  severe  and  Brown  decided  to  pass  the 
cold  weather  where  they  were,  which  was  near 
the  present  site  of  Addy.  Sickler  pushed  on  to 
the  south  and  a  few  years  later  was  killed  in 
Portland,  Oregon.  Renouncing  the  California 
trip  Brown  concluded  to  make  his  home  here, 
and  he  built  a  cabin  in  the  wilderness  near  .\dcly 
where  he  engaged  in  farming  and  stock  rais- 
ing. In  1859,  with  his  family,  he  removed  to 
the  future  Chewelah  where  he  has  since  resided. 
Purchasing  a  farm  from  an  Indian  he  founded 
a  home.  For  a  number  of  years  he  was  in  the 
government  service  carrying  the  mail  from  a 
point  below  Spokane  Falls  to  Fort  Colville. 
He  also  secured  a  contract  from  the  go\-ern- 
ment  to  furnish  forage  rations  for  troops  on 
their  way  to  and  from  Fort  Colville.  His  place 
became  a  kind  of  public  inn  where  he  accommo- 
dated wayfarers  on  their  way  between  the  old 
military  fort  at  Pinkney  City  and  other  points. 
For  many  years  Brown  was  the  one  lonely  white 
settler  in  this  part  of  Colville  Valley.  But  in 
the  6o's  a  few  white  men  had  located  here  and 
a  public  school  was  established,  IMiss  Mary, 
daughter  of  Thomas  Brown,  being  the  teacher, 
her  school  room  a  portion  of  Brown's  house. 
A  government  Indian  agency  was  established  at 
the  place  where  now  stands  Chewelah  in  1873. 
.\  stone  grist  mill  was  erected  to  which  the  In- 



dians  brought  their  grain  to  be  ground.  Por- 
tions of  this  ancient  structure  are  still  to  be  seen 
in  Chewelah.  Major  Sims  was  the  first  gov- 
ernment agent.  He  remained  in  charge  until 
1882.  Aside  from  the  agent  a  number  of  other 
gentlemen  held  positions  at  the  agency.  John 
McFadden  was  in  charge  of  the  mill ;  Dr.  E. 
L.  Morgan  was  physician  and  attended  to  the 
ailments  of  the  Indians.  Major  O'Neil,  an- 
other of  the  men  at  the  agency,  had  for  his 
duties  the  instruction  of  the  Indians  in  the  art 
of  farming.  There  was  a  supply  department 
connected  with  the  agency  from  which  farm- 
ing machinery  and  seeds  were  distributed. 
There  was  no  store,  however,  and  the  nearest 
trading  point  was  Fort  Colville.  Major  Sims 
was  superseded  as  agent  in  1882  by  Major 
Waters,  who  continued  in  charge  two  years. 
He,  in  turn,  relinquished  the  position  to  Major 
Moore,  but  shortly  after  the  latter  assumed 
charge  the  agency  was  abandoned  here  and  re- 
moved to  the  Nespelim  country.  This  was  in 

Not  until  1882  was  there  a  store  established 
at  Chewelah.  That  year  J.  T.  Lockhard  built 
a  small  log  structure  and  opened  a  store,  the 
principal  stock  being  whiskey.  The  building 
still  stands  in  Chewelah,  in  Kieling's  addition, 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river.  The  same  year 
Mr.  Lockhard  disposed  of  his  business  to  D.  C. 
Bird.  The  succeeding  business  enterprise  was 
inaugurated  in  1883  by  Joseph  Oppenheimer, 
who  since  that  period  has  been  engaged  in  the 
mercantile  business  in  Chewelah.  In  those 
early  days  the  country  round  about  Chewelah 
was  known  far  and  wide  by  the  French  name, 
Prairie  du  Foo;  translated  into  English  it  be- 
comes "Fool's  Prairie."  Quite  an  event  in  the 
history  of  this  community  was  the  naming  of 
the  place.  As  late  as  1883  it  was  known  by  the 
Spokane  Indians  as  Cha-we-lah,  signifying 
water-snake.  That  year  the  settlers  held  a 
meeting  at  the  store  of  Joseph  Oppenheimer 
and  discussed  the  matter  of  naming  the  town. 

Cha-we-lah  was  changed  to  Chewelah,  and  the 
business  of  the  meeting  was  completed. 

The  third  store  in  the  place  was  opened  in 
1884  by  James  Graham.  Within  the  year  he 
was  burned  out.  Until  the  building  of  the  Spo- 
kane Falls  &  Northern  railway  business  enter- 
prises "lagged  superfluous  on  the  stage."  But 
following  the  completion  of  the  road  in  1889 
settlers  began  to  pour  in  and  the  town  to  build 
up.  During  the  early  days  "Father"  Eells,  the 
Congregational  minister,  so  well  and  favorably 
known  in  the  Colville  Valley,  and  who  did  so 
much  for  the  educational  interests  of  eastern 
Washington,  held  services  in  Chewelah  and  do- 
nated a  bell  to  the  first  church  established  there. 

Among  the  industries  in  the  immediate  vi- 
cinity of  Chewelah,  hay  undoubtedly  ranks  first, 
timber  second,  stock  raising  third,  these  fol- 
lowed by  mining,  marble,  etc.  The  incorpora- 
tion of  Chewelah  was  declared  January  26, 
1903.  Election  had  been  held  on  the  26th  inst. 
The  signers  of  the  petition  to  the  county  com- 
missioners were  D.  Van  Slyke,  F.  L.  Reinoehl, 
W.  W.  Dickson  and  sixty-one  others,  asking 
to  be  incorporated  as  a  town  of  the  fourth  class. 
The  following  officers  were  elected :  W.  W. 
Dickson,  mayor;  Fred  Kieling,  H.  E.  Mcln- 
tyre,  H.  T.  Spedden,  Henry  Pomeroy,  George 
H.  McCrea,  councilmen ;  H.  S.  Spedden,  treas- 

The  Chewelah  creamers-  and  cheese  factory 
is  owned  and  operated  by  W.  B.  Stuart,  and  the 
plant  is  a  credit  to  the  town,  having  a  capacity 
of  5,000  pounds  of  milk  per  diem.  The  planing 
mill,  owned  by  Smith  &  Houston,  was  estab- 
lished early  in  1903.  The  company  supplies 
all  kinds  of  dressed  lumber  to  the  local  trade, 
and  a  large  planer  has  recently  been  received 
to  accommodate  the  shipping  demand  for 
dressed  lumber.  Stock  is  purchased  from  the 
local  mills.  Other  enterprises  are  a  brick  yard, 
lime  kiln,  bank,  brewery,  newspaper,  baken,'; 
fifteen  flourishing  business  enterprises  in  all. 
The    Yellow    Pine    Milling    Company's    mill. 



three  miles  southwest  of  Chewelah,  employs, 
including  logging  crew,  twenty  men.  There  is 
a  large  quantity  of  standing  timber  tributary  to 
this  mill.  Following  is  a  list  of  promising 
mining  properties  now  being  opened,  and  which 
are  tributary  to  Chewelah  : 

Copper  King.  Eagle,  Widow's  Mite,  Rev- 
enue Group,  Jay  Gould,  Ben  B.,  United  States 
Gold  Mining  Company,  Windfall,  Single 
Standard,  Nellie  S.,  Juneau  and  Echo,  Moni- 
tor Group,  Mayflower,  Bird's  Eye  Group,  Bun- 
ker Mining  Company  Group,  Nevada,  Jolly 
Boy  Group,  Bay  State,  Lake  Shore  Group, 
Aetna  Group,  Helena,  Hartford  Group,  Aurora, 
The  Finley,  New  Era,  Dewey  Group. 

Some  of  the  richest  mines  of  the  state  are 
located  in  the  Chewelah  District.  In  past 
years  when  people  \vere  looking  for  free  gold 
the  mines  in  this  vicinity  were  "wild  catted," 
and  the  camp  acquired  a  bad  name.  Develop- 
ment is  now  being  resumed,  and  there  are 
rumors  of  the  establishment  of  a  smelter  at 
this  point.  There  are  three  churches  in  Chewe- 
lah, Congregational,  Catholic  and  Free  Metho- 
dist. The  fraternal  societies  comprise  the  Mod- 
ern Woodmen  of  America,  Independent  Order 
of  Odd  Fellows.  K.  O.  T.  M.,  Highlanders, 
and  G.  A.  R.  Chewelah  Camp  No.  7841,  M. 
W.  A.,  has  a  membership  of  54.  There  is, 
also,  an  auxiliary  camp  of  Royal  Neighbors, 
carrying  a  good  membership.  Chewelah 
Lodge  No.  176,  I.  O.  O.  F.,  was  instituted  in 
1 89 1,  and  has  a  membership  of  over  40.  Union 
Tent  No.  49,  K.  O.  T.  M..  is  one  of  the  oldest 
and  strongest  lodges  in  the  town.  It,  also, 
has  a  ladies'  auxiliary  with  a  good  member- 
ship. The  Highlanders  erected  a  new  hall  in 
1903.  Union  Post  G.  A.  R.,  No.  70,  has  been 
organized  for  several  years,  and  now  has  a 
membership  of  less  than  fifteen.  The  post 
owns  its  own  hall. 

At  Chewelah  was  established  one  of  the 
first  schools  in  the  county,  and  at  a  period 
when  the  county  limits  were  vast  and  compre- 
hensive.    Here  was  opened  the  second  union 

high  school  in  Stevens  county.  In  1901  the 
district  was  bonded  for  $3,000,  and  the  money 
applied  to  the  erection  of  a  brick  building  for 
school  purposes  that  reflects  great  credit  upon 
the  community.  There  is  at  present  an  at- 
tendance of  131  pupils,  taught  by  five  teachers. 
Wednesday  evening,  November  10,  1903, 
the  Chewelah  Commercial  Club,  convening  at 
Van  Slyke's  hall,  elected  a  governing  board  of 
five  members,  viz  :  Dr.  S.  P.  McPherson,  W.  H. 
Brownlow?,  J.  F.  Lavigne,  Emanuel  Oppen- 
heimer  and  F.  L.  Reinohl.  A  committee  was, 
also,  appointed  on  highways  leading  into 


This  is  one  of  the  towns  in  Stevens  county 
that  came  into  existence  with  the  building  of 
the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railroad  in  1889. 
Previous  to  the  completion  of  the  line  to  this 
point  C.  O.  Squires  homesteaded  the  land  where 
Springdale  now  stands,  and  the  first  building 
erected  was  his  saw-mill.  In  July,  1889,  Mark 
P.  Shaffer  and  Charles  Trimble  formed  a  part- 
nership, built  the  first  store  building,  and 
opened  a  general  mercantile  store.  Late  in 
the  fall  the  second  business  enterprise  was  pro- 
jected by  John  S.  Gray^ — a  general  store.  The 
third  store  was  opened  by  J.  H.  Keller,  March 
6,  1890,  and  he  is  the  sole  remaining  pioneer 
business  man  in  town. 

The  town  was  platted  by  C.  O.  Squires 
and  named  "Squires  City."  But  the  station 
was  recognized  by  the  railroad  company  as 
Springdale,  and  so  was  the  postoffice.  Here 
was  a  serious  complication.  A  majority  of 
the  citizens  desired  that  the  town  should  be 
christened  Springdale.  and  following  the  plat- 
ting, they  petitioned  the  legislature  for  a  change 
of  name,  which  petition  was  granted.  Among 
the  industries  hay  ranks  first.  Timber  takes 
its  place  a  close  second.  In  1890  occurred  the 
only  fire  of  any  consequence  in  town ;  the  hotel 
owned  by  Joseph  Cook  was  burned.  The  tovm 
was  incorporated  at  an  election  held  January- 



26,  1903,  as  a  town  of  the  fourth  class,  and  the 
following  officials  elected :  I.  S.  Clark,  mayor ; 
J.  \\".  Gillingham,  Zell  Young,  J.  O.  Kennett, 
James  Key,  O.  T.  Smith,  councilmen;  J.  O. 
Cline,  treasurer.  The  population  of  the  town 
is  about  400.  From  this  point  the  famous 
Cedar  Canyon  mines  ship  their  ore.  The  only 
church  organization  in  Springdale  is  the  Con- 
gregational and  they  have  a  fine  house  of  wor- 
ship. Fraternal  societies  are  represented  by 
the  G.  A.  R.,  K.  O.  T.  M..  I.  O.  G.  T., 
M.  W.  A.,  Camp  No.  10606,  R.  N.  A.,  H  K. 
O.  W.,  L.  O.  T.  M.,  I.  O.  O.  F.  and  the 
Springdale  Lumbermen's  Union.  Springdale  is 
supplied  with  excellent  schools  employing  three 
teachers.  There  is  a  stage  line  between  the 
town  and  Deer  Trail,  in  Cedar  Canyon.  The 
place  is  supplied  with  a  system  of  waterworks 
installed  in  1902.  The  water  is  pumped  from 
Sheep  Creek  by  means  of  a  hydralic  ram  to  a 
reservoir  located  on  a  hill  contiguous  to  the 
town.  The  plant  was  put  in  by  M.  Collins,  and 
was  afterward  purchased  by  P.  M.  Cartier  Van 
Dissell.  who  now  owns  and  conducts  the  same. 
Springdale  has  a  volunteer  fire  company  well 
supplied  with  hose  and  other  fire-fighting  ap- 
paratus. The  resources  upon  which  Spring- 
dale  draws  are  many  and  varied.  Among  ^ 
them  may  be  mentioned  the  Butte-Anaconda 
mine,  seventeen  miles  west,  but  which  is  not  [ 
shipping  ore  at  present;  D.  Merchant  &  Wil- 
man,  five  miles  west,  a  lumber  mill  shipping  } 
direct  from  Springdale;  a  number  of  contig- 
uous dairies;  Washington  Brick  &  Lime  Com- 
pany, next  to  the  largest  institution  of  the 
kind  in  the  state,  employing  fifty  men  in  the 
summer  and  thirty-five  in  the  winter  months, 
located  one  mile  east  of  town ;  brick  yard  within 
the  corporate  limits,  established  in  1903,  J.  W. 
Gillingham,  proprietor;  J.  E.  Craney's  log-  I 
ging  camp,  two  miles  west  of  town,  which  ] 
furnishes  logs  for  the  Sawmill  Phoenix,  of 
Spokane,  and  which  employed  300  men  during 
the  winter  of  1902-3. 

This  is  a  compact,  well-built  little  town  of 
about  400  inhabitants,  situated  twenty  miles 
north  of  Colville,  on  the  Spokane  Falls  & 
Northern  railroad.  In  1888,  at  its  inception, 
it  was  known  as  Young  America,  named  after 
the  Young  America  silver  mine,  which  was  a 
remarkably  good  paying  proposition.  Its  most 
prosperous  period  was  between  the  date  of  its 
fo-,nding  and  1892,  when  it  contained  a  popu- 
lation of  about  800  people.  A  stamp  mill  was 
put  in,  and  to  this  fact  is  due  the  change  of 
name  to  Millington.  Under  this  name  the  town 
was  platted,  May  i,  1893,  by  the  Consolidated 
Bonanza  Mining  &  Smelting  Company,  through 
its  ofificers,  J.  E.  Foster,  president,  and  C.  H. 
.\rmstrong,  secretary.  The  town  was,  later, 
named  Bossburg,  in  honor  of  C.  S.  Bo^s,  one 
of  its  most  prominent  citizens.  In  1896,  owing 
to  activity  in  mining  and  other  industries,  the 
town  of  Bossburg  again  witnessed  an  era  of 
prosperity  which  continued  until  1900.  From 
1897  to  1901  the  Bossburg  Journal  was  pub- 
lished by  A.  A.  Anderson.  There  are  ex- 
cellent mining  prospects  in  the  vicinity  of  this 
town,  and  also  a  fairly  good  farming  country. 
Bossburg  exports  lumber,  wood,  lime,  ore, 
fruit  and  other  produce.  A  sawmill  and  lime 
kiln  afiford  employment  to  a  number  of  men 
here.  The  town  is  supplied  with  a  good  school. 
Congregational  church,  public  hall,  etc.,  and 
there  is  a  cable  ferrv  across  the  Columbia  river. 

The  present  population  of  Newport  is  in 
the  neighborhood  of  six  hundred  people.  It  is 
the  metropolis  and  principal  town  of  eastern 
Stevens  county.  It  is  important  because  it  is 
the  shipping  point  for  the  productive  Calispell 
Valley,  it  being  necessary  to  ship  via  Newport 
from  all  points  in  the  valley  to  a  distance  of 
sixty  miles  to  the  north.     It  is  surrounded  by 

1 62 


an  extensive  lumbering  country,  and  is  known 
as  the  "Planing  Mill  Town."  Only  a  short 
distance  down  the  Fend  d'Oreille  river  are  ex- 
tensive cement  works,  of  which  a  full  descrip- 
tion is  given  in  another  portion  of  this  work. 
Ore  from  the  famous  Metaline  District  is  ship- 
ped from  Newport,  which  is  the  terminus  of 
a  line  of  steamers  which  ply  the  Pen  d'Oreille 
river.  The  Newport  building  boom  occurred 
in  1903.  An  electric  light  plant  has  recently 
been  installed,  the  power  for  which  is  ob- 
tained from  one  of  the  numerous  planing  mills. 
M.  C.  Kelly  built  the  first  store  in  Newport 
and  for  a  year  he  was  without  a  competitor. 
At  the  period  Kelly  run  up  his  store  he  thought 
he  was  in  the  state  of  Washington,  but  it  sub- 
sequently developed  that  he  was  in  Idaho.  This 
complication  is  explained  as  follows  by  the 
Stevens  County  Reveille,  of  Februar}^  14.  1901  : 
"The  town  of  Newport,  Idaho,  is  now  New- 
port. Washington.  An  official  in  Washington, 
D.  C,  by  the  scratch  of  a  pen  has  removed 
the  town  more  than  3,000  feet,  wiping  it  off 
the  map  of  Idaho,  and  placing  it  on  the  map  of 
Washington.  Just  why  this  was  done  does  not 
appear  clearly.  In  a  small  section  of  the  daily 
bulletin  of  changes  affecting  the  postal  service 
the  story  of  the  work  is  told  as  follows :  'New- 
port. Kootenai  county,  Idaho,  moved  3.175  feet 
southwest  into  Stevens  county,  \\^ashington.' 
The  deal  places  Newport  in  the  southeast  corner 
of  this  county,  and  gives  us  another  town  of 
some  little  size." 

At  present  the  postoffice,  depot  and  nearly 
all  of  the  business  houses  are  in  Washington ; 
the  docks  are  still  in  Idaho.  It  is  a  state-line 
town  in  every  sense  of  the  word.  The  church 
organizations  are  the  Congregational,  Metho-  and  Catholic,  the  Congregationalists  hav- 
ing the  only  church  edifice  at  present.  The  town 
was  incorporated  .\pril  13,  1903,  and  declared 
a  town  of  the  fourth  class.  The  officers  elected 
at  the  time  of  incorporation  were  T.  J-  Kelly, 
mavnr:  S.  W.  Sutherland.  A.  \\\  McMorran, 
Evan  Enoch.  R.  P.  Scott,  H.  A.  Noyes,  coun- 

cilmen;  W.  E.  Talmage,  treasurer.  The  fra- 
ternal societies  comprise  the  I.  O.  O.  F.,  M.W. 
A.,  and  Newport  Lumbermen's  Union,  No. 


This  is  a  town  of  about  150  inhabitants 
situated  on  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  rail- 
road, fourteen  miles  south  of  Colville  and  nine 
miles  north  of  Chewelah.  While  Addy  did  not 
evolve  into  a  town  until  1890  the  site  is  one 
well  known  to  the  old  timers  of  Stevens  county. 
It  was  near  here  that  Tom  Brown,  now  of 
Chewelah,  located  with  his  family  and  run  up 
a  house  in  1854.  But  the  place  is  best  remem- 
bered as  the  site  of  the  Fatzer  grist  mill,  es- 
tablished sometime  in  the  late  70's,  and  patron- 
ized by  settlers  for  many  miles  around.  This 
mill  continued  in  operation  until  the  flood  of 
1894,  when  it  was  taken  out.  On  three  dif- 
ferent occasions  during  the  years  1892  and 
1893  the  mill  dam  was  destroyed  by  dynamite. 
Large  rewards  were  offered  for  information 
concerning  the  guilty  parties,  but  they  were 
never  apprehended.  In  July,  1890,  one  year 
following  the  completion  of  the  railroad,  George 
W,  Seal  and  E.  S.  Dudrey  formed  a  co-part- 
nership and  opened  a  general  mercantile  store. 
In  November  of  the  same  year  a  postoffice  was 
established  at  .\ddy.  and  IMr.  Dudrey  became 
postmaster.  This  firm  continued  in  business 
until  1896,  when  Mr.  Seal  purchased  his  part- 
ner's interest  in  the  store.  Two  years  later 
Mr.  Dudrey  opened  the  second  store  in  Addy. 
The  town  never  enjoyed  a  boom  and  its  growth 
was  gradual.  The  years  1898,  1899  and  1900 
were  prosperous,  for  at  that  period  the  Le  Roi 
mine,  at  Rossland,  was  experiencing  great 
activity,  and  .\ddy  became  one  of  the  principal 
shipping  points  on  the  railroad  for  produce, 
etc.,  to  the  mine.  The  principal  industries  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  town  are  lumbering,  marble 
and  agriculture.  Three  large  saw  mills  are 
operated  within  two  miles  of  town,  the 
Dearinger  &  Bruner.  the  Root  and  tlie  Spencer 



mills.  Three  marble  quarries  are  in  close  prox- 
imity to  Addy,  and  this  town  is  the  shipping 
point.  A  new  school  house  was  recently  com- 
pleted to  accommodate  forty  pupils  who  are 
now  in  attendance.  There  is  a  Methodist 
church  organization,  and  a  camp  of  the  Wood- 
men of  the  World,  the  latter  owning  their  own 
hall.  The  business  of  Addy  is  embraced  in 
three  general  stores,  one  meat  market,  one 
millinery  store,  one  drug  store,  one  blacksmith 
shop,  two  saloons,  one  livery  barn,  two  hotels, 
postoffice  and  depot. 


Here  is  a  cluster  of  beautiful  little  towns, 
the  principal  industry  of  which  is  fruit  culture. 
Fruitland  is  in  the  southwestern  portion  of  the 
county,  contains  a  few  stores  and  postoffice, 
and  is  surrounded  by  arable  farms  and  stock 
ranches.  Bissell  postofBce  is  twelve  miles 
south  of  Daisy,  with  a  general  store  and  one 
hotel.  It  ships  from  Meyers  Falls,  thirty-five 
miles  distant,  and  is  on  the  stage  route  to 
Kettle  Falls  and  Spokane.  Waterloo  was  es^ 
tablished  in  1894;  thirteen  miles  southeast  of 
Harvey  and  nineteen  miles  south  of  Kettle 
Falls.  It  is  in  the  midst  of  a  fine  agricultural 
country.  Rice  is  sixteen  miles  south  of  Meyers 
Falls :  is  supplied  with  a  fine  water  power, 
saw  mill,  one  general  store,  and  its  resources 
are  fruit,  grain,  lumber,  hay  and  produce. 
There  is  a  Baptist  church  organization.  Har- 
vey, located  in  the  Columbia  river  valley,  was 
settled  in  1883.  It  ships  from  Meyers  Falls, 
fifteen  miles  distant.  It  has  a  saw  mill,  flour- 
ing mill,  one  general  store,  and  is  in  the  midst 
of  a  fine  fruit  and  farming  country.  The  town 
exports  hay,  fruit,  grain,  produce,  lumber  and 
flour.  Azina  is  a  small  place  on  the  Colurhbia 
river,  fifteen  miles  south  of  Kettle  Falls,  in  a 
fine  fruit  country.  It  has  a  Presbyterian  church 
organization,  and  the  postoffice  was  estab- 
lished in  1900.  Hunters  is  a  town  of  150  peo- 
ple, situated  in  the  fertile  Columbia  river  valley.  ) 

It  is  forty-three  miles  from  Meyers  Falls,  from 
which  point  it  ships  its  produce.  The  sur- 
rounding territory  is  devoted  to  stock  raising, 
and  gold  and  silver  mining.  Hunters  has  a 
saw  and  feed  mill,  three  general  stores,  Metho- 
dist church,  hotel,  and  a  cheese  factory.  From 
here  a  stage  route  is  extended  to  Kettle  Falls. 
Daisy  is  one  of  the  most  prosperous  little 
towns  in  the  Columbia  river  country  of  Stevens 
court}-.  It  is  located  twenty-two  miles  from 
Meyers  Falls,  which  is  its  shipping  point.  It 
is  in  the  center  of  the  fruit  area  and  surround- 
ing it  are,  also,  some  eligible  stock  ranches.  In 
the  immediate  neighborhood  are  a  number  of 
promising  mining  properties.  Daisy  has  a  gen- 
eral store,  hotel,  Methodist  church  and  post- 


This  is  a  town  of  200  population  situated 
in  the  extreme  southern  part  of  Stevens  county, 
on  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railroad.  It 
is  the  principal  manufacturing  town  in  the 
county.  It  came  into  being  as  a  municipality 
with  the  building  of  the  railroad  in  1889.  Clay- 
ton has  the  largest  brick  manufacturing  plant 
in  the  state  of  Washington — if  not  on  the 
Pacific  coast — the  Washington  Brick,  Lime  & 
Manufacturing  Company.  This  extensive 
plant  was  established  in  1893.  Four  years 
later  it  was  burned,  but  immediately  rebuilt. 
When  this  industry  is  running  on  full  time 
sixty  men  are  employed.  Another  concern  of 
importance  is  the  Standard  Stoneware  Com- 
pany, manufacturing  pottery.  This  was  estab- 
lished in  1 90 1.  The  Holland  &  Holland  saw 
mill  company,  beginning  operations  in  1894. 
employs  a  large  number  of  men.  The  mill 
burned  in  September,  1903,  but  was  at  once  re- 
built. Clayton  is  a  typical  manufacturing  town, 
and  as  a  shipping  point  it  ranks  above  many  of 
the  larger  towns  of  the  county.  It  is  supplied 
with  an  excellent  public  school  in  which  forty 
pupils  are  enrolled.  The  only  church  organi- 
zation in  town  is  that  of  the  Congregationalists. 



One  and  one-half  miles  frum  the  town  site  is 
the  Norwegian  Lutheran  church,  a  handsome 
edifice,  and  it  is,  practically,  a  Clayton  church. 
Tliere  are  three  general  stores. 


At  Loon  Lake,  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
county,  on  the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  rail- 
road, forty  miles  from  Spokane,  is  located 
Stevens  county's  summer  resort.  The  town 
is  a  place  of  about  one  hundred  inhabi- 
tants, has  a  general  store,  three  hotels  and  a 
saloon.  The  lake,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  distant 
from  the  town,  is  a  beautiful  body  of  water, 
and  since  the  opening  of  the  railroad  in  1889, 
it  has  been  an  outing  spot  for  thousands.  For 
a  number  of  years,  D.  C.  Corbin,  who  built 
the  railroad,  owned  and  operated  the  park  on 
the  bank  of  the  lake  as  a  kind  of  picnic 
grounds.  Excursions  were  run  to  this  place 
every  summer  and  it  became  a  recreation  resort 
for  all  kinds  and  conditions  of  men,  women  and 
children.  The  park  is  at  present  owned  by 
Evan  Morgan,  who  purchased  it  from  Mr. 
Curbin  in  1897.  The  park  now  has  all  the  con- 
\eniences  and  comforts  of  a  modern  summer  re- 
sort, or  "breathing  place,"  and  the  location  is 
picturesque  and  attractive.  On  the  bank  of  the 
lake  is  a  spacious  pavilion,  where  guests  are 
entertained  during  the  summer  months,  and 
many  bathing  and  boat  houses,  from  one  of 
which  plies  a  pretty  steam  launch.  Lining  the 
bank  of  the  park  are  a  number  of  handsome 
summer  cottages  where  people  from  Spokane 
and  other  points  pass  the  heated  term.  Many 
acres  of  heavily  wooded  land  are  within  the 
limits  of  the  park,  especially  along  the  shores 
of  the  lake. 

One  of  the  principal  industries  of  Loon 
Lake  is  lumbering.  There  are  three  saw  mills 
within  a  short  distance  of  the  town.  The  ice 
business  is  no  unimportant  factor  in  the 
economics  of  Loon  Lake.  The  lake  water  is 
clear  as  crystal,  and  the  quality  of  ice  cut  there- 

from can  not  be  excelled.  Ice-houses  of  large 
capacity  line  the  shore  and  winter  employment 
is  furnished  many  men  in  this  industry.  The 
product  is  shipped  to  Spokane  and  other  towns 
within  an  extensive  territory. 


Valley  is  a  small  town  located  on  the 
Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railway,  thirty-one 
miles  south  of  the  county  seat.  While  the 
country  surrounding  Valley  is  one  of  the  old 
settled  portions  of  the  county,  the  town  was 
awakened  to  life  by  the  building  of  the  rail- 
road. It  was  platted  by  D.  C.  Corbin,  July  29, 
1891.  There  are  a  few  general  stores,  and  the 
inevitable  saw  mill.  The  population  is  about 
one  hundred  and  fifty.  Valley  is  developing 
into  quite  a  shipping  point,  and  in  this  particu- 
lar ranks  high  among  the  smaller  towns  of  the 
county.  One  of  the  principal  industries  is  the 
cutting  and  shipping  of  timothy  hay.  Other 
exports  are  marble,  onyx,  grain,  wood,  produce 
and  lumber. 

The  town  of  Boundary  was  highly  prosper- 
ous during  the  period  in  which  the  railroad  was 
building.  The  "boom"  lasted  six  months.  Col- 
onel Pinkston  was  then  the  most  prominent 
citizen  in  Boundary,  which  is  situated  one  mile 
south  of  the  international  boundary  line  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  British  Columbia. 
During  the  "boom"  the  town  gained  a  popula- 
tion of  1,200  people.  At  that  period  the  citizens 
led  a  most  strenuous  life,  and  the  place  gained 
a  rather  unenviable  notoriety  on  account  of  its. 
many  dance  halls,  saloons,  gambling  houses  and 
other  resorts  of  immorality.  With  the  decadence 
of  prosperity  the  residents  gradually  moved 
away,  many  of  them  to  Rossland.  The  build- 
ings of  Boundary  were  torn  down,  and  the 
lumber  taken  to  the  Canadian  town,  many  of 
the  first  structures  of  which  were  erected  with 
lumber  brought  from  the  sacked  town  of 
Boundary.  The  present  hamlet  consists  of  a 
postoffice,  a  small  store  and  one  family. 



Orin  postoffice,  at  the  \\'inslo\v  saw  mill,  is 
four  miles  south  of  Colville.  The  town  of  Gray 
is  five .  miles  north  of  Springdale,  on  the 
Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railway.  Here  are 
a  postofhce,  store  and  a  few  houses.  The  post 
office  was  established  in  190 1.  It  is  quite  a 
shipping  point,  with  an  adjacent  saw  mill,  and 
exports  considerable  hay.  Arden  is  a  station  on 
the  Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railway,  six 
miles  south  of  Colville,  with  an  adjacent  saw 
mill.  Usk  is  a  small  town  on  the  Pend  d'Oreille 
river,  nineteen  miles  northwest  of  Newport. 
It  has  a  hotel,  creamery,  and  two  general  stores. 
The  town  was  platted  June  9,  1903,  by  George 
H.  Jones. 

Frontier  is  located  on  Sheep  Creek,  and  also 
on  the  Columbia  &  Red  Mountain  railroad, 
seven  miles  north  of  Northport  and  near  the 
international  boundary  line.  The  postoffice  was 
established  in  190 1.  M.  A.  Rush  is  the  home- 
steader of  the  property.  Frontier  is  the  ship- 
ping point  for  the  Velvet  mine. 

Rockcut  is  a  postoffice  on  the  Kettle  river, 
thirty  miles  northwest  of  Colville.  The  town 
was  established  in  1902,  the  point  immediately 
across  the  Kettle  river,  in  Ferry  county,  being 
the  terminal  of  the  Washington  &  Great  North- 
ern railway  for  a  few  months  at  that  time.  It 
has  one  store  and  a  postoffice. 

Marble  is  a  station  on  the  Spokane  Falls  & 
Northern    railway,    nine    miles    southwest    of 

Northport,  and  was  established  in  1898.  A 
saw  mill,  general  store  and  postoffice  are  located 
at  this  point,  which  is  also  accommodated  by  a 
row  boat  ferry.  Acorss  the  Columbia  river  is 
a  country  rich  in  mining  prospects  and  marble 

Ryan  is  a  postoffice  and  flag  station  on  the 
Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railway,  fifteen 
miles  southwest  of  Northport.  This  town  was 
established  in  1896.  There  are,  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  town,  several  marble  quarries  and  many 
good  prospects.  There  is  a  saw  mill  two  or 
three  miles  south  of  town.  Here  there  is  a 
cable  ferry  across  the  river,  and  it  is  the 
shipping  point  for  ore  which  is  brought  across 
the  river  via  the  ferry.  The  town  is  named 
after  Daniel  Ryan,  who  homesteaded  the  prop- 
erty where  the  hamlet  now  stands.  There  is 
one  general  store. 

lone  is  a  small  place  on  the  Pend  d'Oreille 
river,  twenty-six  miles  northeast  of  Colville.  as 
the  crow  flies,  and  fifty-two  miles  northwest  of 
Newport.  The  town  was  settled  in  1894.  It 
has  one  general  store  and  a  hotel,  and  adjacent 
are  some  extensive  cement  works  and  marble 

Blue  Creek,  postoffice  and  station,  on  the 
Spokane  Falls  &  Northern  railway,  is  seventeen 
miles  south  of  Colville.  It  has  a  saw  mill  and 
one  store.  Its  exports  are  lumber,  wood,  min- 
ing timber  and  produce. 



The  political  history  of  Stevens  county  is 
decidedly  complex,  and  at  times  indefinite  and 
confusing.  This  present  condition  arises  from 
the  fact  that  political  records  of  eirlier  days 

have  been  loosely  kept,  or  not  collected  at  all. 
Representatives  to  the  legislature  have  been 
elected  and  not  seated ;  while  on  the  other  hand 
there  are  instances  where  thev  have  been  seated 

1 66 


without  going  through  the  formahty  of  an  elec- 
tion. The  county  has  weathered  nearly  all  the 
changes  in  political  complexion  incident  to  other 
localities  east  and  west.  Clianges  from  repub- 
licanism to  democracy  have  been  sharp  and 
accentuated  by  the  elements  of  surprise,  and 
again  the  populists  have  developed  strength  to 
command  for  a  period,  the  distribution  of 
county  patronage  in  their  favor. 

Isaac  Ingalls  Stevens  was  the  first  Terri- 
torial governor  of  Washington,  appointed  in 
1853  by  President  Franklin  Pierce.  But  up  to 
i860  Stevens  county  had  never  been  represented 
in  the  Territorial  legislature,  nor  was  it  then, 
although  an  attempt  was  made  toward  such  a 
consummation.  That  year  some  of  the  settlers 
assembled  and  selected  H.  W.  Watson  as  the 
representative  from  Stevens  county,  made  up  a 
purse  for  his  expenses  and  dispatched  him  to 
Olympia.  Owing  to  the  irregularity  of  his 
election  Mr.  Watson  was  not  seated,  but  was 
given  the  position  of  door-keeper  in  the  house. 
An  account  of  his  subsequent  murder  while 
returning  home  from  Olympia  may  be  read  in 
Chapter  I.  Part  II,  of  this  work.  Until  1864 
the  territi  ry  embraced  by  Stevens,  was  known 
as  Spokane  county.  In  July,  1861,  J.  R.  Bates, 
republic;  ii,  was  elected  representative.  Bates 
was  the  first  man  seated  in  the  Territorial  legis- 
lature as  an  accredited  representative  from 
Stevens,  or  rather  Spokane  county,  jointly  with 
Wallu  Walla  county.  In  1862  Charles  H. 
Canfidd.  republican,  ran  for  the  legislature 
against  B.  F.  Yantis,  democrat.  Canfield 
received  48  votes  and  Yantis  38,  but  the  latter 
contested  the  election.  At  that  period  the 
family  of  Yantis  resided  at  Olympia,  and 
thither  he  went  to  pass  the  winter  with  them. 
Canfield  did  not  put  in  an  appearance;  the 
contest  went  by  default,  and  Yantis  secured  the 
seat,  serving  one  term. 

In  1863  and  1864  Isaac  L.  Tobey  was 
elected  representative  from  Stevens  county, 
Walla  Walla  having  been  cut  out  of  the  repre- 
sentative district.      In    1864.    for   some  unex- 

plained reason,  Tobey  resigned  and  no  one  was 
elected  to  fill  the  vacancy.  In  1865  W.  V. 
Brown  was  elected  as  representative  from 
Stevens  county,  but  did  not  take  his  seat,  which 
was  subsequently  filled,  in  1866,  by  J.  J.  H. 
Van  Bokkelem.  He  was  a  resident  of  Port 
Townsend,  coming  to  Colville  that  summer  as 
custom  house  officer.  When  he  concluded  to 
return  he  decided,  also,  to  represent  Stevens 
county  in  the  Territorial  legislature  and  draw 
the  mileage.  The  political  pathway  appears 
to  have  been  an  easy  one  in  those  primitive  days, 
and  strewn  with  roses.  There  is  no  record  in 
the  Colville  archives  of  Van  Bokkelem's  elec- 
tion, but  he  seems  to  have  made  a  persuasive 
talk  to  the  members  of  the  house  and  secured 
the  seat.  The  Territorial  legislative  assemblies 
then  became  biennial,  and  the  following  gentle- 
m°n  represented  Stevens  county  successively : 
W.  P.  Winans,  1867;  C.  H.  Montgomery,  1869; 
W.  P.  Winans,  1871.  The  councilmen  elected 
from  Stevens,  in  conjunction  with  other  coun- 
ties, were:  John  A.  Simms,  1861-2;  Daniel 
Stewart,  1863-4;  Anderson  Cox,  1865-6;  J.  M. 
Vansyckle,  1867-8;  H.  D.  O'Bryant,  1869-71. 
In  1873  Ml"-  Favorite,  of  Rosalia,  Spokane 
county,  served  in  the  legislature,  representing 
Stevens  county.  In  1875  Hon.  Robert  H. 
Wempy  was  elected  the  first  member  from 
Stevens  county,  which  then  embraced  Spokane, 
Lincoln,  Douglas  and  Okanogan.  D.  F.  Per- 
cival  and  L.  W.  Meyers  were  elected  county 
commmisssioners ;  James  N.  Glover,  justice 
of  the  place;  John  U.  Hofstetter,  sheriff.     In 

1877  Marcus  Oppenheimer,  republic-m.  an'l 
Henry  Wellington,  democrat,  were  opposing- 
candidates  for  the  office  of  representative  to  the 
lower  house  of  the  Territorial  legislature. 
Wellington  won  the  contest  but  resigned.     In 

1878  a  special  election  was  called  to  fill  the 
vacancy,  and  James  Monaghan  was  nominated 
by  the  democrats ;  D.  F.  Percival  by  the  repub- 
licans. The  contest  resulted  in  the  election  of 

Nothing  of  great  political  significince  oc- 




curred  in  Stevens  county  during  the  years  inter- 
vening between  1878  and  1889.  Admission  to 
the  union  as  a  state  was,  at  this  period,  loudly 
and  emphatically  demanded  by  the  people  of 
Washington.  July  4,  1889,  the  constitutional 
convention  of  the  state  of  Washington,  com- 
posed of  75  members,  assembled  at  Olympia. 
This  body  continued  in  session  fifty  days  and  the 
result  of  its  labors  was  the  adoption  of  a  con- 
stitution. S.  H.  Manly,  republican,  now  a 
practicing  physician  in  Republic,  Ferry  county. 
was  one  of  the  members  from  Stevens  county. 
W.  W.  Waltman,  democrat,  of  Colville,  was 
selected,  also,  as  a  delegate,  but  his  seat  was 
declared  vacant,  after  six  days,  and  J.  J.  Travis, 
democrat,  of  Chewelah,  was  seated  in  his  place. 
In  1890  a  new  apportionment  was  made  by  the 
state  legislature,  Washington  having  then  been 
admitted  to  the  union.  The  second  senatorial 
district,  acccording  to  this  new  apportionment, 
comprised  the  county  of  Stevens,  and  the 
following  precincts  in  Spokane  county :  Twin 
Prairie,  Five  Mile  Prairie,  Pleasant  Prairie, 
Chatteroy,  Bridge  and  Peone  Prairie.  The 
county  of  Stevens  constituted  the  first  repre- 
sentative district  and  was  entitled  to  one  repre- 

The  member  of  the  first  state  senate  from 
the  district  composed  of  Stevens,  and  portions 
of  Spokane  counties,  was  H.  E.  Houghton, 
republican,  a  resident  of  Spokane  Falls.  The 
member  of  the  first  house  of  representatives, 
following  the  admission  of  the  state,  1889-90, 
from  Stevens  county,  was  M.  H.  Randall, 
republican,  of  Colville.  In  1891-2  James 
O'Neil,  republican,  of  Chewelah,  was  elected 
state  senator  from  the  second  senatorial  district, 
comprising  Stevens  county  and  si.x  precincts 
in  Spokane  county.  At  this  session  of  the  legis- 
lature John  Metcalfe,  republican,  of  Squire 
Citv,  now  Springdale,  Stevens  county,  was  the 
representative  in  the  house.  In  1893  Charles 
H.  Montgomery,  of  Chewelah.  was  appointed 
a  member  of  the  state  World's  Fair  commission. 

The  election  held  No\'ember  6,  1894,  proved 

a  surprising  victory  for  the  populist  party  in 
Stevens  county.  The  vote  for  representatives  in 
congress  was:  Samuel  C.  Hyde,  republican. 
618;  William  H.  Doolittle.  republican.  573;  N. 
T.  Caton.  democrat.  290;  B.  F.  Heuston,  dem- 
ocrat, 288;  J.  C.  Van  Patten,  populist,  841; 
W.  P.  C.  Adams,  populist,  818. 

The  vote  for  members  of  the  state  legisla- 
ture was  in  about  the  same  proportion.  With 
the  exception  of  sheriff  and  one  commissioner 
the  populists  captured  all  the  county  offices. 
Republicans,  democrats  and  populists  each  had 
nominees  for  every  office.  For  county  attorney 
Charles  A.  Mantz  defeated  L.  B.  Reeder, 
republican,  and  Jotn  B.  Slater,  democrat,  by 
154  plurality.  Lafayette  Ledgerwood  was 
elected  county  clerk,  and  George  F.  Bottoriif, 
republican,  and  A.  V.  Shepler,  democrat, 
defeated  by  a  plurality  of  169.  For  auditor 
John  S.  McLean  was  elected  over  E.  D.  Miner, 
republ'can,  and  W.  C.  Starkey,  democrat, 
receiving  a  plurality  of  1 50.  The  only  officers 
the  populists  lost  were  one  commissioner  and 
sheriff,  the  vote  for  sheriff  being :  J.  C.  Yenter, 
republican,  474;  C.  R.  McMillan,  democrat, 
671:  William  Graham,  populist,  640.  Joseph 
Lavigne  secured  the  treasurership.  defeating 
William  Campbell,  republican,  and  Frank  B. 
Goetter.  democrat,  and  receiving  a  plurality  of 
igi.  Otis  J.  Smith  received  a  plurality  of  62 
for  superintendent  of  schools,  defeating  John 

A.  B-irry,  republican,  and  Con  M.  Durland, 
democrat.  For  assessor  David  F.  Pankey  was 
elected  over  Frank  Ferguson,  republican,  and 
J.  F.  Jarvis,  democrat,  with  the  largest  plurality 
of  any  candidate,  240.  James  B.  Thomas 
defeated  Ralph  Damp,  republican,  and  Richard 

B.  Thomas,  democrat,  for  surveyor;  plurality 
67.  Louis  J.  Walford,  populist,  and  Robert 
Fountain,  democrat,  were  elected  county  com- 
missioners. James  O.  Gifford,  populist,  was 
elected  coroner. 

In  the  presidential  election  of  1896  the 
McKinley  electors  received  433  votes  to  1880 
for  W.  J.  Bryan.    For  governor  P.  C.  Sullivan, 

1 68 


republican  received  537  votes  to  1774  for  John 
R.  Rogers,  democrat.  The  election  was  held 
November  3,  1896.  Three  tickets  were  in  the 
field  for  county  ofiicers,  republican,  populist 
and  union  tickets,  the  populist  ticket  being 
generally  successful,  the  following  being  the 
result : 

County  auditor — David  C.  Ely,  republican, 
440:  John  L.  Metcalfe,  populist,  962;  Robert 
Fountain,  unionist,  918;  Metcalfe's  plurality, 

Treasurer — James  N.  Rogers,  republican, 
425;  S.  S.  Beggs,  populist,  1139;  C.  S. 
Boss,  unionist,  764.     Begg's  plurality,  375, 

Attorney— E.  C.  Nordyke,  1062;  H.  G. 
Kirkpatrick,  1104.  Kirkpatrick's  plurality, 

Assessor — Kendrick  S.  Waterman,  repub- 
lican, 406;  D.  F.  Pankey,  popuhst,  1124; 
C.  A.  Duffy,  unionist,  794.  Pankey's  plurality, 

Sheriff — Fred  S.  Phillips,  republican,  383; 
E.  M.  Denny,  populist,  1058;  Frank  Habein, 
unionist,  913.    Denny's  plurality,  145. 

County  Clerk — Elmer  D.  Hall,  republican, 
354;  Lafayette  Ledgerwood,  populist,  1032; 
William  B.  Dingle,  unionist,  942.  Ledger- 
wood's  plurality,  90. 

Superintendent  of  schools  —  Evalyn  E. 
Church,  republican,  479;  Otis  J.  Smith,  pop- 
ulist, 1024;  John  A.  Barry,  unionist,  835. 
Smith's  plurality,   189. 

Coroner — Thomas  C.  Green,  republican, 
434;  J.  A.  Lung,  populist,  1064;  J.  J.  Travis, 
unionist,  799.     Lung's  plurality,  265. 

Surveyor  —  J.  B.  Thomas,  republican, 
1 281:  George  H.  Skeels,  840.  Thomas' 
plurality,  441. 

Commissioner,  First  District — Joseph  W. 
Reynolds,  republican,  643;  Harris  T.  Rey- 
nolds, populist,  993  ;  Fletcher  Barton,  unionist, 
667.     H.  T.  Reynold's  plurality,  326. 

Commissioner  Third  District — Jacob  Kel- 
ler,   republican.    443;    T.    E.    Irish,    populist. 

1095;    Orin    Belknap,   unionist,  753.     Irish's 
plurality,  342. 

In  the  general  election  of  1898  the  ticket 
was  headed  by  candidates  for  congress. 
Stevens  county  was  swept  by  the  democrats  so 
far  as  the  state  ticket  was  concerned.  The  vote  . 
for  representatives  to  congress  was  as  follows : 
Wesley  L.  Jones,  republican,  740;  Francis  W. 
Cushman,  republican,  697;  James  Hamilton 
Lewis,  democrat,  1169;  William  C.  Jones, 
democrat,  1082.  For  county  officials  the  tickets 
in  the  field  were  two,  populist  and  fusion ;  the 
fusion  being  between  republicans  and  demo- 
crats. This  contest  was  close  and  exciting, 
with  the  result  that  the  offices  were  handed 
round  between  the  two  factions,  as  follows : 

Sheriff — Elijah  M.  Denny,  populist,  1032; 
James  Ferguson,  fusionist,  1006.  Denny's 
plurality,  26. 

County  Clerk — Thomas  E.  Dulin,  populist, 
925;  W.  H.  Jackson,  fusionist,  1046.  Jack- 
son's plurality,  121. 

Auditor — James  W.  Sneed,  populist,  945; 
D.  C.  Ely,  fusionist,  996.     Plurality  for  Ely, 


Treasurer — Sydney  S.  Beggs,  populist, 
1039;  Frank  Habein,  fusionist,  950.  Pulrality 
for  Beggs,  89. 

Attorney — Merton  E.  Jesseph,  populist, 
898;  H.  G.  Kirkpatrick,  fusionist,  mo.  Kirk- 
patrick's plurality,  212. 

Assessor — George  Byers,  populist,  926; 
O.  T.  Smith,  fusionist,  1009.  Smith's  plural- 
ity 83. 

Superintendent  of  Schools — William  L. 
Sax,  populist,  1017;  J.  N.  Sinclair,  fusionist, 
951.     Sax's  plurality,  66. 

Surveyor — C.  N.  Park,  populist,  899 ;  L.  L. 
Tower,  fusionist,  1031.  Plurality  for  Tower, 

Coroner — Frank  R.  Ballard,  populist,  1041 ; 
Leopold  De  Rudder,  fusionist,  877.  Ballard's 
plurality,  164. 

Commissioner.   First  District — Henrv    W. 



Sparks,  populist,  920;   W.  H.  Jeffreys,  fusion- 
ist,  961.     Plurality  for  Jeffreys,  41. 

Commissioner  Second  District — Charles 
Alban,  populist,  800;  George  W.  Reynolds, 
fusionist,  1124.     Plurality  for  Reynolds,  324. 

Returning  to  1892,  when  Stevens  county 
was  republican,  let  us  in  a  perfectly  unbiased 
and  non-partisan  manner,  trace  the  history  of 
the  various  parties  down  to  190 1.  In  1892  the 
republicans  were  generally  successful  over 
their  opponents,  the  democrats,  although  the 
populists  had  then  begun  to  manifest  consider- 
able strength,  backed  by  intense  enthusiasm. 
The  financial  stringency  of  1893-4  awakened 
a  general  clamor  throughout  the  United  States 
for  a  reversal  of  things  political  all  along  the 
line.  In  common  with  the  rest  of  the  country 
this  feeling  was  manifested  in  Stevens  county 
10  a  certain  degree,  although  with  no  more 
intensity  than  in  other  parts  of  the  union.  At 
this  period  the  administration  of  Stevens 
county  affairs  was  in  republican  hands.  In  the 
election  of  1894  republicans,  populists  and  dem- 
ocrats had  separate  tickets  in  the  field.  In  the 
contest  of  the  fall  of  1894  the  People's  Party, 
or  Populists,  were  eminently  successful,  and  it 
may  be  said  that  the  prestige  then  lost  by 
republicans  in  the  county  has  never  been 

In  the  election  of  1896  again  three  tickets 
appeared  in  the  field.  It  -was  a  national  cam- 
paign year;  free  silver  was  the  dominant  issue; 
every  effort  was  made  to  unite  the  silver  forces, 
"but  the  populists,  relying  on  their  decisive  vic- 
tory of  two  years  previous,  repulsed  all  over- 
tures looking  toward  fusion,  and  put  a  straight- 
out,  middle-of-the-road  ticket  in  the  field.  For 
mutual  defense  the  democrats  and  free  silver 
republicans  effected  a  combination  under  the 
name  of  unionists  and  placed  a  union  ticket  in 
the  field.  The  gold  republicans  had  a  straight 
ticket  of  their  own,  although  perfectly  aware 
that  they  were  leading  a  forlorn  hope.  In  this 
sensational  election  L.  B.  Andrews,  republican 

presidential  elector,  received  in  Stevens  county 
433  votes ;  the  highest  vote  cast  for  a  republican 
elector.  On  the  democratic  side  N.  T.  Caton 
received  1880  votes;  a  majority  of  1319.  The 
vote  for  Caton  included  democrats,  populists 
and  free  silver  republicans;  they  having  com- 
bined on  state  and  national  issues;  the  same 
majorities  ruled  on  other  state  officers.  Coming 
to  county  affairs,  the  straight,  or  gold  republi- 
can vote,  ranged  between  400  and  500,  while 
the  populist  and  union  tickets  were  about  even, 
say  an  average  of  900  votes  each,  the  advantage 
being  slightly  in  favor  of  the  populists. 

Remarkable  features  embellished  this  elec- 
tion of  1898.  Chief  among  them  was  the  fusion 
of  gold  republicans,  silver  republicans  and  dem- 
ocrats, under  the  trite  name  of  "Citizens' 
Ticket."  Again  the  populists  jumped  into  the 
field  with  a  straight  ticket.  The  number  of 
votes  cast  at  this  election  in  Stevens  county 
was  about  1800,  or  nearly  500  votes  less  than 
had  been  cast  two  years  previous  in  the  "Bryan 
campaign."  Candidates  on  each  of  these 
tickets  were  elected,  although  the  advantage 
remained  with  the  "Citizens'  Ticket."  The 
second  remarkable  feature  of  the  campaign  was 
the  refusal  of  the  populist  auditor  to  place  the 
names  of  candidates  of  the  opposing  parties, 
"Citizens'  Ticket."  on  the  official  ballot.  Nat- 
urally this  created  a  storm  of  indignant  protest 
throughout  the  county,  and  it  is  frankly 
admitted  that  it  did  much  to  weaken  the  pop- 
ulist party  within  itself,  while)  more  firmly 
cementing  the  half-hearted  union  between  those 
strange  bed-fellows,  republicans  and  demo- 

The  fusionists  who  were  frienedly  to  the 
"Citizens'  Ticket,"  appealed  to  Judge  Richard- 
son, of  the  superior  court,  asking  for  an  order 
compelling  Auditor  Metcalfe  to  place  the  names 
of  their  nominees  on  the  official  ballot.  Judge 
Richardson  decided  against  them,  and,  prob- 
ably, upon  good  legal  grounds.  Attorney 
Kirkpatrick,  candidate  for  presecuting  attorney 



on  the  "Citizens'  Ticket,"  wired  for  a  mandate 
from  the  supreme  court  at  Olympia  compelling 
Auditor  Metcalfe  to  place  the  rejected  names 
on  the  official  ballot.  The  mandate  was  issued. 
Acting  on  the  advice  of  his  attorney,  Frank 
Graves,  of  Spokane,  Auditor  Metcalfe  still 
refused  to  obey  the  mandate.  He  was  subse- 
quently cited  to  appear  before  the  supreme 
court  to  answer  the  charge  of  contempt;  the 
case  against  him  was  dismissed.  The  names 
of  the  nominees  of  the  citizens'  party  did  not 
appear  on  the  official  ballots. 

How  then  did  the  members  of  the  citizens' 
party  vote?  This  question  brings  us  to  the 
third  and  last  remarkable  feature  of  this  sensa- 
tional campaign,  the  use  of  "stickers"  by  those 
who  voted  the  "Citizens'  Ticket."  Although 
numerous  mistakes  were  made  by  this  bungling 
method  of  conducting  a  general  election,  it 
speaks  well  for  the  average  voter  of  Stevens 
county  that  in  a  long  list  of  offices  to  be  filled 
so  many  right  names  were  put  in  the  right 
places  on  the  ballots. 

A  comparison  of  figures  for  1898  shows 
considerable  change  in  the  complexion  of  the 
parties  of  Stevens  county.  Frank  W.  Cush- 
man,  republican  candidate  for  congress,  re- 
ceived 677  votes.  There  being  no  fusion 
between  republicans  and  democrats  aside  from 
the  county  offices,  this  vote  represents  the 
putative  strength  of  the  republican  party  in  the 
county  at  that  period.  J.  Hamilton  Lewis, 
Cushman's  opponent,  received  11 69  votes,  a 
majority  of  472.  It  should  be  remembered 
that  the  vote  of  1898  was  nearly  500  less  than 
in  1896,  yet  the  republicans  jump  from  433 
votes  in  1896  to  697  in  1898,  a  gain  of  61  per 
cent.  At  the  same  time  the  fusion  forces  drop 
from  1880  to  1 169,  a  loss  of  38  per  cent. 

The  fusion  of  democrats  and  republicans 
lasted  for  one  campaign  only.  When  party 
lines  were  drawn  for  the  momentous  cam- 
paign of  1900.  democrats  and  populists  fused 
all  along  the  line  under  the  name  of  "Dem- 

ocracy." Republicaiis  put  a  straight  ticket  in 
the  field.  The  vote  that  fall  was  the  heaviest 
ever  polled  in  Stevens  county.  On  the 
republican  ticket  the  highest  vote  polled 
for  presidential  electors  was  that  given 
S.  C.  Cosgrove,  1121.  N.  G.  Blalock, 
democrat,  received  1612,  a  majority  of  491- 
The  republican  gain  over  1898  was  424,  a  gain 
of  60  per  cent,  and  a  gain  of  1 59  per  cent,  over 
the  vote  of  1896.  The  democratic  gain  over 
1898  was  443,  a  gain  of  38  per  cent,  and  a  loss 
of  268  votes,  compared  with  1896;  a  loss  of  14 
per  cent. 

The  election  of  1898  gave  rise  to  a  number 
of  contests.  One  of  them  was  between  C.  A. 
Mantz  and  W.  C.  Gray,  opposing  candidates 
for  state  senator  from  the  second  senatorial 
district.  This  case  was  taken  to  the  state 
legislature  and  decided  in  favor  of  Mantz. 
Other  contests  for  county  offices  were  as 
follows:  Thomas  Dulin  vs.  W.  H.  Jackson, 
contest  for  clerkship;  C.  N.  Park  vs. 
Louis  L.  Tower,  contest  for  the  office  of  county 
surveyor;  J.  C.  Harkness  vs.  G.  M.  Welty, 
contest  for  representative;  H.  W.  Sparks  vs. 
W.  H.  Jefifry,  contest  for  office  of  county  com- 
missioner, first  district;  James  W.  Sneed  vs. 
D.  C.  Ely,  contest  for  the  office  of  county 
auditor;  M.  E.  Jesseph,  vs.  H.  G.  Kirkpatrick, 
contest  for  the  office  of  county  attorney. 

The  complaints  filed. with  the  various  con- 
tests were,  practically,  the  same  in  substance, 
and  after  setting  up  the  statutory  grounds  for 
contests,  went  on  to  state  that  in  all  the  precincts 
in  Stevens  county  circulars  containing  printed 
language  abusive  of  the  populist  party  and  its 
candidates  were  passed  out  to  voters  by  the 
election  boards,  and  circulated  in  the  voting 
booths  and  elsewhere  within  fifty  feet  of  the 
polls,  while  the  election  was  in  progress.  It 
was  also  alleged  that  money  was  employed  to 
influence  voters  against  the  populist  candidates, 

In  January,  1899,  these  contest  cases  came 



lip  for  hearing  before  Julge  C.  H.  Neal. 
Previous  to  this  a  recount  of  the  votes  had 
been  commenced  and  was  under  way  at  the  time 
of  the  original  hearing  of  the  cases.  Many 
bahots  were  counted  whicli  were  protested  by 
either  one  side  or  the  other,  and  all  such  pro- 
tested ballots  were  filed  away  for  future 
consideration.  The  recount  gave  Ferguson  a 
majority  of  twelve  votes  over  Denny,  thus 
temporarily  changing  the  result  so  far  as  the  of- 
fice of  sheriff  was  concerned.  According  to  pre- 
vious stipulation  introduction  of  evidence  and 
arguments  of  counsel  became  necessary.  This 
had  occurred  previous  to  the  holidays,  and  the 
court  had  adjourned  until  January  3.  On  that 
date  the  question  of  counting  or  rejecting  such 
baltots  as  had  been  protested  w'as  taken  up  and 
considerable  evidence  introduced.  Arguments 
of  counsel  occupied  half  a  day.  The  decision  of 
Judge  Neal,  however,  gave  Denny  a  majority 
of  seven  votes  over  Ferguson.  The  other  con- 
tests instituted  by  defeated  populist  candidates 
were  all  dismissed  by  consent  at  plaintiffs' 

The  presidential  election  in  Stevens  county 
in  1900  resulted  as  follows:  For  presidential 
electors,  republican,  1121:  democratic,  1612; 
l)rohibitionist,  38;  social  labor,  9;  social  demo 
crats,  29.  For  go\-ernor,  J.  M.  Frink,  republi- 
can, 987;  John  R.  Rogers,  democrat,  1743; 
plurality  for  Rogers,  756;  R.  E.  Dunlap, 
prohibitionist,  29;  William  McCormick,  social 
labor,  10;  W.  C.  B.  Randolph,  social  democrat, 
23.  Throughout  the  county  the  democrats 
swept  the  field  as  the  following  returns  will 
show:  Auditor — D.  C.  Ely,  republican,  1089: 
Richard  Nagle,  democrat,  1669;  majority  for 
Nagle,  580. 

Sheriff — Frank  Ferguson,  republican,  1244: 
Christopher  A.  Ledgerwood,  democrat,  15 18. 
Majority  for  Ledgerwood,  274. 

County  clerk — W.  H.  Jackson,  republican, 
1274;  Fred  Y.  Wilson,  1482.'  Majority  for 
\Vilson,  208. 

Treasurer — George  W.  Harvey,  republican. 

1083;  Joseph  L.  Lavigne,  democrat,  1668. 
Majority  for  Lavigne,  585. 

Attorney — John  A.  Kellogg,  republican, 
1 195;  J.  E.  Morris  Bailey,  democrat,  1568. 
Majority  for  Bailey,  373. 

Assessor — K.  S.  Waterman,  republican, 
1 187;  Marshall  B.  Jaques,  democrat,  1561. 
Majority  for  Jaques,  374. 

Superintendent  of  schools — J.  W.  Smith, 
republican,  1016;  William  L.  Sax,  democrat, 
1759.    Majority  for  Sax,  743. 

Coroner — M.  R.  Peck,  republican,  1185; 
Frank  R.  Ballard,  democrat,  1553.  Majority 
for  Ballard,  360. 

Surveyor — L.  L.  Tower,  democrat.  1688; 
J.  B.  Thomas,  independent,  418.  Majority  for 
Tower,  1270. 

Commissioner,  second  district — George  W. 
Reynolds,  republican,  1232;  J.  C.  De  Haven, 
democrat,  1522.    Majority  for  De  Haven,  290. 

Commissioner,  third  district — J.  T.  Graves, 
republican,  1049;  Thomas  E.  Irish,  democrat, 
1699.    Majority  for  Irish,  650. 

The  election  of  1902  revealed  a  marked 
change  in  the  political  complexion  of  the 
county.  There  was  no  democratic  landslide 
such  as  had  accentuated  the  election  of  1900. 
The  returns  tell  the  story. 

For  representative  to  congress  the  republi- 
can vote  ranged  from  1285  to  1304:  the  demo- 
cratic vote  from  1176  to  1194;  the  socialists 
from  312  to  316.  There  were  three  tickets  in 
the  field  for  county  ofiicers  with  the  following 
results : 

Sheriff' — Christopher  .\.  Ledgerwood,  dem- 
ocrat, 1 192;  Frank  Ferguson,  republican, 
1344:  C.  C.  Anderson,  socialist,  311.  Fergu- 
son's plurality,  152. 

County  clerk — H.  R.  Crozier,  democrat, 
1253:  F.  Y.  Wilson,  republican,  1260;  John 
O'Leary,  Jr..  socialist.  318.  ^^'il.son's  plurality, 

Auditor — Richard  Nagle,  democrat,  1353; 
I'red  L.  Reinoehl,  republican,  1223;  John  M. 
Smith,  socialist,  285.    Nagle's  plurality,  130. 



Treasurer — George  W.  Seal,  democrat, 
1355;  J.  F.  Lavigiie,  republican,  1217;  Floyd 
C.  Smith,  socialist,  298.   Seal's  plurality,  138. 

Attorney — A.  J.  Fenandini,  democrat, 
1 122;  H.  G.  Kirkpatrick,  republican,  143 1; 
J.  C.  Harkness',  socialist,  301.  Plurality  for 
Kirkpatrick,  309. 

Assessor — A.  L.  Knapp,  democrat,  1330; 
Marshall  B.  Jaques,  republican,  1194;  E.  A. 
Vanslyke,  socialist,  304.  Knapp's  plurality, 

Superintendent  of  schools — F.  L.  Grin- 
stead,  democrat,  1365;  James  E.  Pickerel], 
republican,  1247;  W.  L.  Sax,  socialist,  i. 
Plurality  for  Grinstead,  118. 

Surveyor — Clair  Hunt,  democrat,  11 65; 
'vValter   L.    Brown,   republican,    1361 ;   W.    B. 

Stuart,  socialist,  306.    Hunt's  plurality,  166. 

Coroner — R.  D.  McRea,  democrat,  1320; 
J.  J.  Travis,  republican,  1171 ;  B.  L.  Brigham, 
socialist,  324;  McRea's  plurality,  149. 

Commissioner,  first  district,  Thomas  R. 
Major,  democrat,  12 16;  J.  M.  Fish,  republican, 
1309;  H.  T.  Reynolds,  socialist,  303.  Plurality 
for  Fish,  93. 

Commissioner,  third  district — George  H. 
Bobier,  democrat,  1203;  M.  C.  Kelly,  republi- 
can, 1327;  Zell  Young,  socialist,  307.  Kelly's 
plurality,  124. 

The  republicans  elected  the  state  senator, 
M.  E.  Stansel,  and  the  democrats  captured  the 
two  representatives,  Martin  J.  Maloney  and 
Jerry  Cooney,  the  latter  of  Springdale.  Mr. 
Maloney  resides  in  Colville. 



One  of  the  most  interesting  subjects  in  the 
history  of  any  community  is  that  relating  to 
its  educational  matters,  and  this  is  especially 
true  in  the  case  of  Stevens  county.  From  the 
early  days  when  there  was  not  a  public  school 
in  all  the  vast  territory  then  known  as  Spokane 
county  to  the  present  time,  when  the  conipar- 
itively  small  territory  now  embraced  in  the 
boundaries  of  Stevens  county  has  107  school 
districts  and  school  property  valued  at  $71,605, 
and  when  thousands  of  children  are  daily 
pursuing  their  studies  in  its  public  schools,  the 
educational  history  of  Ste\-ens  county  proves 
an  interesting  study. 

However,  it  is  not  as  plain  as  an  open  book. 
Prior  to  1891  there  is  nothing  of  record  in  the 
office  of  the  county  superintendent  of  schools 

along  educational  lines.  In  the  early  days,  if 
the  county  superintendents  made  reports  of 
their  official  acts,  as  they  doubtless  did,  the 
reports  were  destroyed  and  no  public  record  of 
them  was  kept.  Even  the  names  of  the  gentle- 
men who  occupied  the  position  of  super- 
intendents of  school  are  not  to  be  obtained  with 
any  assurance  that  they  are  correct.  Among 
those  who  occupied  this  position  in  the  days  of 
the  county's  infancy  were  George  Taylor,  F.  W. 
Perkins,  David  Stuart,  Park  Winans.  Moses 
Dupuis,  John  U.  Hofstetter  and  James  Mon- 
aghan.  These  gentlemen,  and  possibly  others, 
presided  over  the  destinies  of  the  Stevens  county 
schools  from  the  formation  of  the  county  in 
i860  to,  187s,  but  the  dates  of  their  incumbency 
cannot  be  obtained. 



To  Mr.  Francis  Wolff,  who  came  to  Stevens 
county  in  1856  and  who  for  nearly  50  years 
has  been  identified  with  its  growth,  many 
years  in  an  official  capacity,  we  are  under  obli- 
gations for  data  in  regard  to  the  schools  of  the 
county  in  the  pioneer  days.  Mr.  Wolff  informs 
us  that  the  first  institution  of  learning  in 
Stevens  county  was  established  in  the  year 
1856.  At  that  time  Angus  McDonald,  who  was 
head  trader  for  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  at 
Fort  Colville  (Kettle  Falls),  established  a 
private  school.  His  primary  object  was  the 
education  of  his  own  children,  but  several 
others  also  took  advantage  of  the  school,  prin- 
cipally children  of  the  employes  at  the  fort. 
A  teacher  was  hired  by  Mr.  ^IcDonald  and  for 
several  years  the  school  was  maintained. 

The  first  public  school  established  in  the 
county  was  at  Pinkney  City  in  1862.  The 
court  room  in  the  county  building  was  used  for 
a  school  room  and  the  first  teacher  was  Mr. 
Boody,  who  conducted  the  school  two  terms. 
Mr.  Boody  is  described  as  a  first-class 
instructor  "of  the  old  school,"  and  conducted 
the  county's  first  institution  of  learning  in  a 
manner  satisfactory  to  all  the  patrons.  There 
were  18  or  19  scholars  in  attendance  at  the 
first  term.  After  Mr.  Boody  retired  from  the 
management  of  the  school  others  took  up  the 
work  and  there  never  was  a  suspension  after 
its  establishment. 

The  first  person  to  occupy  the  office  of 
county  supereintendent  of  schools  was  George 
Taylor.  His  incumbency  appears  to  have  been 
of  short  duration  and  unsatisfactory,  as  we  find 
that  at  a  meeting  of  the  board  of  county  com- 
missioners held  on  January  15,  1863,  he  and 
F.  W.  Perkins  appeared  before  the  board  to 
contest  the  office  of  school  superintendent. 
They  both  made  their  plea  and  the  board  de- 
cided that  Mr.  Perkins  was  the  county  school 
superintendent,  "because  George  Taylor  had 
voluntarily   left  the   county,    had   never   made 

any  report  to  the  board,  and  was  not  in  the 
county  to  report  at  their  May  term  in  1862." 

Mr.  Perkins  then  presented  a  report  of 
what  he,  as  school  superintendent,  had  done, 
accompanied  by  maps.  The  report  was 
accepted  and  the  maps  approved.  The  board 
urged  Mr.  Perkins  to  advance  the  cause  of 
education  by  establishing  schools  in  all  the 
districts  of  the  valley  of  the  Colville. 

The  superintendent  found  that  owing  to 
the  thinly  settled  condition  of  the  valley  he 
would  not  be  justified  in  establishing  more 
schools,  and  so  stated  in  his  report  to  the  com- 
misssioners  at  their  meeting  on  November  2, 
1863.  He  further  advised  that  the  school  fund 
be  appropriated  to  the  building  of  a  jail,  as  no 
schools  were  wished  for  by  the  people  of  the 
valley.  This  the  commissioners  did,  and  it  was 
not  until  1872,  during  the  incumbency  of  Moses 
Dupuis  as  county  superintendenet,  that  this 
fund  reverted  to  the  use  of  the  schools. 

For  a  number  of  years  the  school  at  Pinkney 
City  was  the  only  public  school  in  all  the  vast 
territory  first  known  as  Spokane  county,  but 
later  as  Stevens  county.  This  was  the  only 
educational  institution  within  a  radius  of 
hundreds  of  miles.  Pinkney  City  was  the  politi- 
cal and  educational  center  of  a  territory  larger 
than  most  of  the  eastern  states.  In  1864  or 
J  865  the  county's  second  school  was  established. 
Quite  a  settlement  had  sprung  up  in  the  vicinity 
of  Chewelah  (then  written  Cha-we-lah)  and 
a  school  was  established  there  l)y  the  county 
superintendent.  ]\Iiss  Mary  Brown  being 
employed  as  teacher. 

The  next  school  established  was  a  private 
one  under  the  supervision  of  Father  Militry. 
The  father  in  1865  petitioned  the  board  of 
C(?unty  commissioners  for  permission  to  open  a 
ijrivate  school.  He  was  informed  that  the 
school  fund  could  not  be  used  for  any  other 
purpose  than  that  of  paying  masters,  or  pur- 
chasing libraries  and  instruments,  but  he  was 



advised  to  open  a  subscription  to  build  the 
buildings  and  that  the  county  would  petition 
the  legislature  for  the  right  to  use  the  fund  for 
the  benefit  of  the  school.  Whether  or  not 
Father  Militry  received  any  county  or  ter- 
ritorial aid  is  not  a  matter  of  record.  At  any 
rate  that  same  year  he  established  the  school 
and  it  continued  in  existence  two  or  three 
j'ears.  The  school  was  held  at  the  Catholic 
mission  near  Pinkney  City  and  was  taught  by 
the  four  sisters  at  the  mission,  who  adopted 
this  occupation  as  a  means  of  support. 

Two  years  after  the  beginning  of  the 
school  at  Chewelah  a  new  district  was  formed 
and  the  third  public  school  of  the  county  was 
established  at  Marcus.  During  the  next  decade 
the  growth  of  schools  in  the  county  was  slow, 
for  at  the  beginning  of  the  year  1876  we  find 
that  there  were  but  seven  public  institutions 
of  learning. 

On  January  8,  1864,  upon  the  recommenda- 
tion of  School  Superintendent  F.  W.  Perkins, 
before  referred  to,  the  commissioners  took 
from  the  schol  fund  $600  with  which  to  build 
a  jail.  But  this  was  not  the  only  money  appro- 
priated from  the  school  fund  by  the  commis- 
sioners for  other  purposes  than  that  of  the 
maintenance  of  the  schools.  On  December  5, 
1865,  $444  was  taken  and  used  for  other 
purposes.  On  July  i,  1869,  the  commissioners 
appropriated  the  sum  of  $332  from  the  same 
fund  with  which  to  build  county  roads.  In 
1872,  when  Moses  Dupuis  became  school 
superintendent,  he  demanded  of  the  commis- 
sioners that  they  turn  over  these  different 
amounts  to  him  for  school  purposes,  together 
with  accrued  interest  at  ten  per  cent.  The  total 
amount  of  the  principal  and  interest  at  the  date 
of  his  demand,  May  8,  1872,  was  $2254.97. 
At  the  August  meeting  of  the  board  this  matter 
was  taken  up  for  consideration,  and  the  amount 
of  the  principal,  $1376.00,  was  ordered  trans- 
ferrred  to  the  school  fund.  The  auditor  was 
instructed  to  draw  54  county  orders  in  the  sum 

of  $25  each  and  one  order  in  the  sum  of  $26, 
payable  to  the  superintendent  of  schools,  and 
to  place  the  orders  in  the  hands  of  the  county 
treasurer  to  be  credited  to  the  school  fund  and 
subject  to  apportionment  by  Mr.  Dupuis.  Thus 
the  moneys,  which  had  been  irregularly  taken 
from  the  school  fund  in  the  earlier  days  when 
there  was  very  little  need  for  them,  were 
restored,  and  Mr.  Dupuis  was  enabled  to  do 
much  good  in  the  establishment  of  new  schools 
in  the  county. 

Mr.  John  Rickey  tells  some  pretty  good 
stories  to  illustrate  how  the  county's  educational 
matters  were  conducted  in  the  early  days  when 
the  pupils  were  few  and  far  between  and  when 
the  school  funds  were  being  used  to  build  jails 
and  county  roads  and  the  school  superintendents 
had  to  fight  for  these  funds.  Among  the  early 
superintendents  was  John  U.  Hofstetter,  who 
has  been  identified  with  the  history  making  of 
Stevens  county  from  its  organization  to  the 
present  time.  Mr.  Rickey  is  authority  for  the 
statement  that  one  day  during  the  incumbency 
of  Mr.  Hofstetter,  Father  Grassi,  a  Catholic 
priest,  came  to  the  county  seat  to  take  a  teacher's 
examination  from  the  superintendent.  The 
father  made  his  mission  known  to  ^Ir. 

"Well,"  said  the  superintendent,  "you  know 
how  to  teach,  don't  you." 

The  priest  replied  that  he  thought  he  did. 
but  that  he  belie\-ed  it  was  customary  for  the 
school  superintendent  to  ascertain  this  fact 
Ijefore  the  teacher  was  allowed  to  enter  his 

"Well,  vou  must  know  more  about  school 
matters  than  I  do." 

"I  do  not  know  that  I  do."  replied  the 

"If  you  hold  to  that  assertion.  Father  Grassi, 
I  cannot  issue  you  a  certificate  to  teach." 

The  candidate  for  a  teacher's  certificate 
took  the  matter  under  advisement,  reconsidered 
his  former  staten-.ent,  and  finally  admitted  that 



perhaps  he  was  better  informed  in  the  matter 
of  instructing  the  young  than  the  superinten- 
dent, whereupon  Mr.  Hofstetter  issued  the 
certificate  without  further  examination. 

Another  of  Mr.  Ricke)-'s  stories  is  to  the  ef- 
fect that  one  day,  during  the  reign  of  Mr.  James 
Monaghan  as  superintendent,  that  gentleman 
had  occasion  to  make  a  trip  to  Walla  Walla. 
He  had  progressed  but  a  few  miles  on  his 
journey  from  Fort  Colville  when  he  met  a 
young  man  named  Spangle  who  inquired  of 
Mr.  Monaghan  the  way  to  the  county  seat. 
Upon  being  informed  the  young  man  asked  if 
he  knew  the  superintendent  of  schools,  stating 
that  he  was  on  his  way  to  Fort  Colville  to  take 
a  teacher's  examination.  Mr.  Monaghan 
introduced  himself  and  proceeded  to  give  the 
young  man  an  examination. 

"What  per  cent  of  the  earth's  surface  is  land 
and  what  per  cent  water?"  asked  the  superin- 

The  question  was  answered  correctly. 

"What  positions  on  the  map  do  the  direc- 
tions north,  south,  east  and  west  occupy?"  was 
the  r.ext  question. 

This  was  also  answered  to  the  satisfaction 
of  the  superintendent,  and  he  at  once  pro- 
ceeded to  fill  out  a  blank  certificate  he  had  with 
him  authorizing  Mr.  Spangle  to  teach  in  the 
county.  Mr.  Monaghan  then  proceeded  on  his 
way  to  Walla  Walla,  the  newly  made  teacher 
accompanying  him  as  far  as  his  home  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  county. 

The  report  of  County  Superintendent 
James  Monaghan  for  the  year  ending  December 
31,  1875,  is  the  earliest  report  in  anything  like 
a  complete  form,  and  proves  interesting  from 
the  fact  that  it  gives  a  clear  idea  of  the  condi- 
tions of  the  county  schools  at  that  early  date. 
From  Mr.  Monaghan's  report  we  learn  that 
there  were  319  scholars  in  the  county  and  that 
of  this  number  105  attended  school.  There 
were  five  school  houses  in  the  county,  but  seven 
schools  were  maintained  during  the  year.     For 

the  maintenance  of  these  schools  $850.57  was 
apportioned  by  the  county  and  $94.49  was 
raised  by  subscription.  The  report  further 
states  that  $945  was  paid  to  teachers,  which 
left  a  balance  of  six  cents  for  the  other  running 
expenses  of  the  schools. 

Mr.  Monaghan  further  reported  as  follows 
concerning  the  schools: 

"The  principal  books  used  are  Sanders' 
series  and  Davis'  geography.  Branches  taught 
are  reading,  writing,  spelling,  grammar,  geogra- 
phy, arithmetic  and  history.  Some  of  the  dis- 
tricts are  so  thinly  settled  and  the  school  fund 
so  small  that  it  is  difficult  to  give  all  the  chil- 
dren the  advantage  of  the  public  schools,  hence 
the  small  attendance  of  scholars.  But  the  de- 
sire to  promote  the  cause  of  education  is  steadily 
growing  stronger  amongst  the  people  of  the 
county,  and  there  appears  to  be  a  disposition 
at  present  to  increase  the  school  fund  by  private 
contributions  and  special  taxes,  especially  in 
the  sparsely  settled  districts,  that  will,  if  per- 
se\-ered  in,  give  better  facilities  for  all  the  chil- 
dren to  attend  school  than  at  present  exist.  I 
have  prepared  a  school  map  of  the  county  with 
district  boundaries  plainly  defined  in  the  alter- 
ing of  boundaries  and  establishing  new  dis- 
tricts. I  have  to  the  best  of  my  ability  arranged 
the  lines  for  the  benefit  of  all  the  scholars  re- 
siding in  the  county.  I  would  respectfully  call 
your  attention  to  section  7,  page  424,  school 
law  of  1873,  requiring  county  superintendents 
to  visit  all  the  schools  in  the  county  once  a  year, 
and  state  that  there  is  no  provision  requiring 
clerks  or  directors  to  notify  the  superintendent 
during  the  time  the  schools  are  going  on.  In 
a  county  like  this,  having  a  large  territory  and 
very  little  mail  facilities,  it  is  difficult  to  know 
when  a  school  in  a  remote  district  is  in  active 
operation.  I  have  the  honor  to  be,  very  re- 

"Your  obedient  servant, 

"J.  Monaghan,  Supt." 

For    the    next    16    years  no    records    are 



obtainable  in  regard  to  the  school  system.  From 
the  report  of  Thomas  Nagle  for  the  year  ending 
June  30,  1 89 1,  we  leani  that  during  these  years 
the  schools  increased  from  seven  to  35,  and  the 
number  of  scholars  attending  from  105  to  743. 
Where  there  were  live  school  buildings  in  1875, 
we  now  find  23. 

In  his  report  to  the  superintendent  of  public 
instruction  of  Washington,  Mr.  Nagle  says : 

"Owing  to  the  fact  that  many  of  the  district 
clerks  have  made  incomplete  reports,  I  find  it 
impossible  to  make  mine  complete.  No  superin- 
tendent of  schools  can  live  on  $350  a  year. 
This  office  requires  all  of  the  superintendent's 
time  and  attention  in  this  county  and  the 
mileage  and  other  fees  will  not  pay  traveling 
expenses.  I  have  formed  ten  new  districts 
and  in  doing  so  was  compelled  to  travel  500 

During  the  school  year  1891  there  were  in 
the  county  1557  children  of  school  age,  and  less 
than  half  of  these,  743,  were  enrolled  in  the 
public  schools,  the  average  daily  attendance 
being  444.  Ninety-six  resident  pupils  were 
students  at  private  schools. 

There  were  28  teachers  employed  during 
the  year.  None  of  these  held  state  or  ter- 
ritorial certificates  or  diplomas :  three  were 
accorded  with  having  first  grade  county  certifi- 
cates; sixteen  had  second  grade  county  certifi- 
cates and  nine  third  grade.  The  average 
monthly  salary  paid  male  teachers  was  $46.76, 
and  female  teachers  received  an  average  salary 
of  $46. 

Mr.  Nagle  estimated  the  value  of  school 
property  at  this  time  to  be  $10,298,  divided  as 
follows :  School  houses  and  grounds.  $8,620 ; 
school  furniture,  $1,098;  apparatus,  maps, 
charts,  etc,  $571.  There  were  no  school 
libraries  in  the  county  and  only  two  of  the 
districts  were  the  possessors  of  unabridged 

.\t  the  time  of  the  report  there  was  $5,000 
in  school  bonds  outstanding,  and  the  average 

amount  of  interest  paid  on  these  was  8  per  cent. 
No  insurance  was  carried  on  any  of  the  school 

There  were  35  districts  in  Stevens  county  in 
1 89 1  and  school  was  maintained  in  all  of  them. 
On  an  average  school  was  held  loi  days  during 
the  year,  and  of  the  35  districts  28  held  school 
at  least  three  months  during  the  year.  There 
was  one  graded  school.  Two  private  schools, 
employing  three  teachers,  were  in  existence. 

An  interesting  item  in  this  report  is  in 
regard  to  the  school  houses.  There  were  23 
in  the  county  and  of  these  14  were  log  struc- 
tures, eight  frame  and  one  brick.  Nine  school 
houses  had  been  built  during  the  year — six 
log,  two  frame  and  one  brick.  With  the 
erection  of  these  nine  buildings  during  the  year, 
there  were  still  12  districts  which  were  not 
supplied  with  buildings.  At  this  time  there  was 
only  one  district  in  the  county  having  a  bonded 

Mr.  Nagle  reports  that  he  organized  14 
new  districts  during  the  past  year  and  paid  90 
visits  to  the  schools  of  the  county  in  an  official 
capacity,  these  visits  including  all  but  four  of 
the  districts.  The  superintendent  stated  that 
none  of  the  districts  were  well  supplied  with 
apparatus  and  that  there  were  no  teachers' 
associations  maintained  in  the  county.  The 
following  financial  exhibit  was  included  in  the 
report  to  the  state  superintendent  of  schools: 


Balance  on  hand  in  the  county  treasury  June  30, 

1890,  to  the  credit  of  school  districts $  2,410  06 

Amount     apportioned    to     districts    by     county 

superintendent    9-499  7t> 

.Amount  received  from  special  tax 3-493  03 

Total   $15-40.2  85 


Total  amount  paid  out  during  the  year $1 1,632  81 

Balance  on  hand  June  3,  1891 3-7/0  04 

Total    $15-402  85 

.\  number  of  institutions  of  higher  learning' 



have  been  established  in  Stevens  county  during 
the  past  ten  years.  Some  of  these  met  with 
flattering  success  for  a  time,  being  well  patron- 
ized by  students  and  in  a  financial  way,  but 
most  of  them  in  time  were  abandoned  for  lack 
of  funds. 

One  of  the  earliest  of  these  institutions  was 
the  Rochester  academy  at  Kettle  Falls,  which 
was  established  in  the  fall  of  1893.  The  Rev. 
Thomas  M.  Gunn,  of  Spokane,  synodical  mis- 
sionary of  the  Presbyterian  church,  was  the 
fiiunder.  A  committee  of  Spokane  gentlemen 
had  been  appointed  to  visit  the  town  of  Kettle 
Falls  and  inquire  into  the  feasibility  of  estab- 
lishing an  academy  at  that  place,  but  doubting 
the  advisibility  of  the  move,  the  committee 
declined  to  go.  This  aroused  the  reverend 
gentleman's  mettle  and  he  came  to  Kettle  Falls 
on  his  own  responsibility,  formed  a  stock  com- 
pany of  Kettle  Falls  people  and  in  a  very  short 
time  had  forwarded  to  the  secretary  of  state  the 
articles  of  incorporation  for  the  Rochester 
academy  of  Kettle  Falls.  Those  who  interested 
themselves  in  the  enterprise  with  Rev.  Gunn 
as  incorporators  were  L.  C.  P.  Haskins,  C.  A. 
Phipps,  J.  J.  Budd,  P.  M.  Hacking  and  C.  H. 
Nelson,  all  of  Kettle  Falls.  Any  resident  of 
the  town  who  should  contribute  $100,  or  its 
equivalent,  and  comply  with  certain  other  con- 
ditions, was  entitled  to  membership. 

The  Hotel  Rochester,  a  62  room  building, 
■was  purchased  for  the  use  of  the  academy,  and 
on  November  27,  1893,  the  academy  opened 
with  50  scholars.  The  school  was  maintained 
as  a  christian  school  of  learning  for  the  educa- 
tion of  the  young  of  both  sexes  in  all  the 
English  branches,  sciences,  bookkeeping,  com- 
mercial law,  typewriting,  shorthand  and  the 

The  officers  of  the  institution  were  C.  A. 
Phipps.  president:  L.  C.  P.  Haskins,  secre- 
tary; J.  J.  Budd,  treasurer;  The  school  was 
conducted  under  Dr.  Gunn's  personal  care,  as 
financial  agent  and  adviser,  and  he  had  associ- 

ated with  him  as  instructors  William  Chalmers 
Gunn,  A.  B.,  professor  of  classics  and  sciences ; 
J.  M.  Powell,  A.  M.,  M.  D.,  professor  of 
English  and  penmanship;  and  a  competent 
matron  in  charge  of  the  girls'  dormitory. 
Pupils  were  received  at  any  time  and  board, 
room  and  tuition  were  provided  at  the  remark- 
ably low  figure  of  $20  per  month. 

After  continuing  for  a  period  of  one  year 
the  Rochester  academy,  owing  to  a  lack  of 
support,  was  discontinued. 

Considerable  improvement  was  noted  in  the 
condition  of  the  public  schools  of  Stevens 
county  during  the  year  1894,  notwithstanding 
the  prevailing  hard  times.  M.  B.  Grieve  was 
county  superintendent  during  1893  ^nd  1894 
and  in  his  report  for  the  latter  year  he  said  that 
there  had  been  more  than  the  usual  interest 
taken  in  the  schools  by  parents,  pupils  and 
officers,  and  the  average  school  term  increased 
from  3M  months  to  4%  months.  The  districts 
were  supplied  with  better  school  houses,  furni- 
ture and  apparatus,  and  a  better  grade  of 
teachers  were  employed  than  formerly.  Mr. 
Grieve  stated  that  the  only  thing  lacking  was 
money.  Five  new  districts  were  organized 
during  the  year  and  17  school  houses  were 

In  1895  there  was  established  in  Colville 
a  school  known  as  the  Northeastern  A\''ash- 
ington  academy.  A  stock  company  composed 
of  Colville  people,  and  of  whom  Prof.  Pickerell 
and  C.  M.  Durland  were  the  principal  stock- 
holders, was  formed.  A  commercial  course 
was  taught,  embracing  shorthand,  bookkeeping 
and  commercial  law. 

On  Monday  morning,  April  8,  the  first 
term  was  begun,  the  Colville  public  school 
building  being  the  temporary  home  of  the 
academy.  Thirty-five  scholars  were  present  on 
the  opening  day  and  the  attendance  rapidly 
increased  until  70  students  were  in  regular 
attendance.  Beginning  the  school  at  this  season 
of  the  year  was  a  "trial  trip,"  but  the  prospects 


seemed  bright  for  the  success  of  the  academy. 
A  tuition  fee  of  $2  per  month  was  fixed  for  all 
the  branches  taught.  Prof  Pickerell,  who 
graduated  from  the  Uuiversity  at  Valparaiso, 
Ind.,  in  1888,  and  who  for  some  time  was 
principal  of  the  Colville  public  schools,  became 
the  principal  of  the  new  schools,  and  had 
associated  with  him  as  instructors  C.  M. 
Durland  and  Mrs.  Tolton. 

Shortly  after  the  opening  of  the  North- 
eastern Washington  academy  the  third  of  the 
Rickey  block  was  secured  for  school  purposes. 
Notwithstanding  the  bright  prospects  of  the 
school  at  the  start,  the  venture  proved  a  losing 
investment  to  its  promoters  and  in  1896,  after 
one  year  of  life,  it  was  discontinued,  and  the 
school  furniture  and  apparatus  was  purchased 
by  the  Eells  academy,  which  was  organized 
the  following  year. 

The  "hard  times"  seriously  hampered  the 
public  schools  of  Stevens  county.  County 
Superintendent  O.  J.  Smith,  in  his  report  for 

1895.  says  in  part:  "The  greatest  drawback 
is  the  large  amount  of  delinquent  taxes,  occa- 
sioned by  the  financial  depression,  and  the 
consequent  shortage  of  funds.  With  72 
districts  in  the  county,  68  maintaining  school 
last  year,  we  received  but  $7,307.98  from  the 
general  fund  for  the  year  just  closed." 

Pephaps  the  most  important  of  the  private 
schools  that  have  been  established  in  Stevens 
county  was  Eells  academy  at  Colville,  and  its 
history  is  well  worth  considering  at  some  length. 
In  1896  there  was  no  high  school  in  Stevens 
county,  and  it  was  due  to  the  fact  that  the 
young  people  could  not  receive  better  than  a 
common  school  education  in  the  county  that 
the  institution  was  founded. 

The  first  movement  toward  the  establish- 
ment of  the  academy  was  made  on  March  25, 

1896.  Rev.  A.  J.  Bailey  of  Seattle,  Rev.  T.  W. 
Walters  of  Colfax,  Rev.  William  Davies  and 
Rev.  E.  J.  Singer  of  Spokane,  all  Congrega- 
tional ministers,  met  in  Colville  with  Rev.  T. 

G.  Lewis,  pastor  of  the  Congregational  church, 
for  the  purpose  of  holding  a  fellowship  meeting. 
A  large  congregation  was  at  the  meeting,  where 
eloquent  addresses  were  made  by  the  clergymen 
and  animated  speeches  by  the  citizens,  in  which 
the  crying  need  of  a  high  school  for  the  young 
people  of  the  county  was  declared.  That 
evening  is  was  decided  to  found  a  christian 
institution  at  Colville  under  the  auspices  of 
the  Congregational  society. 

No  time  was  lost  in  carrying  out  the 
decision  of  the  gentlemen  who  were  so  enthusi- 
astic in  the  matter  and  the  following  morning  a 
meeting  was  held  at  which  the  trustees,  advisory 
board  and  building  committee  were  appointed. 
It  was  decided  to  name  the  institution  Eells 
academy  in  honor  of  Cushman  Eells,  known  so 
well  and  respected  so  highl)'  throughout  the 
valley.  One  thousand,  two  hundred  and  thirty- 
seven  dollars,  including  work  and  material,  was 
immediately  subscribed  for  the  erection  of  the 
school  building.  John  U.  Hofstetter  and  L.  J. 
Wolfard  generously  gave  the  building  site, 
over  three  acres  of  land  beautifully  situated 
on  the  hillside  in  the  western  part  of  the  town 
of  Colville.  On  the  4th  day  of  October,  1896, 
Eells  Academy  opened  with  about  twenty 
pupils  and  three  teachers.  E.  S.  Woodcock 
was  principal.  Miss  Boss  assistant  and  Miss 
Cobleigh  musical  instructor.  For  the  first  two 
terms  the  school  was  held  in  the  two  lower  floors 
of  the  Colville  hotel  building.  They  were  not 
at  all  adapted  to  school  purposes,  consequently 
most  uncomfortable  and  inconvenient.  This 
was  a  trying  period  for  Eells"  Academy  and  it 
was  often  referred  to  in  after  years  as  the 
"Valley  Forge"  of  that  institution.  For  the 
beginning  of  the  spring  term  of  the  second  year 
the  academy  building  was  completed.  Miss 
Boss  resigned  her  position  and  the  vacancy  was 
filled  by  Mr.  Howard.  In  October,  1897, 
another  change  took  place  in  the  school.  Mr. 
Davis  assumed  charge  of  the  academy  and  was 
assisted  by  Mr.  Kieman. 



With  the  opening  of  school  October  6, 
there  were  enrolled  only  thirteen  pupils,  but 
during  the  winter  term  method  classes  were 
originated  for  the  benefit  of  teachers,  and 
several  of  the  best  instructors  of  the  county 
availed  themselves  of  the  opportunity,  and  the 
enrollment  reached  forty-six.  In  the  spring 
the  attendance  became  lighter.  Thus  the  school 
founded  in  honor  of  that  venerable  preacher 
and  educator,  "Father"  Eells,  struggled  on  for 
four  years  to  its  first  commencement.  Tuesday 
evening,  June  12,  1900,  marked  the  close  of  the 
first  four  years  of  the  Eells  Academy  work. 
A  class  of  four,  the  Misses  Flora  Aimee  Dingle 
and  Charlotte  Rosaline  Wolff  in  the  scientific 
course,  and  George  Stitzel  Backus  and  David 
Hughes  Lewis  in  the  special  course,  having 
completed  the  studies  prescribed,  were  grad- 
uated with  the  highest  honors. 

The  next  year  was  a  trying  one  for  Eells 
Academy.  Debts  were  piling  up  and  the  pros- 
pect was  not  bright  for  the  academy's  contin- 
uance. Heretofore  the  citizens  of  Colville  and 
vicinity  had  subscribed  various  amounts  to 
make  up  deficiencies  in  the  finances  of  the 
school.  This  year  the  local  members  of  the 
board  individually  resolved  to  close  the  academy 
and  dispose  of  the  property  to  the  school 
district  unless  the  academy  was  accorded  some 
substantial  aid  from  abroad.  A  meeting  was 
held  in  July,  1901,  by  the  trustees  and  it  was 
finally  decided  to  continue  the  school.  In  one 
week  funds  were  subscribed  to  pay  off  the 
indebtedness,  and  it  was  decided  to  open  the 
academy  in  September.  S.  B.  L.  Penrose, 
president  of  Whitman  College,  was  made  a 
member  of  the  board  of  trustees,  as  was  also 
Jerry  Cooney,  of  Springdale.  With  the  assur- 
ance of  active  outside  interest  in  the  welfare  of 
Eells  Academy  the  outlook  at  the  beginning  of 
the  September  term,  in  1901,  was  better  than 
at  any  time  since  the  institution  was  established. 
At  the  head  of  the  institution  during  the  last 

year  of  its  life  were  Mr.  Dow,  a  graduate  of 
Oberlin,  and  Mr.  Rode,  who  had  been  grad- 
uated from  an  Illinois  college  and  taken  his 
A.  M.  degree  at  Columbia.  They  worked  hard 
for  the  school  at  great  personal  sacrifice  and  did 
much  to  maintain  the  high  standard  of  excel- 
lence of  the  school. 

During  the  fall  and  winter  of  1901  efforts 
were  made  to  secure  aid  for  the  school  from 
the  Congregational  Educational  Society  of 
Boston,  and  from  the  churches  of  eastern  Wa;sh- 
ington.  A  meeting  of  importance  to  the  future 
of  '  the  academy  was  held  in  Spokane  in 
December.  There  were  present  Revs.  George 
R.  Wallace,  F.  W.  Walters,  F.  V.  Hoyt  and 
Clarence  Ross  Gale,  of  Spokane,  Rev.  S.  G. 
Krause,  of  Hillyard,  Rev.  J.  Owens,  of  Mullan, 
Idaho,  W.  H.  Short,  of  Deer  Park,  S.  B.  L. 
Penrose,  of  Walla  Walla,  and  J.  T.  Percival, 
of  Spokane.  The  situation  and  prospects  were 
discussed  and  a  memorial  was  drawn  up  and 
signed  calling  upon  the  Congregational  Educa- 
tional Society  and  the  churches  of  eastern 
Washington  to  come  to  the  aid  of  the  academy. 
Some  assistance  was  received  but  not  sufficient 
to  warrant  a  continuance  of  the  school,  and  it 
was  closed. 

At  a  special  meeting  held  in  Colville  and 
district  36,  north  of  that  city  in  April,  1902, 
the  proposition  of  forming  a  union  high  school 
carried.  Colville  also  voted  to  purchase  the 
property  of  Eells  Academy,  including  about 
three  acres  of  land,  the  two-story  frame  scho6l 
building,  library,  school  furniture,  etc.  Thus 
after  six  years  of  the  hardest  kind  of  a  struggle 
Eells  Academy  went  under.  The  people  of 
Colville  loyally  supported  the  institution  from 
first  to  last  and  many  of  the  instructors  per- 
formed their  duties  at  great  personal  sacri- 
fice. With  commensurate  assistance  from  out- 
side sources  the  school  would  have  been  an 
institution  to  point  to  with  pride. 

The  year   1897  witnessed  greater  activity 



in  educational  matters  in  Stevens  county  than 
for  many  years.  Bossburg  and  Northport 
fuund  it  necessary  to  build  new  .school  houses 
on  account  of  increased  patronage,  and  for  the 
same  reason  the  capacity  of  the  Colville  public 
schools  was  doubled.  The  Eells  Academy 
reopened  under  a  new  management  that  year, 
and  all  over  the  county  interest  in  educational 
matters  was  manifest.  Another  academy  was 
established  in  Stevens  county  in  1898.  The 
Columbia  Academy,  an  Adventist  school, 
opened  its  doors  at  Kettle  Falls  that  year.  A 
building  combining  a  church  and  school  was 
erected  and  for  four  years  the  school  continued. 
During  the  first  two  years  the  attendance  was 
light,  Ixit  later  the  school  met  with  better 
success  and  there  was  a  liberal  attendance. 
Miss  P.eith  was  principal  in  1899,  I.  C.  Colcord 
in  1900  and  James  Barclay  in  1901. 

:\Iay  iS,  1900,  was  the  date  of  the  fiirst 
commencement  ever  held  in  Stevens  county. 
At  that  time  a  class  of  fourteen  completed  the 
grammar  school  work  of  the  Colville  public 
school,  and  were  presented  their  diplomas. 
The  salutatory  address  was  given  by  Miss  Mary 
Surig,  and  George  Zent  delivered  the  valedic- 
tory address.  The  same  year  witnessed  the 
establishment  of  the  first  high  school  in  the 
county.  Colville  has  the  honor  of  being  the 
initial  town  to  organize  a  school  in  which  were 
taught  higher  branches  than  the  common 
school  afford.  Only  the  first  year's  course  of 
high  school  work  was  established  at  the  time, 
but  later  a  second  years'  course  was  added. 

The  report  of  County  Superintendent  W. 
L.  Sax  for  the  school  year  ending  June  30, 
1903,  contains  many  items  of  interest  in  regard 
to  the  standing  of  the  public  schools  of  Stevens 
county  at  the  present  time.  The  total  number 
of  children  between  the  ages  of  five  and  twenty- 
one  years  residing  in  the  county  was  4,483,  and 
of  this  number  3,743  were  enrolled  in  the 
county's  schools,  the  average  daily  attendance 
being  2,289.     On  an  average  school  was  main- 

tained six  and  one-quarter  months  during  the 
year.  One  hundred  and  twenty  teachers  were 
employed.  The  average  monthly  salary  of 
male  teachers  was  $51.50;  female,  $48.75. 
During  the  year  eighty-five  pupils  were  grad- 
uated from  the  common  schools  of  the  county. 
Two  log  and  seven  frame  school  houses  were 
built  during  the  year;  making  a  total  in  the 
county  of  ninety-four — twenty-seven  log  struc- 
tures and  sixty-five  frame  and  two  brick.  The 
estimated  value  of  these  buildings,  including 
the  grounds,  is  $53,055,  and  they  have  a  seating 
capacity  of  4,058.  Mr.  Sax  estimates  the  value 
of  all  the  county's  school  property,  including 
buildings,  grounds,  furniture,  apparatus,  maps, 
charts,  libraries,  etc.,  at  $71,605,  and  the  prop- 
erty is  covered  by  insurance  to  an  amount  of 

There  are  at  this  date  107  school  districts 
in  the  county,  of  which  ele\fen  were  organized 
during  the  past  year.  Six  of  these  districts, 
furnish  free  text-books  to  the  scholars.  Thir- 
teen of  the  districts  have  no  school  houses.  The 
number  of  teachers  that  would  be  required  to 
conduct  all  the  schools  of  the  county,  were  they 
in  session  at  the  same  time,  is  one  hundred  and 
twenty-six.  Four  of  the  county's  instructors 
hold  state  certificates,  eight  have  elementary  cer- 
tificates from  the  normal  department  of  the 
State  University,  twelve  have  first  grade  county 
certificates,  thirty-six  second  grade  and  twenty- 
one  third  grade.  The  following  is  an  exhibit 
of  the  schools'  finances  for  the  year  ending 
June  30,  1903 : 


Balance   in  hands   of   county   treasurer  July    I, 

1902,  to  credit  of  school  districts $24,901  8i 

Amount  apportioned  to  districts  by  county  sup- 
erintendent— state  funds 32,873  34 

Apportioned  from  county  funds 5,771  39 

Amount    received    from    roads    having    special 

levy   18,142  02 

.\mount  received  from  sale  of  bonds 5,300  00 

.\mount   received   from   others    sources i, 443  93 

Total   $88,432  49 



Teachers  wages   $28,592  30 

Rents,  repairs,  fuel,  etc 6,460  35 

Sites,  buildings,  furniture,  apparatus,  libraries  11,978  78 

Interest  on  bonds   2,276  62 

Interest  on  warrants   1,920  93 

Redemption  of  bonds  3,400  00 

Amount    on    all    other    funds    paid,    including 

funds  transferred  to  other  districts 683  25 

Total  paid  out  SS,3i2  23 

Balance  on  hand  June  30,  1903 33,120  26 

Total   $88,432  49 

Graded  schools  are  maintained  at  Colville, 
Springdale,  Chewelah,  Northport,  Newport, 
Kettle  Falls  and  Meyers  Falls.  At  Colville  on 
September  3,  1900,  the  first  high  school  in  the 
county  began.  Only  the  ninth  grade  was  or- 
ganized at  that  time,  but  later  the  tenth,  or 
second  year  in  the  high  school,  was  added.  At 
Northport  and  Chewelah  the  first  year's  high 
school  course  is  maintained. 

The  first  teachers'  institute  convened  at  Col- 

ville on  July  9,  1890,  with  only  ten  teachers  in 
attendance.  Since  that  time  much  interest  has 
been  taken  in  these  training  schools  and  they 
have  come  to  be  considered  essentials  of  the 
teacher's  work.  Institutes  have  been  held  in 
1891,  1892,  1893,  1894,  1899,  1900,  1902  and 
1903.  During  the  past  few  years  there  has 
been  much  interest  taken  in  the  matter  of  school 
libraries.  As  late  as  1891  we  find  that  there 
was  not  a  school  in  the  county  supplied  with 
a  library.  In  fact  the  superintendent's  report 
for  that  year  states  that  there  were  but  two 
districts  in  the  county  having  unabridged  dic- 
tionaries. Since  that  time,  however,  there  have 
been  rapid  strides  in  the  way  of  procuring 
school  libraries.  We  find  that  in  1903  there  are 
2,059  volumes  in  the  libraries  of  Stevens 
county's  public  schools,  an  increase  of  594  vol- 
umes over  the  previous  year.  The  districts 
maintaining  the  largest  libraries  are  Colville, 
300;  White  Lake,  157;  Springdale,  107;  Union 
Falls,  150;  Bossburg,  109;  Northport,  108; 
Marcus,  116;  Clark's  Lake,  107. 







Stevens  county's  most  wealthy  and  influential 
stock  men  and  agriculturists  is  tlie  subject  of 
this  article.  He  is  also  one  of  tlie  earliest  pio- 
neers and  his  people  were  the  first  white  lamily 
to  settle  scuth  from  Chewelah.  Since  those 
early  days,  Mr.  Weatherwax  has  devoted  him- 
self steadily  to  business  and  has  been  blessed 
with  the  prosperity  that  belongs  to  industry  and 
wisdom.  He  located  a  squatter's  claim  on  a 
piece  of  land,  the  right  to  which  he  had  pur- 
chased from  the  last  settler  and  which  he  later 
homesteaded.  To  this  he  added  by  purchase 
until  he  now  has  seven  hundred  and  eighty  acres 
of  first  class  land.  Five  hundred  acres  of  this 
domain  are  laid  under  tribute  to  produce  grain 
and  hay  and  Mr.  Weatherwax  reaps  annually 
bounteous  crops.  His  farm  is  improved  in  a 
manner  commensurate  with  its  extent  and  he  is 
one  of  the  most  substantial  men  of  the  valley. 
He  handles  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  head  of 
cattle  each  year  and  now  has  one  hundred  head 
of  fine  thoroughbreds  and  grades. 

Henry  Weatherwax  was  born  in  Jackson, 
Michigan,  January  i8,  1846,  the  son  of  Henry 
and  Christiana  Weatherwax,  natives  of  New 
York  and  descendants  from  German  ancestors. 
They  were  the  parents  of  six  children  and  are 
now  deceased.  Their  children  are  Betsy,  Elsy, 
Mary  J.,  Caroline,  Robert  and  Henry.  Our 
subject  received  his  education  in  Michigan  and 
Illinois  and  when  a  lad  of  twelve  started  out 
to  meet  the  battles  of  life  alone.  At  the  be- 
ginning of  the  war  he  enlisted  in  Company  G, 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-ninth  Illinois  and 
among  other  campaigns,  participated  in  that  of 
General  Sherman's  march  to  the  sea.     In  this 

he  was  in  all  of  the  battles  that  occurred  as  well 
as  many  others.  In  1865  he  was  mustered  out 
at  Louisville,  Kentucky,  then  rented  land  in 
Illinios  until  1871.  In  that  year  he  went  to 
Kansas,  then  to  Nebraska,  and  freighted  to  the 
Black  Hills  and  Leadville.  Here  he  met  the 
noted  western  characters.  Wild  Bill,  Kit  Car- 
son and  Doc  Middleton.  Later  he  went  to  Wy- 
oming and  took  land  which  be  sold  and  then 
came  to  Washington.  The  year  of  this  last 
move  was  1882.  He  came  at  once  to  his  pres- 
ent place  and  located  as  stated  above,  and  since 
that  time  has  devoted  himself  assiduously  to 
farming  and  stock  raising. 

In  1866  Mr.  Weatherwax  married  Miss 
Anna  Anthony,  whose  parents  were  natives  of 
Ohio.  To  our  subject  and  his  wife  three  chil- 
dren have  been  born.  Julia,  Frank  and  Louis. 
Mr.  Weatherwax  is  a  life-long  Republican  and 
has  been  a  committeeman  ever  since  commg  to 
the  county.  He  has  also  served  in  various  in- 
fluential capacities,  among  which  may  be  men- 
tioned that  of  county  commissioner  in  1885. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  G.  A.  R.,  and  is  a  highly 
respected  and  honorable  man.  In  addition  to 
his  successful  labors,  of  which  mention  has 
been  made,  we  may  state  that  Mr.  Weatherwax 
has  done  much  good  in  introducing  fine  breeds 
of  stock,  and  in  the  excellent  management  of 
his  laree  estate  has  stimulated  others  in  this 

HENRY  KELLER  resides  about  two 
miles  south  from  Calispell.  In  addition  to  be- 
ing one  of  the  earliest  pioneers  of  the  valley, 
Mr.  Keller  is  at  the  present  time  one  of  the 

1 84 


heaviest  land  owners  and  is  a  leading  and 
prominent  citizen.  He  was  born  in  Jefferson 
county,  New  York,  on  February  24,  1835,  the 
son  of  Matthew  and  Catherine  (Zeinmerman) 
Keller,  natives  of  New  York.  In  1856  they 
moved  to  Dodge  county,  Minnesota,  where 
they  resided  for  twenty  years,  then  made  an- 
other move  to  South  Dakota.  Nine  chfldren, 
named  as  follo\\-s,  were  born  to  them,  Barbara 
A.,  Henry,  Mary,  James,  Benjamin  F.,  Dar- 
win, Isaac,  Betsey  and  George.  His  ancesters 
came  to  this  country  over  two  hundred  years 
ago  and  participated  in  the  struggle  for  inde- 
pendence. The  mother's  grandfather  was 
taken  prisoner  in  the  Revolution  and  suffered 
the  loss  of  his  scalp,  but  even  with  this  loss 

Our  subject  received  his  education  in  the 
common  and  select  schools.  At  the  age  of 
twenty-one  he  settled  on  government  land  in 
Minnesota  and  for  twenty-five  years  followed 
farming  and  threshing.  In  1862  he  enlisted  in 
the  Tenth  Minnesota  Volunteers  and  fought 
the  Indians  one  year,  then  went  south  and  con- 
tinued in  the  service  until  August  21,  1865, 
having  participated  in  many  battles,  among 
which  were  Mobile  and  Nashville.  He  was 
mustered  out  at  Fort  Snelling  and  carries  the 
mark  of  a  wound  received  on  his  head.  Fol- 
lowing the  war,  he  returned  to  agricultural  pur- 
suits and  also  became  interested  in  the  manu- 
facture of  cheese.  Later  he  was  employed  by  a 
harvester  company  in  Minneapolis,  after  which 
he  operated  a  summer  resort  at  Lake  Minne- 
tonka.  In  1886  Mr.  Keller  came  to  Spokane 
and  operated  a  meat  market  for  one  year.  It 
was  in  18S7  that  he  settled  on  his  present  place, 
put  up  a  large  amount  of  hay  and  shipped 
stock  clear  from  the  east.  From  that  time  until 
the  present  Mr.  Keller  has  devoted  himself  to 
the  related  industries  of  farming  and  dairying 
and  now  owns  four  hundred  acres  of  fine  land 
together  with  much  stock.  His  son  and  son-in- 
law  own  enough  land  adjoining  to  make  the 
sum  total  one  thousand  acres. 

In  1872  Mr.  Keller  married  Miss  Margaret 
Harper,  whose  parents  were  natives  of  Ireland. 
Mr.  Harper  is  dwelling  in  Illinois  and  is  about 
ninety  years  of  age.  The  following  children 
have  been  born  to  this  couple :  Bertha,  Roy  H. 
and  Nina. 

Mr.  Keller  is  a  stanch  Republican  and  cast 
his  first  vote  for  Abraham  Lincoln.     He  has 

always  taken  great  interest  in  the  affairs  of  his 
party  and  has  held  various  responsible  positions 
such  as  county  commissioner,  school  director, 
etc.  Mr.  Keller  is  a  member  of  the  A.  F. 
and  A.  M. 

RICHARD  P.  SCOTT,  who  has  spent  his 
entire  life  in  the  northwest  and  has  traveled 
through  and  operated  in  many  of  the  various 
mining  camps  in  this  vast  section,  is  a  man  of 
much  experience.  His  sterling  energy,  ag- 
gressiveness and  executive  ability  have  been 
manifested  in  many  ways  and  on  various  occa- 
sions. A  detailed  account  of  his  life  will  be  in- 
teresting to  our  readers. 

Richard  P.  Scott  was  born  in  Benton  coun- 
ty, Oregon,  on  May  7,  1859.  His  parents 
crossed  the  plains  in  1845  and  located  a  dona- 
tion claim  near  where  the  town  of  Corvallis. 
Oregon,  now  stands.  They  remained  there 
until  the  tune  of  their  death,  the  mother  pass- 
ing away  in  1888  and  the  father  in  1891.  They 
were  honorable  and  self  sacrificing  pioneers, 
and  had  passed  the  dangers  and  hardships  of 
that  life,  doing  much  to  develop  and  open  the 
country.  Thirteen  children  were  born  to  them, 
ten  of  whom  are  now  living  and  named  as  fol- 
lows:  John,  Frank,  Mary,  James,  Richard  P., 
Wilson,  Sarah,  Walter,  Edgar  and  Nye.  Dur- 
ing the  winter  months  of  his  early  life  Richard 
acquired  his  education  in  the  common  schools 
of  Benton  county,  while  the  summers  of  these 
years  were  spent  in  toil  with  his  father.  At  the 
tender  age  of  twelve  years  he  began  the  duties 
of  life  for  himself,  his  first  venture  being  work 
on  a  cow  ranch  in  Lake  county,  Oregon.  He 
was  there  during  the  Modoc  war  and  knew 
what  it  was  to  experience  the  trying  times  of 
those  early  days.  After  that  he  returned  to 
his  father's  farm  and  in  1881  came  to  the  vi- 
cinit}'  of  Rosalia,  Washington.  He  was  in  the 
first  excitement  in  the  Coeur  d'  Alenes,  later  re- 
turned to  the  Palouse  country  and  next 
searched  for  gold  in  the  Elk  City  district,  Ida- 
ho. After  this  we  find  him  in  the  Slocan  dis- 
trict, British  Columbia.  About  this  time  Mr. 
Scott  went  into  partnership  with  E.  T.  Bar- 
nett  and  took  a  raft  of  eight  thousand  feet  of 
lumber  down  through  Box  Canyon  and  over 
the  big  falls  of  the  Pend  d'  Oreille  river.  The 
raft  was  smashed  to  pieces  on  this  journey  and 
they  gathered  the  material  by  row  boats  later 


■on.  They  hauled  this  lumber  up  a  mountain 
for  half  a  mile,  two  boards  at  a  time  and  built 
a  flume  for  hydraulic  mining.  In  1894  Mr. 
Scott  chartered  the  steamer  Dora,  and  did  a 
general  freight  and  passenger  business  on  the 
Pend  d'  Oreille  river.  In  1895  Mr.  Scott  was 
on  the  steamer  which  ran  down  through  Box 
Canyon  on  the  trial  trip  to  ascertain  if  the  river 
was  navigable  at  this  point.  For  three  weeks 
they  struggled  to  get  the  craft  back  again  and 
came  very  nearly  sinking  it.  Three  different 
crews  quit  their  service,  but  the  captain,  our 
subject,  and  the  engineer  remained  with  the 
craft  mitil  it  was  moored  in  peaceful  waters 
above  the  danger.  Mr.  Scott  then  went  to  min- 
ing in  the  Yack  district,  and  after  two  years  of 
this  he  returned  to  Newport  where  he  has  since 
been  engaged  in  operating  a  hotel  and  dray  line. 
On  May  31, 1889,  Mr.  Scott  married  Mrs.  Jessie, 
widow  of  John  Cass.  Her  mother,  aged  eighty- 
nine  is  living  with  her  and  at  this  advanced  age 
is  hearty  and  able  to  read  readily  without  spec- 
tacles. Politically  Mr.  Scott  is  a  Democrat  and 
active.  In  1892  he  was  appointed  sheriff  under 
C.  A.  Ledgerwood,  and  is  now  city  councilman. 
Fraternally  he  is  a  member  of  the  I.  O.  O.  F. 
and  K.  O.'  T.  M.  Mr.  Scott  is  a  man  entitled 
to  and  receives  the  respect  and  condence  of  all 
Avho  know  him. 

The  Cottage  House,  the  home  of  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Scott,  was  the  first  house  built  in  New- 
port and  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and  mod- 
ern structures  in  the  Pend  d'  Oreille  valley. 

CLARENCE  E.  ROSS.  One  of  the  in- 
dustries which  has  been  most  prolific  of  revenue 
to  the  dwellers  in  the  great  state  of  Washing- 
ton is  the  manufacture  of  lumber  and  lumber 
products.  One  of  the  well  skillled  and  deeply 
interested  promoters  of  this  business  in  Stevens 
-county  is  the  gentleman  whose  name  appears 
at  the  head  of  this  page.  He  resides  about  five 
miles  north  from  Chewelah,  and  has  there  a 
valuable  estate  improved  with  good  buildings. 
In  addition  to  this  he  owns  near  the  estate,  a 
fine  sawmill  and  shingle  mill  and  a  residence  in 

Clarence  E.  Ross  was  born  in  Canton,  Illi- 
nois, on  November  15,  1867.  the  son  of  Stephen 
M.  and  Matilda  (Blackburn)  Ross,  natives  of 
Virginia    and    Maryland,     respectively.      The 

father  was  a  nephew  of  the  noted  Indian 
fighter.  General  Morgan,  and  traces  his  ances- 
try back  to  early  days  of  Scotland.  The  Mrs. 
Ross,  who  designed  the  flag  for  General  Wash- 
ington, which  now  proudly  floats  over  the 
grandest  nation  the  world  has  ever  seen,  was  a 
member  of  this  family.  The  father  was  a 
miller,  operating  both  saw  and  flour  mills, 
which  is  tf:e  secret  of  the  ability  possessed  by 
our  subject.  He  died  in  Bogard,  Missouri,  in 
1895  and  three  years  later  at  the  same  place 
his  widow  followed  the  way  of  all  the  earth. 
Two  children  were  born  t